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An affricate (from latin affricare , rub ' ; also affricate , a Affrikat ; Pl .: affricates , also affricate ; German and closure fricative ) is the name for such a close connection of a plosive (plosive) with a homorganic fricative (fricative) that the plosion changes directly into the fricative.


Affricates include:


According to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) affricates are represented with an arc over plosive and fricative, e.g. B. / p͡f t͡s d͡ʒ / . Often, however, this arc is simply left out, e.g. B. / pf ts dʒ / .

For some affricates special ligatures are available, namely / ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ ʨ ʥ / , which have not been listed as official IPA symbols since 1989. Between 1947 and 1979 / ƾ ƻ / were also official IPA symbols for / t͡s d offiziellez / .

Sometimes other conventions are also used, so often in dialectology , e.g. B. / c č ǰ / for / t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ / .

Phonetics vs. Phonology

In phonetics , any plosive that opens into a homorgan fricative can be called an affricate. In phonology, on the other hand, only those sequences of plosive and homorganem fricative are considered affricates that behave like a single phoneme . So true, for example in German the sound [ts] as affricate because it has a similar distribution as simple obstruents : He can (in syllable Z eh ) and before fricatives ( eg wei occur), as well as in the syllable rhyme / Coda ( Ha tz , cf. ha t’s ), also according to Sonorant ( Hol z ). In English phonology, however, applies [ts] not as an affricate, as it almost only through the morpheme can occur limit of time ( ra ts , rats', formed from the morphemes rat and -s ). Sometimes there is disagreement as to whether a certain affricate should be considered a phoneme or not.

Affricates vs. Sequence from plosive and homorganem fricative

In some languages ​​affricates differ from common sequences of plosive and homorganem fricative, e.g. B. in Polish . The difference is that in the sequence of plosive and fricative the former is fully pronounced, i.e. with its own plosion (or release or solution ) before the fricative is formed. In the case of an affricate, on the other hand, there is no plosion, since the solution of the plosive part merges directly into the fricative part.

Example: Polish cz ysta [ˈt͡ʃɨsta] 'clean' (f.) Vs. trz ysta [ˈtʃɨsta] 'three hundred'.

Origin of the affricates / ts / , / pf / and / kχ / in German and its dialects

In the 2nd or High German sound shift , the Germanic Fortis plosives [tpk] have become the affricates / ts / , / pf / and / kχ / under certain conditions . However, it only recorded the central and southern German dialects and was not carried out to the same extent everywhere ( / kχ / was not able to establish itself in standard German).

  • Initially, e.g. B. z white , Pf ad , South Bavarian Kch ind (see FIG. English t where , p ath , k ind ). But not before r , z. B. tr eu (cf. English tr ue ).
  • In the Gemination , e.g. B. si tz en , Ku pf er , Südbairisch or Alemannisch Sto kch (cf. English si t , co pp er , sto ck ).
  • According to Sonorant , e.g. B. Her z , Sum pf , South Bavarian or Alemannic Dan kch (cf. English hear t , swam p , than k ).


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Wiktionary: Affricates  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations