|Project author||Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof|
|Year of publication||1887|
|speaker||about 1000 native speakers; between 0.5 and 2 million speakers in total|
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
|Esperanto flag||Anniversary symbol|
|La akcent o est as sur la antaŭ last a silab o . La kern o n de la silab o form as vowel o . Vowel o j lud as grand a n rol o n en la ritm o de la parol o . Noun o j fin iĝ as per -o , adjective o j per -a. La sign o de la plural o est as -j. La plural o de "lasta vorto" est as "lastaj vortoj" .|
Esperanto is the most widely used planned language . Its principles, which are still valid today, were published as an international language in 1887 by the ophthalmologist Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof , whose pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto ("Doktor Hoffender") became the name of the language. Esperanto has no official language status in any country in the world . The linguistic anthology Ethnologue determines the institutional use of Esperanto and a language community of more than one million speakers (including second speakers). Poland and Croatia recognized Esperanto as intangible cultural heritage in 2014 and 2019, respectively . The Hungarian Academy of Sciences confirmed in 2004 that Esperanto is a living foreign language . In Hungary, around 39,000 people have taken a state-recognized Esperanto language test since 2001; that's about 0.4% of the population. China has published daily news since 2001 and has continued to publish an Internet magazine and radio broadcasts in Esperanto for a long time. In the Chinese city of Zaozhuang in Shandong Province , an Esperanto Museum opened in 2013 with 680 square meters of exhibition space, which was built for 3 million yuan. In cooperation with UNESCO, China has been supporting the publication of the Unesco-Courier magazine in Esperanto since 2017 . In 1990 the Vatican approved liturgical texts in Esperanto for masses. The Esperanto PEN Center has been a member of PEN International since 1993 . The Austrian National Library in Vienna houses a planned language collection and an Esperanto museum .
The Esperanto Wikipedia currently (April 2020) has around 280,000 articles; In terms of size, this Wikipedia edition is 34th and offers a similar number of articles such as the Danish, Slovak, Bulgarian or Hebrew versions. In Twitter Esperanto was one in every year from 2009 to 2019 among the top 30 languages.
Background to the creation
The Esperanto founder L. L. Zamenhof grew up in the Polish today, then the Russian Empire belonging city Bjelostock on. Due to the ethnically diverse population of Poles, Lithuanians, Germans and especially Jews, ghetto- like structures formed. There were often physical conflicts and pogroms . Even when he was still at school, Zamenhof had the idealistic idea that a neutral language was necessary to prevent the formation of ghettos and racism , and that it would ultimately be a key to world peace .
The three goals
In 1887 in Warsaw , Zamenhof published a brochure with the basics of the language. In his Unua Libro ("First Book"), financed by his wife Klara Samenhof , he also formulated three goals for his language:
- "The language has to be very easy, so that everyone can learn it with ease, so to speak."
- “Everyone who has learned this language must be able to use it immediately to communicate with other nationalities, regardless of the extent to which this language is recognized by the world, whether it has many, few or no followers, i. H. that the language can serve as a means of international communication right from the start, as a result of its special structure. "
- “To find a means of overcoming the indifference of the world and to encourage it to use this language immediately and 'en masse', as a living language, but not just with a key in hand, or only in extreme emergencies. "
The first goal should u. a. can be achieved by the following means:
- The spelling is phonematic. Each letter has only one pronunciation.
- There is no grammatical gender (not like in German: the spoon, the fork, the knife).
- There is only one declination .
- There is only one conjugation .
- The language is agglutinating , which means that all word stems remain unchanged in conjugation and declination.
- There are very few grammatical rules and there are no exceptions to these.
The first edition of Unua Libro , in Russian, has 40 pages in A5 format. The grammar section in it contains 16 rules on six pages.
Development until 1914
1889 was followed by an address list with the first followers, also the in Esperanto was Nuremberg published journal La Esperantisto founded.
In 1898 Louis de Beaufront founded a French Esperanto society, which later became the first national Esperanto association. Marie Hankel translated the poem “ La Espero ” written by Zamenhof . In the setting of Baron Félicien Menu de Ménil from Paris , this became the international anthem sung at all major Esperantist festivities in all countries.
From 1914 until the end of World War II
The Nordic Broadcasting AG began on October 5, 1924 every Monday at 18:00 News in Esperanto under the title Dek minutoj as Esperanto , Esperanto Ten minutes' broadcast. On the other hand, there were disabilities in more than a dozen countries between the two world wars. In National Socialist Germany, planned language associations were banned along with many others.
There was no publicly announced ban under Josef Stalin's rule in the Soviet Union , but leading Esperanto speakers were arrested and deported along with many other groups as soon as the Great Purge began . The secret service NKVD initially listed u. a. "All people with international contacts". An order from 1940 from Lithuania lists "Esperantists" next to stamp collectors among the groups of people to be registered. Thousands of Esperanto speakers were arrested and locked in camps; Rytkov estimated that among the 1.5 million arrested there were 30,000 Soviet Esperanto speakers, some dozen of whom were shot; Thousands later died in camps.
After the Second World War
During the Cold War it took a long time before Esperanto associations could be founded in the Eastern European countries. An exception was Yugoslavia , where an Esperanto World Congress took place as early as 1953. In 1959 the first world congress in a country of the Eastern bloc took place in Warsaw. Little by little, contacts and cooperation between the regional associations in East and West developed. In the 1960s, two feature films were made in Esperanto, Angoroj (France, 1964) and Inkubo (USA, 1966). In 1980 the Chinese national association was allowed to join the World Esperanto Federation.
After the Second World War , the number of regional associations in the World Federation rose steadily. In 1948 the World Federation had 19 national associations, in 1971 there were 34, in 1989 there were 47 and in 2013 a total of 71. The number of people who belong to these associations, however, did not grow to the same extent and also fell again. In 2016 it was at its lowest level since 1947. In contrast, there is an increasing number of groups on the Internet (e.g. social networks and employees on projects such as Wikipedia, language courses, dictionaries and programs).
The words consist mainly of unchangeable word elements that are joined together. For example, the majority of nouns and adjectives and pronouns are formed by adding a -j : domo , house ', domoj , houses', the object case by adding another -n: domojn 'houses (acc. Plural)'. The root of the word is not changed, as it often occurs in German. The agglutinating principle visible here is also known from Finnish , Hungarian and Turkish , for example .
Zamenhof aimed for a regular language structure in order to minimize the learning curve, especially in terms of morphology and word formation . There is only one scheme for the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs. The verb "sein", which is irregular in many languages, is conjugated in Esperanto according to the same scheme as all other verbs:
was / have been
would be / would be
were / have been
would be / would be
|vi / ci (= confidential)
were / have been
would be / would be
were / have been
would be / would be
|li / ŝi / ĝi / oni
he / she / it / man
was / has been
would be / would be
were / have been
would be / would be
Some parts of speech have specific endings to make them easier to recognize . For example -o is the ending for nouns: domo , house '; -a is the ending for adjectives: doma , domestic 'etc. Also, some words that are neither nouns nor adjectives end in -o or -a, so that the final vowel alone is not sufficient to determine part of speech.
Many Esperanto words come from Latin or Romance languages . A good number of them can also be found in other languages (cf. Esperanto muro , German Mauer , Polish mur, Dutch muur from Latin murus ; French: mur , Italian / Portuguese / Spanish: muro ). A fairly large proportion also comes from Germanic languages , especially German and English (depending on the text corpus , this proportion is estimated at five to twenty percent). There are also a number of words from Slavic languages , especially Polish and Russian (for example Esperanto kolbaso , Polish kiełbasa , Russian колбаса́ ). In addition, a few words were borrowed from the Greek (Esperanto kaj , Greek και ). The choice of the language from which Zamenhof took a word was determined by expediency, first according to which word most people might know, then often to avoid confusion. However, there are also false friends , as in other language pairs (Esperanto regalo means entertaining , cf. French régaler , entertaining; a shelf is translated in Esperanto as bretaro , literally a collection of boards).
