|West Upper German / Alemannic-Swabian / Alemannic dialects (in the broader sense)|
|speaker||about 10 million (different dialect skills)|
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
As Alemannic dialects in the broader sense, Alemannic-Swabian dialects , Alemannic-Swabian dialects , Alemanic-Swabian , West Upper German dialects or West Upper German, various dialects spoken in the southwest of the German-speaking area are referred to in Germanistic linguistics due to common language features . Together with other dialect groups, they belong to Upper German and thus also to High German .
The designation "Alemannic" takes up the popular name of the Alemanni , but the Alemannic dialects can in no way be equated with their language or dialect forms (see chapter dialect and language history ). The designation of the dialect group as "West Oberdeutsch" makes more sense for this reason, but as with the dialect designations in the rest of the German-speaking area, the terms based on the historical tribes have also prevailed here (see chapter structure ). However, the term “Alemannic” has only become popular in southern Baden; in Switzerland, for example, it takes a back seat to the term “Swiss German” and in Alsace to “Alsatian”.
In the 19th century the spellings "Alemannic" and "allemannisch" competed - the former probably referring to the Latin tradition ("Alamanni", "Alemanni"), the latter etymologizing ("all men / people"). Since Karl Weinhold's Alemannic grammar of 1863, the variant with an L has prevailed in science and ultimately in general language.
Distribution area, structure and use
Autochthonous distribution area
The autochthonous or traditional distribution area borders in the north on that of the East , South and Rhenish Franconian dialects and in the east on that of the Bavarian dialects , in the south and west areas of Romance languages ( Grisons Romansh , Italian and French ) and Romance dialects are connected. The individual parts of the distribution area according to states or parts of states, clockwise, starting in the north:
- Baden-Württemberg : The southern two thirds of the state are in the Alemannic dialect area. Oldest part of the current Alemannic language area ( 3rd century ). In Baden, including Baden-Baden , Rastatt and Pforzheim , if one takes various South Franconian-Alemannic or South Franconian-Swabian transition dialects into account. In Württemberg , Heilbronn , Schwäbisch Hall and Crailsheim are already in traditional southern Franconian territory. In and around Heilbronn and Hall, Swabian dialect features have recently spread.
- Bavaria : In Bavaria, the district of Swabia is mainly located in the Alemannic dialect area, plus Dinkelsbühl (East Franconian-Swabian mixed dialect with a few Bavarian influences) and Upper Bavarian areas west of the Lech , but excluding the area east of Augsburg . Between Augsburg and the Alps lies a Swabian-Bavarian transition area, west of the Lech dominated by Swabian, east of the Lech Bavarian ( Lechrain ). In the east, Alemannic is increasingly overlaid by Bavarian and in the north by East Franconian.
- Austria : In addition to Vorarlberg, also in small parts of Tyrol in the Reutte and Ausserfern districts (Swabian or Swabian-Bavarian around Reutte , highest Alemannic around Steeg , the rest of Bavarian) and in the Landeck district ( St. Anton am Arlberg , Paznaun ). Partly increasingly overlaid by Austrian or Bavarian.
- Liechtenstein : the dwarf state consisting of eleven municipalities is the only state that is completely in the Alemannic dialect area.
- Switzerland : German-speaking Switzerland (except Samnaun in southern Bavaria ). Some areas were settled comparatively late by Alemannic-speaking people, especially the area west of the Aare , the Valais and the areas of the Walser (especially Graubünden ). The Graubünden Romance language (Rhaeto-Romanic) is still in competition with Alemannic dialects and the lingua franca German (cf. traditionally Romansh-speaking area of Graubünden ).
- Italy : in the Piedmont region (including in Val Formazza and Valsesia ) and in the Aosta region (particularly Val di Gressoney ). Official and common language is Italian .
- France : especially in Alsace . Traditionally southern Franconian areas in Alsace are the areas around Weißenburg and Lauterburg , the so-called Krumme Alsace around Sarre-Union Rhine-Franconian. Traditionally Romanesque areas of Alsace are above all the upper Breuschtal , parts of the hamlet valley and the areas around Ste-Marie-aux-Mines , Lapoutroie and Montreux . Several communities in the Moselle department around Pfalzburg also belong to the Alemannic dialect area. The official and lingua franca is French .
A detailed delimitation is given in the article Border places of the Alemannic dialect area .
Allochthonous distribution area
All allochthonous areas of distribution are in areas in which German is not the official language and therefore only lead or led a niche existence.
- Romania : In the Banat village of Saderlach (Rum. Zădăreni ), which was settled by emigrants from southern Baden in the 18th century, a high Alemannic dialect was preserved until the end of the 20th century.
