List of major dictionaries

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The lexicography , which is the creation of dictionaries , commercial and political constraints follows; nevertheless, the great achievements of lexicography often shape culture. Historically important and currently in use dictionaries are collected below : German dictionaries, bilingual and multilingual dictionaries including German, dictionaries in other languages .

German language dictionaries

Older dictionaries on the German language

20th century dictionaries

  • Dictionary of contemporary German , 6 volumes, published 1961–1977 by the Academy of Sciences of the GDR under the direction of Ruth Klappenbach. Wasdigitizedas part of the DWDS project. Theconcise dictionary of contemporary German in 2 volumes (1984), edited by Günter Kempcke, was derived from him.
  • Duden - The large dictionary of the German language , 6 volumes, Mannheim 1976–1981. 3rd ed. 1999 in 10 volumes.
  • Brockhaus Wahrig German Dictionary , 6 volumes, Wiesbaden / Stuttgart 1980–1984. Compact cover print
  • German Foreign Dictionary , 7 volumes, de Gruyter 1913–1988.

Current dictionaries for the German language

  • Duden German Universal Dictionary, a one-volume general-language complete dictionary, now in its 8th edition (2015).
  • German dictionary , originally edited by Gerhard Wahrig , now at Bertelsmann.
  • The Dudenverlag publishes a series of special dictionaries (see Duden ) in twelve volumes under the title Der Duden (formerly: Der Große Duden ). These include: 1. The German spelling , 2. The style dictionary , 3. The picture dictionary , 5. The foreign dictionary , 6. The pronunciation dictionary , 7. The dictionary of origin , 8. The synonym dictionary , 9. Correct and good German , 10. The dictionary of meanings , 11. Sayings , 12. Quotations and sayings . (4. The grammar is not a dictionary.)
  • The Mackensen with information on spelling, grammar, style, word explanations, abbreviations, pronunciation and history of the German vocabulary. First edition 1954, last in 2008.
  • With Langenscheidt's large dictionary of German as a foreign language (1993), the dictionary of German as a foreign language (2000) published by de Gruyter and PONS large dictionary of German as a foreign language (2011), the learner's dictionary was also established for the German language.
  • The German variant dictionary, published in 2004, describes the regional variants of the German standard language for the first time .
  • Austrian dictionary : the official dictionary of the German language valid for Austria. It is published by the Österreichischer Bundesverlag (ÖBV) in Vienna.
  • PONS The German spelling : Online dictionary of the German language comprising around 152,000 key words

Lexicons for a vocabulary excerpt

  • Manfred Günther : Childhood - Youth - Old Age. The paperback dictionary . 2nd expanded edition 2020 with over 1250 words; Foreword by HG Butzko , 37 illustrations: Stuttmann ; Rheine 2020, ISBN 978-3-946537-62-5
  • EHM Gilissen: German Slang - the real German , Bielefeld 2007
  • Bodo Mrozek: Lexicon of threatened words ; Reinbek 2005
  • Tilo Cramm and Joachim Huske: Miners' language in the Ruhr area ; Werne 2002

Dictionaries for the older High and Low German language

Specialized dictionaries in German

Large-scale and other multi-volume dialect dictionaries from the German-speaking area

The list shows the (more or less) recent, large-scale landscape and other multi-volume dictionaries developed according to scientific principles. For the historical cf. the article Idiotikon .

Bilingual and multilingual dictionaries

Specialized dictionaries

  • Technological dictionary of the German, French and English languages, etc. by Johann Adam Beil , Wiesbaden 1853, an early specialist dictionary.
  • RailLexic for rail transport
  • Pocket Dictionary of Biochemistry German-English English-German / Pocket Dictionary of Biochemistry English-German German-English , Ed .: Peter Reuter, Birkhäuser Verlag; Basel, Boston, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-7643-6197-2

Dictionaries in other languages

Historical dictionaries

Current dictionaries


Danish dialects:

  • Ømålsordbogen (laid out in 18–20 volumes; eight volumes published so far [2011])



  • Oxford English Dictionary (OED), 2nd ed. 20 volumes. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1989; 3rd edition also as CD and online version.


  • Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged . 3rd edition. Ed. Philip Babcock et al. a. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Mass. 1993.
  • Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary , 11th Edition. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Mass. 2003.


  • Trésor de la langue française. Dictionnaire de la langue du XIX e et du XX e siècle (1789-1960) . Edited by Paul Imbs et al. Bernard Quemada. 16 volumes. CNRS / Gallimard, Paris 1971–1994.
  • Le Grand Robert de la langue française . 2nd Edition. Edited by Alain Rey. 9 volumes. Le Robert, Paris 2001.
  • Le Petit Robert . Edited by Josette Rey-Dubove et al. Alain Rey. Le Robert, Paris 2018. ISBN 2-85036-976-4

  • Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
    • 8th edition (A - Z), Paris, 1932–1935
    • 9th edition, Volume 1 (A - Enz), 1992, Imprimerie nationale / Fayard, ISBN 2-213-62142-X
    • 9th edition, Volume 2 (Éoc - Map), Paris, 2000, Imprimerie nationale / Fayard
  • Le Dictionnaire, Dictionnaire regroupant définitions, synonymes, conjugaison ...

French dialects:

Greek (ancient Greek)


  • Julius Pokorny : Indo-European etymological dictionary , 2 volumes, Francke, Bern / Munich 1947–1966, 5th edition 2005.

Italian dialects:



  • Nahum Stutchkoff : the ojzer fun, the yidish talked. YIVO, New York 1991 (reprint of 1950 edition), ISBN 0-914512-46-3 (thesaurus of the Yiddish language).
  • Juda A. Jofe , Yudel Mark : great book of values ​​fun of the Yidish language. Vol. 1–4 New York 1961–1980 (planned as a multi-volume dictionary of recent and historical Yiddish; unfinished).








Other language (s

Specialized dictionaries


See also


On the lexicography and lexicology of German

  • Herbert Ernst Wiegand: International bibliography on Germanistic lexicography and dictionary research. With consideration of English, Nordic, Romance, Slavic and other metalexicographical research. 3 vols. Berlin: de Gruyter 2006–2007
  • Haß-Zumkehr, Ulrike: German dictionaries. The focus of language and cultural history. Berlin / New York 2001.
  • Herbert Ernst Wiegand : Dictionary research: Studies on dictionary usage, theory, history, criticism and automation of lexicography . de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2000.
  • The German Lexicography of the Present. In: Dictionaries, Dictionaries, Dictionnaires. An international handbook on lexicography. Edited by Franz Josef Hausmann, Oskar Reichmann, Herbert Ernst Wiegand, Ladislav Zgusta. 2nd part. (Handbooks for Linguistics and Communication Science 5.2). Berlin / New York 1990, 2100–2246.
  • Koschitz, Norbert: Dictionaries and word banks. Considerations on lexicography in view of the upcoming spelling reform. In: Nürnberger Zeitung of March 18, 1989 (not December 18, 1989, as erroneously in Wiegand Internat. Bibl. For German Lexicography Vol. 2, 2006 No. 11304)

Bibliographic indexes of dictionaries

  • Franz Claes: Bibliographical index of German vocabularies and dictionaries, printed until 1600 . Hildesheim: Olms, 1977
  • Peter Kühn: German dictionaries: a systematic bibliography . Tübingen: Niemeyer 1978
  • Burkhard Schaeder: Small bibliography of German dictionaries - systematically arranged: encyclopedias, specialist dictionaries, general language dictionaries, special language dictionaries . Siegen: Siegen Institute for Languages ​​at Work, 2000
  • Wolfram Zaunmüller: Bibliographical Handbook of Language Dictionaries. an international directory of 5600 dictionaries from 1460–1958 for more than 500 languages ​​and dialects . Stuttgart: Hiersemann 1958

Web links

Wiktionary: Dictionaries of the German language  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Information on the dictionary of contemporary German (WDG) and the digital WDG
  2. Werner Wolski, Andreas Cyffka: Großwörterbuch German as a foreign language . ( Information in Google Book Search).
  3. Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Gorris, Jean de. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 504.
  4. Trésor de la Langue Française online
  5. Le Dictionnaire , online
  6. ^ Diccionario de la Lengua Española , online