Some words are known in several Indo-European languages, for example Esperanto religio 'religion': English religion , French religion , Polish religia ; Esperanto lampo 'lamp': English lamp, French lampe , Polish lampa , etc. In Esperanto there are conscious mixed forms, for example ĝardeno 'garden': The spelling is similar to English garden , the pronunciation is similar to French jardin .
The spelling is phonematic , which means that only one phoneme (speech sound) is assigned to each character and only one character is assigned to each phoneme. It uses letters from the Latin alphabet , supplemented by supersigns ( diacritical marks ). For example, ŝ corresponds to the German sch and entspricht to the tsch (e.g. in ŝako 'chess' and Ĉeĉenio 'Chechnya'). (See also Esperanto spelling .)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Article 1:
- Ĉiuj homoj estas denaske liberaj kaj egalaj laŭ digno kaj rajtoj. Ili posedas racion kaj konsciencon, kaj devus konduti unu al la alia en spirito de frateco.
- All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Several hundred scientific articles on Esperanto and other planned languages appear annually. In Germany there is the " Society for Interlinguistics ", whose approximately 65 members are dedicated to researching Esperanto and other planned and international languages and their use.
The world's largest umbrella organization , with around 15,000 members, is the Esperanto World Federation , based in Rotterdam . He is responsible for hosting and organizing the annual Esperanto World Congress , the largest and most important event with between 350 and 3000 participants.
The largest Esperanto organizations in Germany, with around 700 members, are the German Esperanto Association and its youth organization, the German Esperanto Youth , which has around 100 members with its local, regional and state associations. This is also a member of the global youth organization TEJO .
72 Esperantists are organized in the Austrian national association, the Swiss Esperanto Society represents 170 members including the youth group.
Number of speakers
Esperanto as a second mother tongue
According to the Esperanto activist Renato Corsetti , around 350 families were registered in 1996 with the “Familia Rondo” of the Esperanto World Federation, in which the children grew up with Esperanto as their second mother tongue. An estimate by the chairmen of the Society for Interlinguistics from 2012 assumes up to 2000 native speakers; In April 2017, the World Esperanto Federation stated a number of 1,000 native speakers.
Esperanto as a foreign language
The estimates for the number of today's speakers differ widely - there are numbers between 100,000 and ten million. It should be noted that different information relates to different levels of language proficiency and use; it is often assumed that there are a few million who have learned Esperanto and a few hundred thousand who speak Esperanto regularly.
It is estimated that between 5 and 15 million people would have learned Esperanto in the more than 130 years of its existence. In 1889 over 90% of Esperanto speakers were still living in Russia. A comprehensive survey by the German Esperanto Institute in 1926 revealed a number of 136,209 speakers worldwide, including over 120,000 in Europe and around 31,000 in Germany. Esperanto also has a long history in countries like China, Japan and Brazil, and active Esperanto speakers can be found in most countries around the world, write Byram and Hu. John R. Edwards cites a People's Daily newspaper article that there were about 10,000 Esperanto speakers in China in 2004, of whom about 10% were fluent. In the Hungarian census for 2011, 8397 people reported knowledge of Esperanto. With a population of around 10 million, this corresponds to a proportion of slightly less than 0.1 percent of the population who stated that they had language skills in Esperanto; Compared to other foreign languages, Esperanto ranks 15th. Since 2001, around 39,000 state-recognized Esperanto language exams have been taken in Hungary, i.e. by around 0.4% of the population.
In 2017, the linguistic compilation Ethnologue stated a number of two million people who speak Esperanto; this figure is based on estimates from 2004 and 2015.
Mark Fettes , chairman of Universala Esperanto-Asocio (UEA) from 2013 to 2019, estimated that in 2003 there were fewer than 150,000 active speakers worldwide; For this estimate it was assumed that the World Esperanto Federation (UEA) had 20% of the active Esperanto speakers as members (at that time about 20,000 members in the national associations). Rudolf Fischer, then chairman of the German Esperanto Association, suspected in 2008: "Around 100,000 people around the world speak Esperanto fluently and regularly, of which around 2000 live in Germany."
