Racism is an attitude or ideology according to which people are categorized and judged as “ race ” on the basis of fewer external characteristics - which suggest a certain ancestry . The characteristics used for differentiation such as skin color, body size or language - in some cases also cultural characteristics such as clothing or customs - are interpreted as a fundamental and determining factor of human abilities and properties and classified according to their value. Racists consider all people who are as similar to their own characteristics as possible to be of higher value, while all others (often graded) are discriminated against as of lower value . With such now outdated racial theories , various actions were and are justified that contradict the general human rights applied today .
The term racism arose at the beginning of the 20th century in the critical examination of political concepts based on racial theories. In anthropological theories about the connection between culture and racial characteristics, the concept of race was mixed up with the ethnological - sociological concept of " people ". B. from the " völkisch movement " in Germany and Austria . Racism does not aim at subjectively perceived characteristics of a group, but questions their equality and, in extreme cases, their right to exist. Racial discrimination typically attempts to refer to projected phenotypic and derived personal differences.
Regardless of their origin, anyone can be affected by racism. The International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination does not distinguish between racial and ethnic discrimination. An expanded concept of racism can also include a variety of other categories. People with racial prejudice discriminate against others on the basis of such affiliation; institutional racism denies certain groups benefits and services or privileges others. Racist theories and argumentation patterns serve to justify power relationships and to mobilize people for political goals. The consequences of racism range from prejudice and discrimination through racial segregation , slavery and pogroms to so-called “ ethnic cleansing ” and genocide .
A division of the recent species Homo sapiens into "races" or subspecies can no longer be justified biologically today . In order to investigate certain geographically differing human characteristics, human biology instead delimits individual populations that are only related to the examined characteristic or that are carried out arbitrarily in advance. Even if knowledge about the history of human descent can be obtained from them and the layperson believes they recognize apparent similarities to concepts of race, they are neither suitable for taxonomic purposes nor do they prove the biosystematic division of humans into subgroups.
Racism, in the strict sense of the word, explains social phenomena on the basis of pseudo-scientific conclusions by analogy from biology. As a reaction to the egalitarian universality claims of the Enlightenment , he attempts a seemingly inviolable justification for social inequality through reference to scientific knowledge. Culture, social status, talent and character, behavior, etc. are considered to be determined by the genetic make-up. A supposedly natural or God-given, hierarchical-authoritarian system of rule and the resulting compulsions to act serve to justify discrimination, exclusion, oppression, persecution or annihilation of individuals and groups - both at the individual and institutional level. Differences in skin color, language, religion and culture stabilize the demarcation between the various groups and are intended to ensure the primacy of the individual over the foreign. The civilizational progress of modernity is interpreted as a decadent history of decline that contradicts a natural inequality of people.
The historian Imanuel Geiss sees the historical foundations of the Indian caste system as the "oldest form of quasi-racist structures" (Geiss, p. 49 f.). According to Geiss, they began with the conquest of North India by the Aryans around 1500 BC at the latest . Chr .; "Light-skinned conquerors pressed subject dark-skinned people as 'slaves' into the apartheid of a racial caste society that could not be kept in its original form in the long term, but for the extreme fragmentation and isolation of the castes as insurmountable living, professional and residential , Eating and marital communities ”(ibid). In ancient Greece the barbarians were not regarded as “racially inferior”, but “only” as culturally or civilizationally retarded, but here too some historians speak of prototypical or “proto-racism”.
