Swiss Idioticon

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Swiss Idioticon. Dictionary of the Swiss-German language (also known as the Swiss-German dictionary or usually called Idiotikon for short ) documents the living and historical Swiss-German vocabulary (including the Walser regions of northern Italy). An exception to this is the Bavarian dialect of Samnaun , which is described in the dictionary of Bavarian dialects in Austria .

The first delivery of the first volume was published in 1881; The work is expected to be available in print in the second half of the 2020s Template: future / in 5 yearsin seventeen volumes. The entire dictionary is available online free of charge from the homepage until the current delivery since September 2010. This online access has been continuously expanded since then in order to be able to further develop the dictionary in the sense of digital humanities as a digital infrastructure.

“Schweizerisches Idiotikon” is now also used as the name of the institute whose main task is to develop the dictionary. More recently, other projects from the dialectological, lexicographical and naming fields have also been based at the institute.

The word " idioticon " is a term derived from the Greek idios "separate, proper, private" for a dictionary that lists the vocabulary that is "peculiar" for a particular landscape.

Volumes and material box of the Swiss Idiotikon

Type and characteristics

The Swiss Idioticon is one of the four national dictionaries of Switzerland, together with the Glossaire des patois de la Suisse romande in Neuchâtel, the Vocabolario dei dialetti della Svizzera italiana in Bellinzona and the Dicziunari Rumantsch Grischun in Chur. Like these three, it is not only linguistically or semantically oriented, but also attaches great importance to the documentation of historical material culture and the older folklore conditions. At the same time it is one of the large-scale German dictionaries .

The Swiss Idioticon documents the entire German- Swiss vocabulary from the end of the classic Middle High German period in the 13th century to the current time in which the respective volume was published (19th to 21st centuries). It is not only a dialect dictionary, but also the historical dictionary of the region - and thanks to its precision it is the most detailed Early New High German dictionary of the German language.

In terms of its historical orientation, its detail and its depth and breadth, the Schweizerisches Idiotikon is from the middle of its fourth volume or the takeover of the editor-in-chief by Albert Bachmann on the level of national dictionaries, such as the German dictionary , the Woordenboek of the Nederlandsche Taal , the Oxford English Dictionary , the Ordbog over det danske Sprog or the Svenska Akademiens ordbok . Previously, it was more in the tradition of large-scale German dictionaries, which it preceded (with the exception of Schmeller's Bavarian dictionary ).

The Swiss Idioticon is not a dictionary arranged in normal alphabet. The order of the lemmas follows the so-called Schmeller system, albeit with certain deviations. According to this, the lemmas are primarily arranged according to the consonant structure and only secondarily according to the vowels, and secondly, entire word families are dealt with, so that, for example, compounds follow the basic word and are not classified according to the first letter of the defining word. According to Schmeller's and Staub's considerations, the first point should make it easier to find dialect words, since vowels are more variable than consonants; the second point has its roots in 18th century lexicography.

History and sponsorship

At the beginning there was the desire to replace Franz Joseph Stalder's attempt at a Swiss Idioticon with etymological remarks mixed in with 1806/1812. After a lecture by Friedrich Staub at the Antiquarian Society in Zurich , an association for the Swiss German dictionary was founded in 1862 (which fell asleep again the following year). Friedrich Staub was appointed head of the company, and in 1863 Ludwig Tobler, with his irrelevant thoughts on the method of the Swiss dictionary, presented a concept that is still valid today. In 1874 the final decision was made to include not only the living but also the historical language. A network of several hundred so-called correspondents distributed across the whole of German-speaking Switzerland actively helped, especially in this early period, to collect the basic material. Some people even became active as a journalist to support the new work, for example with their own local or regional dictionaries of the Davoser Valentin Bühler (from 1870), the Leerauer Jakob Hunziker (1877) and the Basellandschäftler Gustav Adolf Seiler (1879) or with self-composed dialect literature, the Solothurn Bernhard Wyss (1863) and Franz Josef Schild (1864) as well as the Zurich Oberland Jakob Senn (1864). The editors also received a large number of manuscripts, including whole - unpublished - dictionaries such as that of Jakob Joseph Matthys from Nidwalden and, posthumously, Martin Tschumpert from Graubünden . The first delivery (according to the title page; incorrectly functioning as the year of publication of the entire first volume) appeared in 1881. Originally, four volumes were planned.

Albert Bachmann , the new editor-in-chief from 1896, put the dictionary on a new basis on the basis of Hermann Paul's demands on scientific lexicography. In response to Paul's concern that scientific dictionaries should aim to “build up a real word history”, lexical, geographical and temporal gaps were closed and the presentation was made more diachronic . As a result, the word articles appearing from the middle of the fourth volume or the subsequent volumes differ significantly in scope, density and depth from those of the early period. Under Bachmann's aegis, the series of articles on Swiss German grammar - ultimately twenty volumes - was created , which was supposed to complement the collection of Idiotikons and, in particular, to prepare the "Swiss German grammar to be worked out after the dictionary was completed".