Number of organized Esperanto speakers
The World Esperanto Federation (UEA) had 4,365 individual members and 8,689 associated members at the end of 2016. This is the lowest level since the UEA was founded in 1947.
Esperanto as a subject
Esperanto in socialist states
While Esperanto was promoted in the socialist states during the Cold War , Esperanto teaching in schools or universities of the former Eastern Bloc is practically irrelevant today.
According to information from 1982, Esperanto lessons were given in 36 countries on the basis of government decrees. This included many socialist states , including Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Baltic Soviet republics.
The background was the fact that the socialist or communist states of the time did not want to accept English as the de facto world language and the associated Western dominance and therefore supported Esperanto as a counterweight. For this purpose, the state-funded Esperanto associations were used. In 1970 there were courses at universities at 15 universities worldwide, at 51 in 1980 and at 110 universities in 22 countries in 1985. According to an estimate by Esperanto official Humphrey Tonkin in 1984, 120,000 students were learning Esperanto at 32 Chinese universities, while around 10 million Chinese students were learning English. The most important Esperanto course existed between 1969 and 2002 at the Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest .
At the beginning of the 21st century, Esperanto was accepted as an examination subject in some higher schools in Hungary. There are smaller school projects in primary schools such as the British Springboard to Languages, which is carried out in four primary schools. A three-year Esperanto-language course “Interlinguistics” has been offered at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan since 1998 ; At the University of Amsterdam there has been a chair for interlinguistics and Esperanto financed by the World Esperanto Federation, each limited to five years.
In Duolingo currently Esperanto-language courses in English, Spanish and Portuguese are offered; Courses in French and Chinese are in preparation.
Intangible cultural heritage in Poland and Croatia
In Poland , Esperanto has been part of the official intangible cultural heritage since 2014 "as the bearer of Esperanto culture" . The Republic of Croatia also recognized the Esperanto tradition as an intangible cultural heritage in 2019.
So-called Esperantide (also Esperantoide) are languages that were designed on the basis of Esperanto. The first of its kind is Mundolinco , which was published as early as 1888, a year after Esperanto.
Ido is a planned language published in 1907, 20 years after Esperanto, which is based on its framework. Some simplifications and standardizations have been made, such as the waiver of any diacritical marks . Some changes have also been made in the grammar, which is not fundamental.
Criticism of Esperanto
The following criticisms were made against the introduction of Esperanto as a general international language to be learned:
Gustav Landauer , writer and anarchist:
- (1907) The spirit has two bad enemies, first, stupidity, and second, reason. Often they find each other united in the form of clever mindlessness; she also invented Esperanto .... The grown languages can do that: Between the words there lives a lot that is unspeakable and unspeakable. But Esperanto cannot be anything other than chatter.
- (1930) A "Polish" spelling for the mostly "Latin-Romance" vocabulary leads to a strange typeface and frequent writing and reading errors ( colo 'inch', but kolo 'neck'; caro 'Zar', but kara 'dear') ; deca , decent ', but decadent , tenth').
- (1930) The “Polish” accent (always on the penultimate syllable) leads to a strange sound that provokes mistakes ( radío 'radio', regúlo 'rule', opéro 'opera').
- (1930) The introduction of the Slavic verbal aspects posed great difficulties for Germans, English and Japanese.
- (1930) The “childish masquerade” by “its arbitrary labels for grammatical categories, such as the ending -o for nouns”, e.g. B. hundo 'dog', brusto 'breast', haŭto 'skin', Eŭropo 'Europa', boao 'boa', knabo 'boy'.
- (1930) The derivative syllables of Esperanto lead to forms that are in contrast to the "internationally known forms", e.g. B. redaktisto 'editor', redaktejo 'editorial staff', publikigaĵo 'publication', aliformigilo 'transformer', katolikismo 'catholicism'. Esperanto therefore also introduces "quasi-international" but not regularly derived forms, e.g. B. redaktoro, redakcio, transformatoro . "Where Esperanto is international, it is not regular, and where it is regular it is not international, but grotesque arbitrariness."