- USA : In the state of Indiana there is a Bernese German ( Adams County ) and a Lower Alemannic-Alsatian language island ( Allen County ). The speakers are Old Order Amish . The dialect is generally passed on to the children. The Bern German with around 15,000 speakers (5% of all Amish) is stable, the Alsatian is oppressed on the one hand by the Pennsylvania German of the majority of the Amish, on the other hand by the Bern German, which has more speakers than the Alsatian with around 6,000 speakers (2% of all Amish) .
- Venezuela : The Alemannic language area of Colonia Tovar , in which the Alemán Coloniero is spoken , was formed by emigrants who emigrated from the southern Baden towns of Endingen am Kaiserstuhl , Wyhl and Forchheim (Kaiserstuhl) to Venezuela .
The majority of dialect research of the 19th and 20th centuries divided the Alemannic dialects into four or five main groups. From north or north-east to south or south-west one can distinguish between Swabian , Lower Alemannic ( Upper Rhine-Alemannic and Lake Constance-Alemannic ), High Alemannic and Higher Alemannic according to certain important phonetic and other language features :
- The north-eastern Alemannic dialects are summarized under the name Swabian and are mainly spoken in Württemberg and Bavaria. The distribution area roughly corresponds to the territory of the Swabian Empire , apart from its territories on Lake Constance and the Rhine. Swabian is partly influenced by Bavarian and East Franconian dialect features in the east and north, on the other hand Swabian dialect characteristics spread partly to the south, west and north (Bodensee, Baar, Pforzheim, Heilbronn, Schwäbisch Hall).
- The north-western Alemannic dialects are summarized under the designation Upper Rhine -Alemannic or Lower Alemannic (in the narrower sense). This name comes from the Upper Rhine Plain , which in this regard includes the eastern half of the Vosges and the western half of the Black Forest. They are mainly spoken in Alsace and southern Baden. In the north, Upper Rhine-Manish dialect is principally influenced by southern and Rhine-Franconian dialect, the historical Strasbourg city dialect is even understood as an explicit Alemannic-South Franconian dialect. In the south, on the other hand, dialect marks from the Upper Rhine penetrate southwards, and the town dialect of Basel is already considered Upper Rhine-Manish.
- Certain dialects spoken in central areas of the Alemannic area are summarized under the designation Bodensee Alemannic or Middle Alemannic . However, these are not only widespread in the Lake Constance basin (and do not include it entirely), but also to the northwest and southeast of it, the designation Lake Constance is therefore misleading. The term Middle Alemannic, on the other hand, joins the terminology Lower Alemannic (in the narrower sense), High Alemannic and Highest Alemannic. The distribution area covers rather smaller areas in southeastern Baden, in southernmost Württemberg, in southwestern Bavaria, in northern Vorarlberg and in northeastern Switzerland. Lake Constance Alemannic is under strong pressure from neighboring dialect groups, especially Swabian, but also High Alemannic.
- The Upper Rhine and Lake Constance Alemannic dialect codes are also combined to form Lower Alemannic (in the broader sense). It is, however, a highly heterogeneous group, the division of which in accordance with the previous two paragraphs is obvious.
- The southern Alemannic dialects are for high Alemannic and Highest Alemannic summarized. “Hoch-” and “Höchst-” refer to the fact that these areas are on average higher than the areas of the Lower Alemannic and Swabian areas to the north. High Alemannic is spoken mainly in Switzerland, southern Vorarlberg, southernmost Baden and southernmost Alsace. Above all outside of Switzerland it is influenced by Lower Alemannic dialect features, in Switzerland, however, High Alemannic features spread south into the Higher Alemannic area. Most Alemannic is at home in southern German-speaking Switzerland and in the Walser towns of Austria. It is generally under pressure from high Alemannic dialect characteristics.
In addition to these linguistic classifications, names that summarize the dialects of certain national areas are sometimes more common. For the Alemannic dialect area, there are Alsatian , Swiss German , Badisch and Vorarlbergisch . These are characterized by the fact that they do not summarize related local dialects like the main linguistic groups, but instead combine non-coherent dialect areas. Nevertheless, "Swiss German" and "Alsatian" in particular have their justification, as there are very special framework conditions for the dialect in Alsace and Switzerland, which have led to an independent use of the dialect, especially in Switzerland. From a purely linguistic point of view, Swiss German does not form a special group of Alemannic, but it does form a linguistic political group. In principle, there are also special language conditions for the use of the dialect in other countries, shaped by socio-cultural developments in the respective country, especially in France and Austria (see list of Austrianisms ).
High and High Alemannic were sometimes combined under Southern Alemannic , Lower Alemannic and Swabian under Northern Alemannic .
Between the areas of distribution of the main linguistic groups listed above and between the Franconian and Bavarian dialects there are often transitional dialects that occupy smaller or larger areas. In addition, the dialects can be further differentiated everywhere into regional and local dialects ( Bern German , Basel German , Strasbourg, Augsburg, East Swabian, etc.). In addition to this purely spatial, temporal-historical and sociological components can also be used in the breakdown (e.g. Swabian notables ).