In 1950 the Association for the Swiss German Dictionary was founded a second time, releasing the Antiquarian Society from Zurich from responsibility for the Idiotikon. The dictionary is financed by the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences (since 1996) and the German-speaking cantons .

Sources and material base

Document from the Zurich Council and Judge Book from 1411/13 (copy from around 1910)
Document from the Zurich Oberland around 1865 (original document)

The processed source inventory amounts to around 8000 titles. It essentially comprises printed and edited sources from the 13th century to the present (from the beginning of the 16th century also a large number of original prints), excerpts from unprinted legal and judicial sources from the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, as well as handwritten documents sent in by private individuals Collections of words mainly from the 19th century.

The material is divided into the sections older language (until 1799) and dialect (since 1800).

The corpus is still "open" today, so it is still being added.

editorial staff

Today six editors share five positions; In addition, there are job percentages for administration, for student assistants and for employees on special projects.

Of those people who have been members of the editorial team for a longer or shorter period of time, the following have their own article in the German-language Wikipedia: Emil Abegg , Albert Bachmann , Oskar Bandle , Hans Bickel , Hermann Blattner , Heinrich Bruppacher , Walter Clauss , Peter Dalcher , Eugen Dieth , Otto Gröger , Werner Hodler , Eduard Hoffmann-Krayer , Johann Ulrich Hubschmied , Ruth Jörg , Christoph Landolt , Kurt Meyer , Guntram Saladin , Eduard Schwyzer , Friedrich Staub , Clara Stockmeyer , Carl Stucki , Ludwig Tobler , Rudolf Trüb , Jakob Vetsch , Hans Wanner and Wilhelm Wiget . In the Alemannic Wikipedia, almost all editors are represented with their own article .


Swiss Idioticon. Dictionary of the Swiss German language. Started by Friedrich Staub and Ludwig Tobler and continued under the direction of Albert Bachmann, Otto Gröger, Hans Wanner, Peter Dalcher, Peter Ott, Hans-Peter Schifferle as well as Hans Bickel and Christoph Landolt. Volumes I – XVI: Huber, Frauenfeld 1881–2012, Volume XVII: Schwabe, Basel 2015 ff.

Publication status:

  • Volume 1 (A, E, I, O, U, F / V) 1881 (see date on title page; volume completed in 1885)
  • Volume 2 (G, H) 1885 (see date on title page; Volume 1891 completed)
  • Volume 3 (J, Ch / K, L) 1895
  • Volume 4 (M, N, B- / P- - B-tzg / P-tzg) 1901
  • Volume 5 (Bl / Pl - Pf, Qu) 1905
  • Volume 6 (R) 1909
  • Volume 7 (S) 1913
  • Volume 8 (Sch) 1920
  • Volume 9 (Schl - Schw) 1929
  • Volume 10 (Sf - St-ck) 1939
  • Volume 11 (St-l - Str) 1952
  • Volume 12 (D- / T- - Dm) 1961
  • Volume 13 (Dn / Tn - Dz / Tz) 1973
  • Volume 14 (Dch / Tch - Dw-rg / Tw-rg) 1987
  • Volume 15 (W- - Wm) 1999
  • Volume 16 (Wn - Wz, X) 2012
  • Volume 17 (Z) appears continuously in deliveries

Other Projects

In recent times, several additional projects have been established at the Institute of the Swiss Idiot.

  • Schweizerisches Idiotikon digital: Creation of an electronic register with variants, grammatical categories, semantic categories and formal verbalization of the keywords; Expansion of the lemma and full text search.
  • Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland (SDS): Securing and online publication of the SDS holdings, in particular the hand-written original recordings and numerous photographs.
  • Portal for Swiss place name research : continuous backup of research data from ongoing and completed projects, online publication of geo-referenced name data via various online map systems and a current bibliography on German-speaking Swiss place name research.
  • Swiss Anglicism Collection by Peter Dalcher : Online publication of the Anglicisms compiled from 1964 to 2000 by the former editor-in-chief of Idiotikons for the attention of research.
  • Swiss text corpus: Maintenance and continuation of the reference corpus for the German standard language of the 20th and 21st centuries, which was set up by a research group at the German Department of the University of Basel. The addition of a dialect corpus is currently in progress.
  • The websites of the collocation dictionary and the online lexicon for diachronic phraseology are now maintained by the Swiss Idioticon.

See also


Web links

Commons : Schweizerisches Idiotikon  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Swiss Idioticon digital
  2. ^ Provincial words . German Idiotism Collections of the 18th Century. Edited by Walter Haas u. a., Berlin / New York 1994, pp. XXV ff.
  3. ^ Hermann Paul: About the tasks of scientific lexicography with special consideration for the German dictionary. In: Meeting reports of the philosophical-philological and historical classes of the royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich. Born in 1894. Munich 1895, pp. 53–91.
  4. Sponsorship
  5. Source material
  6. editorial office
  7. Publication status
  8. Swiss Idioticon digital
  11. Peter Dalcher's Anglicism Collection
  12. Swiss text corpus
  13. Collocation Dictionary. Fixed word combinations in German
  14. ^ Online lexicon for diachronic phraseology