Wolf Schneider , journalist and writer, initially an English interpreter:
- (1994) With the English language there is already a functioning world language.
- (1994) The declension is complicated and includes the adjective.
Jürgen Trabant , Romance Studies:
- (2011) There is a great literature behind Latin that is completely lacking in Esperanto. Therefore, artificial language is unsuitable as an alternative.
Zamenhof's brochure with the basics of the language
- Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof : International Language . Preface and full textbook. Warsaw 1887 (as "Doktoro Esperanto"; first edition; online ).
- Umberto Eco : The search for the perfect language . Beck, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-37888-9 . Chapter The World Auxiliary Languages, about pp. 329-336.
- Detlev Blanke : International planned languages. An introduction (= Akademie-Verlag collection. 34, language ). Akademie-Verlag, 1985, ISSN 0138-550X . Pp. 219–292 (Chapter 4: Esperanto) and pp. 337–367 (Chapter 6: Bibliography, 6.3.12–6.3.22).
- Benoît Philippe: Language change in a planned language using the example of Esperanto . Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz 1991, ISBN 3-89191-480-6 (also dissertation at the University of Konstanz 1991).
- Pierre Janton: Introduction to Esperantology . 2nd Edition. Olms, Hildesheim 1993, ISBN 3-487-06541-X .
- Ulrich Lins : The dangerous language . The persecution of the Esperantists under Hitler and Stalin. Bleicher Verlag, Gerlingen / Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-88350-023-2 .
- Markus Krajewski : Globalization projects: language, services, knowledge. In: Niels Werber u. a. (Ed.): First World War. Cultural studies manual. Stuttgart u. Weimar 2014, ISBN 978-3-476-02445-9 , pp. 51-84.
Dictionaries (in book form)
- Erich-Dieter Krause : Large dictionary Esperanto-German . Buske, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-87548-193-3 .
- Erich-Dieter Krause: Large dictionary of German-Esperanto . Buske, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-87548-466-3 .
- Ulrich Matthias, Dietrich M. Weidmann: Small dictionary German-Esperanto / Esperanto-German . Marix, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-86539-182-7 .
- tatoeba , a multilingual phrase dictionary. Esperanto is represented in it with over 530,000 example sentences. (As of April 2017)
- Vortaro, large online dictionary for the translation of Esperanto-> German / German-> Esperanto
Textbooks and grammars
- Detlev Blanke, Till Dahlenburg: Conversation Book German-Esperanto . Encyclopedia, Leipzig 1990, ISBN 3-324-00508-6 .
- Klaus Dahmann, Thomas Pusch: Esperanto word for word (= gibberish . Volume 56 ). 5th edition. Reise Know-How Verlag Peter Rump GmbH, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89416-246-7 , p. 128 (phrasebook with grammar and word list; expressions are translated word for word in addition to their corresponding translation into German!).
- Eckhard Bick u. a .: Tesi, la testudo . Esperanto textbook / Intensa lernolibro. 3. Edition. EsperantoLand, Berlin 2006.
- Dirk Willkommen: Esperanto grammar . A learner and reference grammar. 2nd Edition. Buske, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 3-87548-244-1 .
- Hermann Göhl: Detailed language teaching of Esperanto . Teaching and reference work for advanced users. Esperanto Association in the Kulturbund der DDR, Berlin (East) 1989 (A very detailed representation of the structure of Esperanto, the 2nd reprint of the 1932 edition).
- Arthur Degen, with illustrations by Ernst Kutzer : Esperanto Lernolibro por popollernejoj . Ferdinand Hirt & Son, Leipzig 1930.
- Heike Pahlow: Esperanto - simple, compact and clear . Engelsdorfer Verlag, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-96008-386-3 .
- List of planned languages
- Esperanto culture
- Esperanto literature
- Esperanto symbols
- Esperanto movement
- Herzberg - the Esperanto city
- German Esperanto Association and German Esperanto Youth
- Lernu.net with courses and dictionaries
- ViVo dictionary with reference to other dictionaries
- Esperanto online texts at Project Gutenberg
- Digital media (especially early prints) Austrian National Library
- Indication of the Esperanto World Federation
- Sabine Fiedler : The Esperanto denaskulo: The status of the native speaker of Esperanto within and beyond the planned language community. In: Language Problems and Language Planning 36 (2012): 1, pp. 69-84.
- Renato Corsetti: A mother tongue spoken mainly by fathers . In: Language Problems and Language Planning 20 (1996): 3, pp. 263-273.
- Jouko Lindstedt: Native Esperanto as a Test Case for Natural Language. In: Mickael Suominen et al. (Ed.): A Man of Measure. Festschrift in Honor of Fred Karlsson on his 60th Birthday. 2006, pp. 47-55.
- Ethnologue.com: 2 million speakers (pay barrier); see also Ethnologue.com, Size and vitality : "Large Speaker Population" (more than one million speakers), "Institutional" use. Further estimates between a few hundred thousand and a few million; the estimates vary according to the language level required.
- The German edition of the so-called Unua Libro (title, German: "International Language. Preface and Complete Textbook") appeared on November 24, 1887, the first, Russian edition on July 26 (both greg. Calendar). Adam Zakrzewski: Historio de Esperanto 1887–1912 . Fotorepreso de la eldono Varsovio, 1913, 2nd edition. Varsovio (Warsaw) 1979.
- Ethnologue: Esperanto
- Polish List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Język esperanto jako nośnik kultury esperanckiej. (Esperanto "as a carrier of Esperanto culture"). La Balta Ondo: Esperanto - Polish cultural heritage , Nov. 21, 2014. Both accessed on April 3, 2018. Polish list imm. Heritage, in English , accessed March 8, 2019
- Letter from the Croatian Ministry of Culture . Report in Eŭropa Bulteno feb. 2019 , pp. 1-2; on p. 3–6 Esperanto translation of the letter of appreciation
- Original in Hungarian ; German translation
- For 2001 to 2009: Revuo Esperanto, 12/2010, p. 246.
- See the statistics of the Hungarian examination authority
- China.org in Esperanto by the China Internet Information Center
- Internet magazine El Popola Ĉinio
- CRI online. Esperanto
- China Daily USA, November 18, 2013, China's first Esperanto museum opens (visited April 28, 2020) Virtual tour
- Website of the Esperanto Museum in Zaozhuang
- report z. B. on China Daily ; currently (April 2020) 11 issues (2017-2019) downloadable from the Esperanto World Federation.
- Explanation in Ulrich Matthias. Esperanto. The new Latin of the Church. Messkirch 1999 ; Search for "missal"
- Esperanto PEN Center at PEN International
- Austrian National Library, Collection for Planned Languages . The Esperanto Museum has existed for over 90 years . Esperanto Museum Vienna . See also the section on this in: Margaret J.-M. Sönmez, Maia Wellington Gahtan, Nadia Cannata (ed.). Museums of Language and the Display of Intangible Cultural Heritage . Abingdon and New York (Routledge). 2020
- List of Wikipedia versions with figures
- Thayer Alshaabi et al. The growing echo chamber of social media: Measuring temporal and social contagion dynamics for over 150 languages on Twitter for 2009–2020 . March 2020. Fig. 4, p. 6, and Fig. S9, p. S11, for the sum of the eleven years; Fig. S10 to S20, pp. S12 to S22, for the individual years. Exact data on the languages for the individual weeks from October 2008 to 2019 can be found in an appendix, Weekly rate of usage (number of messages) .
- Klaus Dahmann, Thomas Pusch: Esperanto - word for word . In: Peter Rump (Ed.): Kauderwelsch . 5th edition. tape 56 . Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld 2007, p. 11 (144 pp.).
- Дръ Эсперанто: международный языкъ, 1887 (published as a reprint in Moscow in 1992)
- Dr. Esperanto: Język międzynarodny, 1887 (published as a reprint in Warsaw in 1984)
- Dr. Esperanto (ps .; LL Zamenhof): International language. Warsaw 1887
- La Esperantisto . Gazeto de la amikoj de la lingvo Esperanto 1889–1895. Georg Olms Verlag, 1988, ISBN 3-487-09062-7 .
- Enciklopedio de Esperanto, p. 41, keyword Beaufront
- Esperanto course. XVII. by Albin Möbusz in: Vaterstädtische Blätter , year 1911, No. 23, edition of June 4, 1911, p. 92.
- Enciklopedio de Esperanto, p. 546, keyword UEA
- Esperanto radio in Hamburg . In: Germana Esperantisto . No. October 10 , 1924, p. 187 ( ANNO - AustriaN Newspapers Online [accessed May 5, 2020]).
- See Ulrich Lins: The dangerous language. The persecution of the Esperantists under Hitler and Stalin . Bleicher, Gerlingen 1988. The ban on teaching in German schools can be found on p. 104, the ban on party members from being members of Esperanto associations on p. 110; of Himmler's decree calling for the DEB to dissolve itself can be read on p. 111.
- Lins: The Dangerous Language . Gerlingen 1988, pp. 221, 222.
- Lins: The dangerous language , p. 222; all "anti-Soviet and socially alien elements" would have to be registered; The 14 categories include "j) people who have personal contacts and correspondence with foreign countries, with foreign embassies and consulates, Esperantists and stamp collectors."
- Lins: La danĝera lingvo. Moscow 1990, p. 392.
- Steven G. Kellman. Nimble Tongues: Studies in Literary Translingualism . West Lafayette, Indiana (Purdue University Press), 2020; Chapter "Incubus and the Esperanto Movie Industry"; first published as " Curse of the Spurned Hippie ", in: believermag.com, March 1, 2009
- Christian Neffe. Captain Kirk spoke Esperanto in: Kinozeit.de, January 23, 2020
- See Ivo Lapenna et al. a .: Esperanto en Perspektivo. London / Rotterdam 1974, p. 632 (until 1971) as well as the information, sources and graphics on UEA: Landaj Asocioj
- Here z. B. in Esperanto always dom-, in German house / house-
- do, ho or po as well as da, ja and la
- Esperantists all over the world
- Example from German: nun, for (from: fort), ja, knabo, lando (also English); engl .: birdo, rivero, teamo, boato
- In the Bibliography of the Modern Language Association (MLA) z. B. for 2006 a total of 282 articles are listed in the chapter "International Languages"; the majority deal with Esperanto (according to the press release of the Esperanto World Federation )
- See search for Esperanto on Google Scholar
- Internet site of the Esperanto World Federation, accessed on August 3, 2016
- Der Fischer Weltalmanach '84 , Frankfurt / Main 1983 (similar in other years) writes that there are "3-16 million" second-language Esperanto speakers. The footnote refers to estimates of 3–5 million (Decsy, University of Hamburg) to 14–16 million ( Mario Pei , University of New York). Mario Pei writes in One Language for the world. Biblo and Tannen, New York 1968, p. 200 : “The number of Esperanto speakers throughout the world today comes close to half a million (though something like eight million are said to have some acquaintance with the language) (…)”.
- Alicia Sakaguchi: Pragmatic Aspects of Interlinguistics. In: Herbert Stachowiak (Ed.): Philosophy of Language, Pragmatics of Language and Formative Pragmatics (= Handbook of Pragmatic Thinking / Philosophy of Language, Language Pragmatics and Formative Pragmatics , Volume 4). Meiner Verlag, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-7873-0733-8 , pp. 188–218, here: p. 207 ( Memento of the original from October 18, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- "Most speakers live in Europe, but the movement has a long history in countries such as China, Japan and Brazil, and active users can be found in most countries of the world." Michael Byram, Adelheid Hu: Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. 2nd Edition. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken 2013, ISBN 978-1-136-23554-2 , p. 228.
- John R. Edwards: Minority Languages and Group Identity. Cases and Categories. Benjamin, Amsterdam 2010, ISBN 978-90-272-8868-4 , p. 183.
- Hungarian census, knowledge of Esperanto 1990–2011
- Gary F. Simons, Charles D. Fennig: Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International, 2017, archived from the original on March 17, 2017 ; accessed on September 22, 2018 (English).
- Mark Fettes: The geostrategies of interlingualism. In: Jacques Maurais, Michael A. Morris (Eds.): Languages in a globalizing world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-53354-6 , pp. 37-46, here: p. 43.
- Esperanto magazine 4/2017, page 95. Compare also: La membrokvanto de UEA falegis article of December 16, 2016 in Libera folio .
- Alicja Sakaguchi: The way from a language project to a living world auxiliary language. Some aspects of the change in status, illustrated using the example of Esperanto. In: Ulrich Ammon and Marlis Hellinger (eds.). Status Change of Languages. De Gruyter, Berlin 1992, ISBN 978-3-11-012668-6 (Fundamentals of Communication and Cognition / Foundations of Communication and Cognition) , p. 505; Torsten Bendias: The Esperanto Youth in the GDR. On the practice and lifeworld of social currents in state socialism. LIT-Verl, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-643-11291-0 , p. 143.
- Pierre Janton (Ed.): Esperanto. Language, literature, and community. State Univ. of New York Press, Albany, NY 1993, ISBN 978-0-7914-1254-1 , p. 124.
- Michael Byram and Adelheid Hu: Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. 2nd Edition. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken 2013, ISBN 978-1-136-23554-2 , p. 229.
- John Edwards, Lynn MacPherson: Views of Constructed Languages, with Special Reference to Esperanto. An experimental study. In: Humphrey Tonkin (Ed.): Esperanto, Interlinguistics, and Planned Language. Univ. Press of America, Lanham, Md. 1997, ISBN 978-0-7618-0847-3 ( Papers of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems . 5), p. 95. The number of Chinese students learning English , at that time was 10 million. (John R. Edwards: Minority Languages and Group Identity. Cases and Categories. Benjamin, Amsterdam 2010, ISBN 978-90-272-8868-4 , p. 183.)
- University of Amsterdam, Esperanto Chair . The professorship for Interlinguistics and Esperanto in Amsterdam has existed since 2002; from 2002 to 2013 Wim Jansen was professor; revuo Esperanto, jul./aŭg. 2013, p. 150
- Esperanto language courses at Duolingo in English, Spanish and Portuguese. In preparation: in French (June 2020: 100% completed; technical implementation is still missing) and Chinese
- Landauer, Gustav, Do not learn Esperanto !, in: Die Freie Generation 2 (November 1907), H. 5, S. 147-150., Available online at europa.clio-online.de
- Edgar von Wahl: Paths and wrong ways to the world language. In: Occidental. The world language. 3. Edition. Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart 1950; s. a. P. 23 ( first edition 1930 ).
- Edgar von Wahl: Paths and wrong ways to the world language. In: Occidental. The world language. 3. Edition. Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart 1950; s. a. P. 24.
- Wolf Schneider : Obituary for Esperanto. In: NZZ Folio . 10/94, accessed November 1, 2014.
- "There is a great deal of literature behind Latin that is completely absent from Esperanto." Jürgen Trabant in conversation with the Goethe-Institut, 2011. Similarly, an article in " Zeit ": Weltprojekte: Research for Billions , which stated in January 2008: “ Artificial languages don't live. "
- Wiener Zeitung: Who speaks Esperanto? : "Despite 120 years of existence and numerous attempts, the planned language has not been able to gain broad acceptance and is still only a lover."
- Tatoeba statistics. Retrieved April 12, 2017 .
- Thomas Schütz: Vortaro online. Thomas Schütz-> Esperanto, Esperanto-> Deutsch, accessed on April 12, 2017 .