The overall expression "Alemannic" is not infrequently used only in a narrower sense and then only means low, high and highest Alemannic. It is not uncommon for it to be applied more narrowly to certain regions (especially southern Baden ). In Switzerland, Alsace and Swabia , it is often little or no use.
The relationship between the main dialect groups is very dynamic, which ensures that certain dialect features grow spatially or are displaced and even disappear completely. The high Alemannic, Swabian and Upper Rhine-Alemannic dialect groups that are expanding in this regard and are therefore most effective, while Lake Constance Alemannic plays an opposite role. In Switzerland, for example, the dialects of the agglomerations are spreading into the surrounding area, which means that in the southern Bern region, for example, there is a retreat of the most Alemannic characteristics. Swabian characteristics dominate the entire Alemannic area of Baden-Württemberg and seep into Lower Alemannic, especially Lake Constance, but also Upper Rhine and Franconian areas. In Baden and France, however, the Upper Rhine Manish has developed a force that suppresses the local High Alemannic in Sundgau and Breisgau .
Around 10 million people live in the current or historical autochthonous distribution area of the Alemannic dialects in the southwest of the German-speaking area . If they speak dialect at all or are influenced by the dialect, the characteristics are very different: The spectrum ranges from those who speak slightly colloquial language to those who do not speak standard German . In Switzerland nowadays there is an informal and very strong separation of the occasions when dialect ( Swiss German ) or high-level language ( Swiss high German ) is used.
Dialect and language history
The first tangible language boundaries in what is now West Upper Germany could be understood as the various Roman Empire boundaries that separated the Romanized Celts from the non-Romanized Celts or later Germanic tribes. The Germanic peoples had formed their own culture in the Baltic Sea region during the 2nd millennium BC from a superimposition of the Indo-European cord ceramic culture with the non-Indo-European funnel cup culture . These Germanic peoples formed the Jastorf culture in northern Germany from 600 BC and later moved south, where they ousted the Celts and reached the Roman border. In the 3rd century, parts of these Germanic groups, namely the Alemanni, crossed the border between the Rhine and the Danube for the first time permanently and without being assimilated into the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Teutons , who were not yet settled , also settled most of the other areas of today's West Upper German dialect area, which they then also dominated. From 5./6. From the 19th century onwards, it can be assumed that there was predominant linguistic continuity in the later Alemannic dialect area. Remnant Gallo-Roman groups were gradually assimilated.
As early as the 4th century, the second sound shift (2nd LV), which lasted until the 7th century, had already started in the Germanic-speaking area , which ensured the separation into Old High German and Old Low German (Old Low Franconian and Old Saxon) idioms. The language characteristics of the 2nd LV had their origin in the southeast of the Germanic language area at that time, then spread over the south and the center and changed the language there to Old High German forms. The Old High German forms are the younger language forms. In the north, these new forms of language did not establish themselves or only to a small extent; the old Low German idioms remained. The word “German” did not exist at that time, however. The word components -lower- and -hoch- come from a geographical perspective (low = north, high = south). The 2nd course provided two major dialects, two groups of speakers. In the Old High German idioms is now said wazzar , water ', mahhōn , make' zit 'time' and slāfan , sleep 'while the altniederdeutschen Lautungen at watar, makon, TID and slāpan remained (see. Old English wæter, Macian, TID, slǣpan, new English water, make, tide, sleep ). Today's Standard German developed from the High German dialects, and today's Dutch from certain Low German dialects (Old Low Franconian) .
From the literary and archaeological evidence in large parts of Central Europe, three language groups can be derived for the period of the 7th and 8th centuries: Old High German idioms (Alemannia and Baiern in the south, East and Rhine Franconia in the middle), Old Lower Franconian idioms in the northwest and Old Saxon Idioms in the north. For the individual Germanic major dialects, the names of the Germanic groups of Franks , Alemanni, Saxons and Baiern were decisive, a circumstance that led to the erroneous equation of language and settlement area in the future. The Alemanni and Franks were already present in ancient sources, the Baiern did not appear as a designation until around 500 (political community made up of Alemanni, other Germanic peoples, Slavs and Romans). The Alemanni and Baiern are assigned to an Elbe Germanic unit based on archaeological findings, while the Franks are assigned to a Rhine-Weser-Germanic district. The oldest Alemannic and Old Bavarian language certificates hardly differ from one another - one can therefore assume a certain linguistic unity for Alemannia and Bavaria.
The dialect landscape of the 8th century was divided more from south to north than from west to east. The major dialects appear to be relatively homogeneous, the small scale and the ability to distinguish an “Alemannic” dialect z. B. from the "Bavarian" dialect emerged only in the following centuries. Generally speaking, there can be many different reasons that have facilitated and impeded such speech movements. The following are possible factors:
- Participation or non-participation of certain population groups in national transport
- missing supraregional writing language (Latin)
- existing or missing writing skills
- political and ecclesiastical forms of organization (fragmented or relatively uniform territories , course of political and ecclesiastical boundaries )
- Natural spatial structure (natural boundaries and connections, diverse or relatively uniform natural areas)
The new forms emerging in today's Bavarian region either remained small or spread out, which is why a diverse dialect landscape emerged in the Alemannic region, depending on how much new forms have prevailed. A result of these processes that took place in the Middle Ages and early modern times are the later so-called, also richly structured, Alemannic / West Upper German dialects and their area. For example, Swabian is characterized by a particularly large number of the new forms, whereas the Highest Alemannic is an area in which the new forms barely or not at all. More uniform dialect dreams than the Alemannic can be found e.g. B. east of the Elbe , where the territories and natural spaces were more spacious and people of different origins settled.
The clear dialect border between Swabian and Bavarian on the lower Lech , for example, is not an echo of any Germanic cultural areas (" tribes "), but the result of these medieval language movements. These language movements, through which the new (Bavarian) forms penetrated into areas of comparatively older (Alemannic) forms, came to a standstill on the lower Lech. Between the 6th and 7th centuries there were hardly any linguistic or archaeological differences between the settlements to the left and right of the lower Lech. Later, the lower Lech became a strong, stable political border between the Duchy of Bavaria and the territories of the Swabian Empire , which was effective for over 1000 years , and the natural conditions ( floodplain areas of the Lech) also promoted the fact that linguistic exchange between the villages came to a standstill came. The new forms of language migrating from the east stopped at the lower Lech. The differences between Swabian and Bavarian arose relatively late, because of belonging to different communication and traffic areas, not because of belonging to culturally or ethnically different population groups.
The New High German language forms emerged between the 15th and 18th centuries; Martin Luther's translation of the Bible played an important role, albeit a smaller one than is generally assumed . In the Alemannic region in the 16th and early 17th centuries, the Alemannic forms of writing - such as those found in the Swiss illustrated chronicles or the earliest editions of the Zurich Bible - were abandoned in favor of the New High German forms of writing. This created a juxtaposition of the Alemannic basic dialect and standard language. While the relationship between these forms of language was still similar throughout the Alemannic region in the 19th century, different situations developed in the 20th century. In Germany, the standard pronunciation of the written form, which emerged in the 19th century, has gained increasing influence, with mass media and internal migration playing an important role. As a result, the importance of the basic dialects has decreased and a smooth transition from more or less dialect or standard colloquial language has developed between the basic dialect and standard language . In Switzerland, on the other hand, dialects have practically become the exclusive colloquial language, which is in clear contrast to the standard language mainly used in writing (media diglossia ). Even in those Alemannic areas in which standard German is not the official and lingua franca, there is this significant break between dialect and colloquial or standard language (in France / Alsace, in Italy, to a limited extent in Switzerland). In the Alemannic / West Upper German language areas with standard German as the standard language, certain colloquial languages will develop into dialects of the future, in Alsace and Switzerland, due to the greater decoupling from standard German, the basic dialects will play a greater role. It remains to be seen whether one can still speak of a West Upper German / Alemannic dialect group.
Features and demarcation of Alemannic / West Upper German
Designations such as “Alemannic”, “Franconian” or “Bavarian” suggest a continuity, a connection between today's dialect forms and areas and the languages and settlement areas of historical population groups. However, this is wrong; the names of the dialect groups are misleading in this regard (see chapter "Dialect and language history"). The same applies to the definition of boundaries between these dialect groups. Large-scale dialect boundaries are established on the basis of scientific abstraction where different individual boundaries ( isoglosses ) are bundled. These dividing lines are arbitrary definitions that ignore the presence of transition areas / transition dialects. In the eyes of many, it is also "determined" who is Alemanne, Schwabe, Franke or (Sprach-) Baier. In language atlases, any possible self-perception of the speaker in this regard is not queried. Many people are interested in these questions because they want to know "which group of people they belong to [...] and where their roots are". These questions are only addressed to dialectology because their language names are based on Germanic population groups that allow identification. However, it should also be emphasized that historically evolved borders, for example confessional or political, have very well led to dialect borders. Some of them are quite narrow (e.g. in the Lech region). Certain shibboleths separate the dialects from one another. So is z. B. the Bavarian enk or it is completely uncommon in the Swabian dialect, which immediately results in a linguistic and regional assignment for the dialect speaker. The question of linguistic identity ultimately arises not only from self-definition, but also from historically developed linguistic peculiarities. The aforementioned alternative Bavarian plural forms are otherwise only known from Gothic , while they are completely foreign to the Alemannic dialects.
The use of dialect features for the external delimitation and internal structure of Alemannic / West Upper German should be seen against this background. In individual cases, these demarcation features create a boundary line of distribution ( isogloss ). Looking at all isoglosses together, however, there are usually no fixed and unambiguous line boundaries. Rather, the sum of the various linguistic features usually results in more or less broad transition areas that connect more or less homogeneous language areas with one another. Whether certain parts of a transition area can be assigned to one or the other area (cf. border locations of the Alemannic dialect area ) could not only be answered in terms of linguistic science, but also on the basis of feelings of belonging or similar perceptions of the individual speakers.
Individual possible demarcation features to neighboring mouth species
Reflexes of the Middle High German diphthongs [iə] [uə] [yə] or the Middle High German monophthongs [iː] [uː] [yː]:
|medium hdt.||standarddt.||swab.||Upper Rhine.||South Franconia.|
Word initial lenization:
|to you||dior||to you|
Individual possible internal delimitation features
|House||Hous||Huus / Huus|
|snow||snow||schnii-e, schnye||In the Höchstalem. no diphthongization in the hiatus .|
|horn||horn||Ho (o) right|
|standarddt.||low / high / highest valley.||swab.|
|stone||Stai||Stoa / Stoe|
The most significant difference between Low and High Alemannic is the pronunciation of the sound -ch- after the vowels -e-, -i-, -ä-, -ö-, -ü- and consonants: In Low Alemannic (and in neighboring Swabian) becomes this sound as pronounced in Standard German ("Becher"; [ç]), in High Alemannic as -ch- in Bach ([x]).
The diminutive (reduced form) is often used in all major Alemannic dialects. In the northern and eastern dialects it is expressed by the suffix -le (sg.) And -la (pl.) , In the southern dialects by the suffix -li (e.g. Heisle / Heisla - Hüüsli for " little house", Kendle / Kendla - Chindli for "little child")
The High Alemannic dialects spoken in Vorarlberg (but not the High Alemannic dialects also spoken there) differ from those spoken in Switzerland, among other things, in that there was no shift from / k / to / ch /, and instead of the diminutive ending -li there is the Ending -le used.
In the politeness form in high and high Alemannic, for example in Bern German , in Valais German , in Central Switzerland and in Appenzellerland , but also in old Swabian, the 2nd person plural "Ihr" is often used: For "Would you like another piece?" So does it mean another piece? / Welltid-er no as stick? / Wend-er no it stuck? In old Basel German , the 3rd person singular is often used as a polite form; instead of “ Are you getting out too ?” it says Stygt dr mr au us? ("Is the Lord getting out too?").
Dialect or language?
A comprehensibility of Alemannic for other dialect speakers or the standard German language is more or less difficult depending on the expression. According to the criterion of mutual intelligibility, Alemannic behaves like another language to the more distant dialect areas .
Alemannic as part of a dialect continuum changes seamlessly into other varieties. Its comprehensibility is a subjective factor that can vary greatly depending on the age, place of residence, level of education and personal characteristics of the respondents, and also depends on how mutual comprehensibility is defined at all. Furthermore, one could distinguish several independent Alemannic languages at the same time, since mutual intelligibility is not always guaranteed even among the Alemannic dialect speakers. In this regard, the Swabian and the Highest Alemannic - not everyone in Alemannic Switzerland understands it - are listed separately.
Since in the High and Low German language area, among linguistically related varieties, mostly only those are considered independent languages that meet the criterion as an extension language (standard language), Alemannic is predominantly viewed as a regional variety of the Upper German language area. Since the speakers of Alemannic dialects, at least in southwest Germany and German-speaking Switzerland, use the standard high German language as the umbrella language (written language), there is little tendency towards a common extension language. At least within Switzerland, a development is taking place which - albeit slowly - assigns the status of cultural dialects to the Alemannic dialects .
In France, on the other hand, Alsatian has the status of a regional language, and with Orthal there has been an attempt since 2003 to standardize the Alsatian dialects and thus the trend towards an expanded language.
The following compilation contains literature that covers larger dialect spaces. For individual dialects see the corresponding articles. Sorted by year of publication.
- Helen Ahner, Hubert Klausmann (ed.): Dialect and public. Contributions to the 18th workshop on Alemannic dialectology. Tübingen 2015.
- Dominique Huck (ed.): Alemannic dialectology: dialects in contact. Contributions to the 17th workshop for Alemannic dialectology in Strasbourg from October 26th to 28th, 2011. Stuttgart 2014 (ZDL supplement 155).
- Karl-Heinz Göttert: Everything except standard German. A foray through our dialects. Berlin 2011, pages 11–58, 226–250 (chapters Alemannic and Swabian ) and 281–305.
- Wolfgang Homburger, Wolfgang Kramer, R. Johanna Regnath, Jörg Stadelbauer (Eds.): Crossing borders. The Alemannic space - unity despite the borders? Ostfildern 2012 (publication by the Alemannic Institute Freiburg i. Br., No. 80) [on the linguistic p. 87–197].
- Helen Christen, Sybille Germann, Walter Haas u. a. (Ed.): Alemannic dialectology: ways into the future. Contributions to the 16th conference for Alemannic dialectology in Freiburg / Friborg from September 7th to 10th, 2008. Stuttgart 2010 (ZDL supplement 141).
- Hubert Klausmann (Ed.): Spatial structures in Alemannic. Contributions to the 15th workshop on Alemannic dialectology, Hofen Palace, Lochau (Vorarlberg) from September 19-21, 2005. Graz-Feldkirch 2006 (publications of the Vorarlberger Landesbibliothek 15).
- Hermann Niebaum, Jürgen Macha : Introduction to the dialectology of German. Tübingen 2006 (2nd edition).
- Eckhard Eggers (ed.): Modern dialects - new dialectology . Files from the 1st congress of the International Society for Dialectology of German (IGDD) at the Research Institute for the German Language “Deutscher Sprachatlas” of the Philipps University of Marburg from 5. – 8. March 2003, Stuttgart 2005.
- Arnulf Krause : The history of the Germanic peoples. Frankfurt / Main u. a. 2005.
- Elvira Glaser , Peter Ott, Rudolf Schwarzenbach (Hrsg.): Alemannisch im Sprachvergleich . Contributions to the 14th workshop for Alemannic dialectology in Männedorf (Zurich) from September 16-18, 2002. Stuttgart 2004 (ZDL supplement 129).
- Edith Funk, Werner König , Manfred Renn (eds.): Building blocks for the history of language. Lectures at the 13th workshop on Alemannic dialectology in Augsburg (29.9. – 3.10.1999). Heidelberg 2000 (Language - Literature and History 19).
- Dieter Stellmacher (Ed.): Dialectology between tradition and new approaches . Contributions from the International Conference of Dialectologists, Göttingen, 19. – 21. October 1998. Stuttgart 2000 (ZDL supplement 109).
- Frank Siegmund: Alemanni and Franks. Berlin 2000.
1980s and 1990s
- Arno Ruoff , Peter Löffelad (ed.): Syntax and stylistics of everyday language . Contributions to the 12th workshop on Alemannic dialectology, September 25-29, 1996 in Ellwangen / Jagst, Tübingen 1997 (Idiomatica 18).
- Heinrich Löffler (Ed.): Alemannic dialect research. Balance sheet and perspectives. Contributions to the 11th conference of Alemannic dialectologists. Basel / Tübingen 1995 (Basel Studies on German Language and Literature 68).
- Volker Schupp (Ed.): Alemannisch in the Regio. Contributions to the 10th conference of Alemannic dialectologists in Freiburg / Breisgau 1990. Göppingen 1993 (Göppinger papers on German studies 593).
- Marthe Philipp, Arlette Bothorel-Witz: Low Alemannic. In: German Dialects. Phonology & Morphology, with selected texts. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1961, pp. 313-336.
- Charles VJ Russ : High Alemannic. In: German Dialects. Phonology & Morphology, with selected texts. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1961, pp. 364-393.
- Charles VJ Russ: Swabian. In: German Dialects. Phonology & Morphology, with selected texts. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1961, pp. 337-363.
- Marthe Philipp (ed.): Alemannic dialectology in the computer age. 9th workshop of Alemannic dialectologists in Strasbourg, September 1987. Göppingen 1990 (Göppinger Arbeit zur Germanistik 535).
- Peter Wiesinger : Bibliography on the grammar of German dialects [1981 to 1985 and supplements]. Bern 1987.
- Eugen Gabriel , Hans Stricker (Ed.): Problems of dialect geography. 8th workshop of Alemannic dialectologists, Triesenberg, Principality of Liechtenstein, 20. – 22. September 1984. Bühl / Baden 1987 (publication by the Alemannic Institute Freiburg i. Br. 58).
- Rudolf Hotzenköcherle : Dialect Structures in Change. Collected essays on the dialectology of German-speaking Switzerland and the Walser regions of Northern Italy. Aarau 1986 (Sprachlandschaft 1).
- Rudolf Hotzenköcherle: The linguistic landscapes of German-speaking Switzerland. Aarau 1984 (Linguistic Landscape 2).
- Hugo Steger : spatial division of the dialects. Preliminary studies on language continuity in the German south-west. Stuttgart 1983.
- Walter Haas, Anton Näf (ed.): Vocabulary problems in Alemannic. 7th workshop of Alemannic dialectologists, Freiburg i. Ü., 1. – 3. October 1981. Freiburg 1983 (Germanistica Friburgensia 7).
- Andreas Lötscher: Swiss German. History, dialects, usage. Huber, Frauenfeld 1983, ISBN 3-7193-0861-8 .
- Klaus J. Mattheier (ed.): Aspects of the dialect theory. Tübingen 1983.
- Werner Besch , Ulrich Knoop , Wolfgang Putschke, Herbert Ernst Wiegand (ed.): Dialectology. A manual for German and general dialect research. 2 half volumes. Berlin / New York 1982/83.
- Peter Wiesinger: Bibliography on the grammar of German dialects [1800 to 1980], Bern 1982.
- Werner König, Hugo Stopp (ed.): Historical, geographical and social transitions in the Alemannic language area. 6th workshop of Alemannic dialectologists in Augsburg, October 1978. Munich 1980 (writings of the philosophical faculties of the University of Augsburg 16).
- Raymond Matzen : The Alemannic language area. In: Nachrichten aus dem Alemannischen, Volume 3, ed. by Adrien Finck u. a. Hildesheim 1979, pp. 177-192.
- Werner König: dtv atlas on the German language. 1st edition Munich 1978, 18th edition (together with Stephan Elspass, Robert Möller). Munich 2015.
- Josef Zehrer, Eugen Gabriel: Contributions to semantics. 5th workshop of Alemannic dialectologists in Bezau, Bregenzerwald, from 1. – 3. May 1975. Dornbirn 1978.
- West Upper German. In: Lexicon of German Linguistics. Tübingen 1973, pp. 355-363; 2nd edition 1980, pp. 482-486.
- Peter Wiesinger : Phonetic-phonological research on vowel development in German dialects. Volumes 1 and 2. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1970 (Studia Linguistica Germanica 2).
- Paul Zinsli : Walser folklore in Switzerland, Vorarlberg, Liechtenstein and Italy. Heritage, existence, essence. 1st edition Chur 1968, 7th edition Chur 2002.
- Ernest Beyer: A la limite des dialectes alsaciens et lorraines. In: L'ouvrage de la Societé Savante d'Alsace et des Régions de l'Est. 1957, pp. 335-383.
- Karl Bohnenberger : The Alemannic dialect. Boundary, internal structure and identification. Tübingen 1953.
- Bruno Boesch : Investigations into the Alemannic document language of the 13th century. Phonology and form theory. Bern 1946.
- Leo Jutz: The Alemannic dialects. Hall 1931.
- Werner König, Renate Schrambke: The language atlases of the Swabian-Alemannic area. Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavarian Swabia, Alsace, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Vorarlberg. Bühl 1999.
German Linguistic Atlas , started by Ferdinand Wrede based on the Linguistic Atlas of the German Empire by Georg Wenker, continued by Walther Mitzka and Bernhard Martin, Marburg 1927–1956.
- Small German Language Atlas, 1984–1999.
- German Word Atlas , Volumes 1–22, 1951–1980.
From west to east:
- Atlas Linguistique et Ethnographique de l'Alsace. Strasbourg 1969 ff.
Southwest German Language Atlas , 1989–2012.
- Hubert Klausmann u. a .: Small dialect atlas. Alemannic and Swabian in Baden-Württemberg. Waldkirch 2001.
- Wolfgang Kleiber u. a .: Historical southwest German language atlas. Due to land records from the 13th to 15th Century, Bern a. a. 1979.
Bavarian Language Atlas (BSA): Language Atlas of Bavarian Swabia , 1996 ff.
- Werner König and Manfred Renn: Small Language Atlas of Bavarian Swabia (KSBS). Augsburg 2007 (2nd edition).
Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland , 1962–2003.
- Helen Christen, Elvira Glaser and Martin Friedli (eds.): Small linguistic atlas of German-speaking Switzerland. Frauenfeld 2010 (several additional editions).
Vorarlberg Language Atlas . Including the Principality of Liechtenstein, West Tyrol and Allgäu (VALTS), 1985–2005.
- Hubert Klausmann: Small linguistic atlas of Vorarlberg and Liechtenstein. Innsbruck 2012.
Historical and other atlases with linguistic geography
- Historical structural atlas of Switzerland , Baden 2001
- Historical atlas of Baden-Württemberg , 1976–1988
- Atlas of Switzerland , Wabern 1965–1978, plate 27 / 27a
- Historical Atlas of Switzerland , ed. by Hektor Ammann and Karl Schib, 2nd edition, Aarau 1958
- Historical atlas of Bavarian Swabia , 1st edition 1955, 2nd edition since 1982
- Historical atlas of Bavaria , since 1945
- Alsace-Lorraine Atlas , ed. by Georg Wolfram and Werner Gley. Frankfurt a. M. 1931
- Historical atlas of the Austrian Alpine countries , 1906–1959
- Alemannia , 1873-1917
- Alemannisches Jahrbuch , ed. from the Alemannic Institute, Freiburg / Br., 1953 ff.
- Contributions to German Philology (BDPH)
- German dialectography (up to volume 100 "German dialect geography") (DDG)
- Germanic-Romance monthly magazine (GRM)
- Montfort. Quarterly magazine for the past and present of Vorarlberg, since 1946
- Journal for Dialectology and Linguistics (ZDL)
- Journal for German Dialects (ZDM)
- Journal for German Philology (ZDPH)
- Journal for the German Language (ZDS)
- Journal for German Studies and Linguistics (ZGL)
- Journal for High German Dialects (ZHM)
- Contributions to Swiss German grammar (BSG; 1910–1941)
- Contributions to Swiss German dialect research (BSM; 1949–1982)
- Rudolf Post and Friedel Scheer-Nahor: Alemannic dictionary. Karlsruhe 2009 (series of publications of the Badische Heimat).
- Bavarian Dictionary , 1995 ff.
- Dictionary of Bavarian dialects in Austria , 1963 ff.
- Baden dictionary , 1940 ff.
- Dictionary of German-Lorraine dialects , 1909
- Swabian dictionary , 1904–1936
- Swiss Idioticon , 1881 ff.
- Dictionary of Alsatian Dialects , 1899–1907
- Alemannic grammar , Swabian grammar
- Language border , sociology of language
- Brandstetter's law
- Heusler's law
- Eastern Swiss vowel splitting
- Dust's Law
- Muettersproch Society with audio examples of local Alemannic local species in Germany
- About the Alemannic ( Memento from November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Alemannic for beginners ( Memento from July 8, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- Baden dictionary
- Swiss Idioticon
- Dialect series by Friedel Scheer-Nahor
- Video competition: Who speaks the most beautiful Alemannic?
- Language family Alemannisch ( Memento from November 3, 2004 in the Internet Archive )
- Henri Toussaint: Le protestantisme dans le pays de Phalsbourg de 1802 à nos jours . In: Les Cahiers Lorrains . No. 1-2 . Société d'histoire et d'archéologie de la Lorraine, Phalsbourg 1986, p. 107 (French, irevues.inist.fr [PDF]): «Le dialecte de Phalsbourg est l'alémanique: celui que l'on parle à Danne-et-Quatre-Vents, à Lutzelbourg et dans la region de Dabo (.. .) »
- Philippe MOURAUX: La Lorraine allemande (Moselle germanophone): état des lieux . In: Les langues de France et la ratification de la charte européenne des langues régionales ou minoritaires . Association Initiative citoyenne alsacienne pour plus de démocratie, Huttenheim 2013, ISBN 978-1-291-57674-0 , p. 172–173 (French, 259 p., Limited preview in the Google book search): "(...) les parlers alémaniques en usage dans une partie du canton de Phalsbourg (...)"
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 20, 22, 26, 28, 30.
- Karl Weinhold: Alemannic grammar. Berlin 1863; Reprint Amsterdam 1967.
- Cf. for example with two L Johann Peter Hebels Allemannische Gedichte (1803, 1804), Ignaz Felners Neue allemannische Gedichte (1803), L. F. Dorns u. a. Allemannia. Poems in the allemannish dialect (1843), Alfred Walchner's muse donations in High German and Anglais language (1848; 2nd edition), Grimm's German dictionary (1st volume 1854), Johannes Meyer's German language book for higher allemannische Volksschulen (1866) or Gustav Adolf Seiler's Gottwilche! Allemannic sounds from the city and landscape of Basel (1879). Early evidence of spelling with an L is, for example, Johann Alois Minnich's Lever Celebration in Basel, 1860. Poems in Alemannic dialect (1860), Karl Weinhold's Alemannic grammar (1863), Anton Birlinger's Alemannic booklet of good food (1865), the same Die Alemannic Language on the right of the Rhine since the 13th century (1868), August Corrodi's Alemannic Children's Theater (1874/5), H. Herzog's Alemannic Children's Book (1885) or Andreas Heusler's Der Alemannic Consonantism in the Baselstadt dialect (1888).
- David Neu: One speaker - several dialects: code mixing and code switching in the tridialectal area around Dinkelsbühl. Published online at urn : nbn: de: bvb: 824-opus4-2153
- König / Renn 2007, p. 25.
- Beat Siebenhaar , Alfred Wyler: Dialect and standard language in German-speaking Switzerland (PDF; 132 kB) 5. revised. Edition, Edition Pro Helvetia, Zurich 1997
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 15-17.
- König / Renn 2007, p. 21.
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 16-17, 20.
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 22, 26, 28, 30.
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 23, 30–32.
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 26/28.
- König / Renn 2007, pp. 26, 28.
- The information in this table from König / Renn 2007, p. 25.