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IPA mark ʼ
IPA number 401
IPA character description apostrophe
Unicode U + 02BC
HTML (dec.) & # 700;
Kirshenbaum `

Ejectives are non-pulmonary consonants , usually plosives , which are formed by a rapid upward movement of the larynx with the glottis closed and by subsequent release of the oral obstruction. While with pulmonary occlusions the overpressure in the articulation space is created by the air flowing out of the lungs, with ejectives the overpressure is created by compressing the air between the closed glottis and the oral occlusion. So it is neither exhaled nor inhaled.

Ejectives are present in around 20 percent of all languages, including indigenous American, African, and Caucasian languages ​​such as Georgian .

Ejectives are identified in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the trailing character ʼ ( Unicode MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE U + 02BC), as in the following examples: [ ], [ ], [ ], [ t͡ʃʼ ], [ ].

In addition to plosives, ejectives can also be formed with fricatives and affricates . Accordingly, there are three groups:

  • Ejective plosives or just ejectives
  • Ejective fricatives
  • Ejective Affricates

List of ejectives

Ejective plosives

Ejective fricatives

Ejective Affricates
Non-pulmonary consonants bilabial labio-
dental alveolar alveolar-lateral alveolo-
retroflex palatal velar uvular
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǁ ǂ ǃ˞
Implosive ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Ejectives Ejective plosives t̪ʼ ʈʼ k '
Ejective fricatives ɸʼ θʼ ɬʼ ɕʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ çʼ χʼ
Ejective Affricates t͡θʼ t͡sʼ t͡ɬʼ t͡ɕʼ t͡ʃʼ ʈ͡ʂʼ c͡çʼ k͡xʼ q͡χʼ