"Modern" racism emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries and was originally founded on a religious basis (Fredrickson, p. 14). From 1492, after the Reconquista , the re-conquest of Andalusia by the Spaniards, Jews and Muslims were persecuted as “foreign invaders” or simply as “marranos” (pigs) and driven out of Spain. Although there was a formal possibility of (more or less voluntary) baptism in order to escape expulsion or death, it was assumed or assumed that the Conversos (converted Jews) or Moriscos (converted Moors) continued to secretly practice their faith, thereby converting In fact, the opportunity to become full members of society was taken away. The "Jewish" or the "Islamic", but also the "Christian", was declared to be the inner being , the "essence" of the human being, and the religious affiliation thus became an insurmountable barrier. The idea that baptism or conversion is not enough to erase the blemish essentializes or naturalizes religion and is therefore seen by many historians as the birth of modern racism. The idea that a Jew or Muslim would retain his or her Jewish or Muslim “essence” even if he changed his religion - it was in his blood, so to speak - is essentially racist. “The old European belief that children have the same 'blood' as their parents was more of a metaphor and myth than an empirical scientific finding, but it sanctioned a kind of genealogical determinism that turns into racism when applied to entire ethnic groups becomes ”(Fredrickson, p. 15). The Estatutos de limpieza de sangre ("Statutes of the purity of blood"), first laid down in 1449 for the council of the city of Toledo , are considered by some authors as an anticipation of the Nuremberg race laws . The racist doctrine of the “purity of blood” stigmatized an entire ethnic group on the basis of criteria which those affected could not change either through conversion or assimilation.
The Christian community of faith, to which everyone actually belongs who has become part of the community through baptism, had become a community of descent, a race equivalent - a process in which the racist ideologue of the " people's body " was transformed almost 500 years before National Socialism. with the attendant ideas, for example of the “uncleanness of the Jewish blood”.
This medieval racism, however, initially remained tied into the context of mythical and religious ideas; there was no reference to a scientifically based biology. It was only when religious certainties were called into question and the separation between body and soul was abolished in favor of a materialistic-scientific worldview that the spiritual-historical prerequisites for a racism of the modern age were given. "Racism was able to develop into a complex form of consciousness to the extent that racist elements of consciousness were able to" emancipate "themselves from the theological ties of the Middle Ages." Pseudoscientific race theories are, so to speak, a "waste product of the Enlightenment", their apparently scientific arguments also and especially from great ones Enlightenment was received. “With their passionate, sometimes bordering on fanaticism, striving to organize the world 'logically', with their mania for classifying everything, the philosophers and scholars of the Enlightenment helped give centuries-old racist ideas an ideological coherence that they would for everyone attractive, who tended to abstract thinking. "
Voltaire wrote in 1755: “The race of negroes is a completely different type of human being from ours, just as that of spaniels differs from that of greyhounds [...] It can be said that their intelligence is not simply different from ours, it is far inferior to it. ”Originally founded on metaphysical and religious grounds, the Enlightenment gave racism another, a secular foundation.
In 1666 the Leyden professor Georgius Hornius divided mankind into Japhetites (whites), Semites ( yellows ) and Hamites (blacks) because, according to biblical tradition, he believed that all of mankind came from the three sons of Noah , Japhet , Sem and Ham , Less than 20 years later, in 1684, the French scholar François Bernier presented a race system in which he categorized people into four to five unevenly developed races based on external characteristics such as skin color, stature and face shape. While the curse of Ham weighed on the blacks and the Jews were burdened with the collective "guilt of the murder of God ", "scientific" reasons were now given to "prove" their "racial" otherness or inferiority.
Natural scientists such as Carl von Linné , Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon , Johann Friedrich Blumenbach , Immanuel Kant and many others cataloged and classified the animal and plant kingdoms, but also the then known humanity and thus created the foundations of the “natural history of man”, anthropology . But their work was fraught with traditional myths and prejudices from the start. In particular, the Scala Naturae , the "ladder of beings," handed down from medieval theology and taken over into secular modern science , played an important role. This idea assigned all life a fixed place in a hierarchy of "lower" and "higher" beings. On the one hand, it contributed to the formation of theories about evolution and higher development, but on the other hand, when applied to humans, it led to the distinction between older and younger "racial classes", which were equated with "primitive" and "progressive". The genus Homo was introduced by Carl von Linné in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758 . He had already differentiated four spatially separated variants of anatomically modern humans based on their skin color, but now he has expanded the characterization of these four geographical varieties of humans to include the characteristics of temperament and posture : According to him, Europeans differed from the other human varieties by the Characteristics white, sanguine, muscular ("albus, sanguineus, torosus"), the Americans by the characteristics red, choleric, upright , ("rufus, cholericus, rectus"), the Asians by the characteristics yellow, melancholic, stiff ("luridus , melancholicus, rigidus ") and the Africans by the characteristics black, phlegmatic, limp (" niger, phlegmaticus, laxus "). “If the anthropologists had limited themselves to dividing the groups of people according to their physical characteristics and not drawing any further conclusions from them, their work would have been as harmless as that of the botanist or zoologist and merely a continuation. But it turned out right at the beginning that those who carried out the classifications assumed the right to sit in judgment on the characteristics of the groups of people they defined: by extrapolating from physical characteristics to spiritual or moral ones, they established hierarchies of races. ”“ Whatever Linnaeus, Blumenbach and other ethnologists of the 18th century had intended - they were in any case the pioneers for a secular or “scientific” racism ”(Fredrickson, p. 59).
By evaluating phenotypic features on the basis of aesthetic criteria as well as their connection with intellectual, character or cultural abilities, the racial typologies developed in the 18th century prepared the ground for the fully developed biological racism of the 19th and 20th centuries (cf. Fredrickson, p. 61– 63). Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau , whom Poliakov describes as the “great herald of biologically tinged racism”, with his four-volume essay on the inequality of human races is considered to be the inventor of the Aryan master race and founder of modern racial theory and the theoretical thought leader of modern racism. The French nobleman explained the decline of his class as a result of racial degeneration. He also prophesied that mixing the blood of different races would inevitably lead to the extinction of mankind.
In the 20th century, distinctive forms of racism developed in many countries, some of which became official ideologies of the respective states - examples are:
- The Jim Crow era, the era of racial discrimination in the United States that peaked between 1890 and 1960
- the racial laws of the National Socialists in Germany and in other European countries between 1933 and 1945
- the apartheid regime in South Africa, which took its most extreme development after 1948
- the Australian Government's policy towards the Aborigines
Since the UNESCO declaration against the concept of “race” at the UNESCO conference against racism, violence and discrimination in 1995 in the Austrian town of Schlaining, not only every biological, but also every sociological derivation of race-like categories has been outlawed. This ban is justified as follows:
- Criteria on the basis of which races are defined can be freely selected.
- The genetic differences between people within a “race” are on average quantitatively larger than the genetic differences between different “races”.
- There is no connection between pronounced body characteristics such as skin color and other characteristics such as character or intelligence .
The important Italian population geneticist Cavalli-Sforza , professor at Stanford University in California , comes to the conclusion in his monumental work "The History and Geography of Human Genes" that there is no scientific basis for differentiating between human races. The division of humanity into taxonomic subgroups is essentially arbitrary and cannot be reproduced using statistical methods. The small genetic differences that can be detected at all between certain populations are very small due to the low evolutionary age of modern mankind and, moreover, probably blurred almost beyond recognition by migration and subsequent mixing. The visually striking differences, such as skin color, also do not correlate at all with these genetically defined population clusters. No population has its own genes, and even its own alleles are meaningless, the only essential differences being their frequency. Depending on the selected genetic marker, the genetic clusters are also delimited differently and are not stable.
March 21st is International Day Against Racism. In 2018, the focus there was on promoting tolerance, inclusion and respect for diversity . The UN Special Rapporteur on Racism and Xenophobia is E. Tendayi Achiume.
Racism as a social and psychological phenomenon exists independently of racial theories, and group conflicts that can be described as racist can be traced back to early human history . In contrast, racism as a systematic teaching structure developed in continental Europe and the Anglo-Saxon world from the end of the 18th century.
The term “racism” only emerged when doubts arose about the term “race”, or at least some of its uses. It originated in the early 20th century when dealing with ethnic theories. The ending ' -ism ' should reflect the view of historians and other authors that “these are questionable views and beliefs, not indisputable facts of nature” (Fredrickson, p. 159). The racists themselves, on the other hand, viewed themselves positively as representatives of “racial science” or “racial doctrine” and consequently rejected “racism” to describe their views (Geiss, p. 17 and 341). In 1942 Meyer's Lexicon defined racism as follows:
" Racism , original catchphrase of the democratic-jew. World struggle against the national renewal movements and their ideas u. Measures to secure their peoples through racial care and to repel and reject the racially, nationally and politically and economically destructive Judaism as well as other intrusions of foreign blood, as inhuman and to slander their carriers as 'racists'. "
Théophile Simar did pioneering work in many ways . His work Étude critique sur la formation de la doctrine des races au XVIIIe siècle et son expansion au XIXe siècle , published in 1922, is considered to be the first in which the terms "racism" and "racist" were used. In it he dealt extremely critically with the thesis of the Germanic or Teutonic superiority over the other European - especially the Romansh - peoples and came to the conclusion that such concepts are not scientifically sound and only serve political purposes (Fredrickson, p. 161-162).
In 1935, Julian Huxley and Alfred C. Haddon criticized in their book We Europeans: A survey of Racial problems that there was no scientific evidence for the idea of different, separate human races. They rejected classifications based on phenotypic or somatic characteristics and evaluations based on them, as well as any form of “race biology ” as pseudoscientific. They therefore called for the word race to be deleted from the scientific vocabulary and to be replaced by the term “ ethnic group ”. She described the racial theories of the Nazis as “a creed of passionate racism”. “Racism is a myth and a dangerous one at that. It is a cover for selfish economic goals that would look ugly enough in their nakedness. ”The biological arrangement of European types of people is a subjective process and the myth of racism is an attempt to justify nationalism .
In his seminal work Race: a Study in Superstition from 1937, Jacques Barzun classified “racialism” as modern superstition and a form of misguided thought. Race, he explained, "was a means in Germany to give the German people back a feeling of self-respect after the national humiliation of Versailles and afterwards." He also describes how racism was used before and in other places to to give a boost to the "national" (cf. Fredrickson, p. 167). Already in the first chapter he pointed out that not only the German attitude towards the Jews was racist, but also the assumption of “white superiority over blacks”, the fear of the Asian “ yellow danger ” or the conviction that America must Protect the Anglo-Saxon race from being contaminated by southern European, Jewish or the “blood of the negroes”. His comprehensive analysis of the racist world of ideas of his time included a .:
- the racial reinterpretation of the rivalry between Germany and France into a dispute between Aryans and Celts;
- tracing the triumphant advance of socialism back to a Jewish conspiracy;
- the claim that the Germanic races are on the rise and the Romance races are on the decline;
- as well as the conviction that the whites must unite against “the colored hordes of blacks, reds and yellows” in order to save “European culture” or civilization in general from ruin (Fredrickson, p. 167).
The term “racism” only gained greater popularity through the sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld , whose analysis and refutation of the National Socialist racial doctrine, written between 1933 and 1934, was published posthumously in English translation under the title Racism . In the work published in 1938, Hirschfeld explained the rise of German anti-Semitism as a result of the problems that arose from the defeat in the First World War . Racism serves as a safety valve against a feeling of catastrophe and seems to ensure the restoration of self-respect, especially since it is directed against an easily accessible and less dangerous enemy in one's own country and not against a respectable enemy beyond national borders. He too could not gain anything from the concept of “race” that was of scientific value; instead, he recommended the deletion of the expression "as far as subdivisions of the human species are meant". But even Hirschfeld did not offer a formal definition of "racism" and did not make it clear what, in his opinion, it differs from the term " xenophobia ", which he also used.
The first definition of racism comes from the American Ruth Benedict . In her book Race - Science and Politics , published in 1940, she describes racism as “the dogma that one ethnic group is by nature destined to be hereditary inferiority and another group to be hereditary inferiority. The dogma that the hope of the cultural world depends on destroying some races and keeping others clean. The dogma that one race has been the bearer of progress throughout human history and that it is the only race that can guarantee progress in the future ”.
Even this early definition uses “race” and “ ethnic group ” synonymously, the term “race” is understood as a sociological category and has no biological reference. Benedict initially made a sharp distinction between religious and racial concepts of difference and tried to limit the concept of racism to biological racism. In the further course of her studies, however, she abandoned this separation and derived a "functional equivalence" between religious fanaticism and aversions that are justified by characteristics of physical appearance or ancestry. According to Benedict, both lead to forms of persecution for which only different justifications are formulated, but which do not differ in their essence. "In any case, in the eyes of history, racism remains just another example of the persecution of minorities for the benefit of those in power" (Fredrickson, p. 168). Benedict's definition was popularized by Martin Luther King , who more than 25 years later wrote it in his book Where do we go from here: Chaos or Community? relative.
In the 1950s, UNESCO published a series of scientific publications on racial theory. That was u. a. the French ethnologist Claude Lévi-Strauss involved. For his contribution in French and only in 1972 under the title 1952 Race and History in German in the Suhrkamp publishing house appeared, he wrote: "It may be surprising if in a series, which set up the fight against racism goal has spoken of the contribution of the human races to world civilization. "
In 1965, in the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination , the UN defined the term “racial discrimination” as “any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, skin color, ancestry, national origin or ethnicity aimed at or has the consequence that an equal recognition, enjoyment or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms in political, economic, social, cultural or any other area of public life is thwarted or impaired. "
The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance defines racism as "the belief that a motive such as race, color, language, religion, nationality or national or ethnic origin justifies disregard for a person or group of people or a feeling of superiority over a person or group of people" .
Subject matter and definition
Various definitions of the term racism exist in science today. The scope, validity and explanatory power of the respective definitions vary depending on the level of interpretation and focus. The term is strongly ideologized so that the acceptance or rejection of different definitions can also depend on political or ethical preferences. The most extreme interpretations either expand the term very much, up to so-called “ speciesism ”, or restrict it so that it only includes “classic”, i.e. racism based on racial theories. Objects of definition can be historical facts, practical structures and processes, but also theories, ideologies, methods of thinking and abstract concepts or “racism itself”.
The Marxist racism researcher Étienne Balibar stated "that there is not" one "invariant racism, but rather" several "racisms that form a whole situation-dependent spectrum [...] A certain racist configuration has no fixed boundaries, it is a moment of development, that depending on its own latent possibilities, but also according to the historical circumstances and the balance of forces in the social formations, it can take a different place in the spectrum of possible racisms. "
The historian Patrick Girard saw the need for a more differentiated concept of racism as early as 1976: “For example, Jews, Indians and Blacks were obviously all victims of different varieties of racism. But they were because of very different conditions in very different epochs and for very different reasons. It is therefore preferable to speak of “racism” rather than “racism”, with anti-Semitism, as we shall see, occupying a special position ”.
Sociologists like Stuart Hall , too, distinguish between "general racism" and its various forms, racisms, on the basis of practical and analytical considerations:
"There is no racism as a general characteristic of human societies, only historically-specific racisms."
"Empirically there have been many racisms, each historically specific and linked in different ways to the societies in which it appeared."
“So far I have spoken about the general concept of racism, about racism in general. But wherever we find racism, we discover that it is historically specific, depending on the particular epoch, the particular culture, the particular form of society in which it occurs. These specific differences must be analyzed. So when we talk about concrete social reality, we shouldn't talk about racism, but about racism . "
Similarly, historian George M. Fredrickson argues :
“These continuities [structural similarities between biologically based and 'new cultural racism '] indicate, in my view, that there is a general history of racism and a history of particular racism; but in order to understand the various forms and functions of the general phenomenon with which we are concerned, it is necessary to know the specific context of each. "
The sociologists Loïc Wacquant and Albert Memmi recommend "once and for all to forego the overly elastic stimulus term racism or at best to use it to describe empirically analyzable doctrines and beliefs of races" or the term "racism", if at all to be used exclusively to denote racism in the biological sense of the word (Memmi, p. 121).
Memmi understands “racism in the broader sense” as a “general mechanism”, which, however, appears in different varieties, of which “racism in the narrower sense” is only one. Because racism can only be inadequately understood without understanding the other and "racism in the broader sense" is much more widespread, it made sense to "subordinate biological racism, historically a relatively recent phenomenon, to a more general and much older behavior" (Memmi, p. 97). “Indeed, the racist charge is now based on a biological and now a cultural difference. Once it starts from biology, then again from culture, in order to subsequently draw general conclusions about the totality of the personality, life and group of the accused. Sometimes the biological characteristic is only vaguely pronounced, or it is completely absent. In short, we are faced with a mechanism that is infinitely more diverse, more complex and, unfortunately, more widespread than the term racism in the narrow sense of the word would suggest. It is worth considering whether it would be better to replace it with another word or phrase that expresses both the diversity and the relationship between the individual forms of racism ”(Memmi, pp. 165–166). "The term racism fits exactly for the biological meaning" and should therefore only be used in the future for racism in the biological sense. To denote the general appearance, Memmi originally suggested ethnophobia , but decided on the term heterophobia in 1982 , because “this could be used to conceptualize those phobic and aggressive constellations that are directed against others and with different - psychological, cultural, social or metaphysical - Arguments are justified, and of which racism in the narrower sense would only be a variant ”(Memmi, pp. 121–122).
“Racism” should only refer to the rejection of the other based on purely biological differences, while “heterophobia” should mean the rejection of the other based on differences of any kind. This makes racism a special case of heterophobia ”(Memmi, page 124). According to Memmis, the term “heterophobia” can also be used to solve other terminological problems because, on the one hand, it encompasses all varieties of “aggressive rejection of the other” and, conversely, can easily be translated into its various forms. “Instead of speaking of anti-Semitism, an obviously imprecise term, one could use the term“ Jew phobia ”, which clearly describes the fear of the Jewish and its rejection; the same applies to the terms ' negrophobia ', ' arabophobia ' etc. ”(Memmi, p. 123).
Definition of racism according to Albert Memmi
"Racism is the generalized and absolute evaluation of actual or fictitious differences for the benefit of the accuser and to the detriment of his victim, with which his privileges or his aggressions are to be justified"
This definition is not limited to racism based on racial biology, so the “racist charge is based now on a biological and now on a cultural difference. Once it starts from biology, then again from culture, in order to subsequently draw general conclusions about the totality of the personality, life and group of the accused. ”(Memmi, p. 165 f.).
It contains three elements that Memmi considers essential and which are also of central importance in current research on racism. Memmi emphasizes that none of these elements alone make up racism, this only arises through the connection (Memmi, p. 44).
The basis of racism is the emphatic (over) emphasis or construction of actual or fictitious differences between racist and victim. "The difference is at the heart of racist thinking and acting" (Memmi, p. 48). Memmi explicitly points out that this is a “ general mechanism ”, he “[Racism] is not limited to biology, nor to economics, psychology or metaphysics; it is a versatile accusation that makes use of everything that is available, even of that which is not at all tangible, because it invents it as needed ”(Memmi, p. 83). "The racists no longer detest the Arabs because of their sun-burned skin or their Levantine facial features, but because they -" let's not kid ourselves "- adhere to a ridiculous religion, treat their women badly, are cruel or simply backward" (Memmi, P. 101). The use of the difference is indispensable for the racist argument, "but it is not the difference that always leads to racism, it is rather the racism that makes use of the difference". It doesn't matter whether the difference is real or pure fiction, important or insignificant in itself. “If there is no difference, then the racist makes it up; but if it does exist, it will be interpreted to its advantage ”(Memmi, p. 167).
According to Memmi, the mere demonstration of a difference between two individuals or groups does not in itself constitute racism. "Racism does not lie in the establishment of a difference, but in its use against another" (Memmi, p. 214) . "Racism is the valuation [...]", it begins where the difference is interpreted and an (additional) meaning is assigned to it, in such a way that it has a (dis) judgmental effect and has disadvantages for the person being assessed . "It is only in the context of racism that this emphasis on difference takes on a special meaning [...]" (Memmi, p. 166). For Memmi, highlighting actual or imagined differences is merely a “convenient tool for something completely different, namely questioning the victim”, which means that the characteristics of the other are always negative, they denote something bad, while the characteristics of the racist are good. “The racist is lovable because his victim is despicable. The world of the racist is that of the good, the world of his victim is that of the evil ”(Memmi, pp. 98-99).
Generalization is understood by Memmi in two ways. It expresses itself on the one hand as "de-individualization" or "depersonalization", which goes hand in hand with a "dehumanization", on the other hand as "absolutization" or "perpetuation"; in this sense he speaks of a “double generalization”. “The accusation is almost always, at least implicitly, directed against almost all members of the group, so that every other member is exposed to the same accusation, and it is unlimited in time so that no conceivable event in the future can ever put an end to the process” (Memmi , P. 114). The individual is no longer viewed for himself, but as a member of a group whose properties he inevitably possesses a priori; he is de-individualized. “At the same time, the entire outgroup, which is attached to the stigma of the harmful and aggressive, deserves to be attacked; conversely, every member of the outgroup deserves the sanction a priori […] ”(Memmi, p. 116). With the loss of individuality comes the loss of personal and human rights and dignity. Man is not described in a differentiating way; “He only has the right to drown in an anonymous collective” (cf. Memmi, pp. 183–186). Any real or fabricated deficiency of the individual is extended to the whole pseudo-kin group, and at the same time the individual is condemned for a collective flaw. “Individual and collective characteristics stand in a kind of dialectical relationship to one another” (cf. Memmi, p. 170 f.).
The other form of generalization is the unlimited duration of the accusations. “The racist wants to see the final traits in the stamp he puts on his victim's face. Not only does the victim belong to a group whose members all bear these flaws, they also do it forever. So everything has its order for eternity. Once and for all the bad are bad and the good are good [...] ”(Memmi, p. 117 f.).
For Memmi, racism primarily serves to secure rule, the meaning and purpose of racism lies in domination (Memmi, p. 60). Secondly, he compensates for psychological deficits, “you consolidate your own position against the other. Psychoanalytically speaking, racism enables an individual and collective strengthening of the ego ”(Memmi, p. 160). "In order to be big, it is enough for a racist to step on someone else's shoulders" (Memmi, p. 202).
Fredrickson's definition of racism
While the evaluation is a central element in Memmi, George M. Fredrickson completely dispenses with this criterion, whereby his definition also includes certain ethnocentric , but above all ethnopluralistic concepts (cf. Fredrickson, p. 18 f.). Fredrickson's theory or conception of racism from 2002 is based on just two components: "difference" and "power".
“Racism arises from a way of thinking, whereby“ they ”differ from“ us ”permanently, without there being any possibility of bridging the differences. This feeling of difference provides a motive or a justification for "we" use our power advantage to treat the ethno-racial other in a way that we would consider cruel or unjust if members of our own group were affected. "
“If we were to try to put it briefly, we could say that racism exists when an ethnic group or historical collective dominates, excludes or tries to eliminate another group on the basis of differences which they consider to be hereditary and unchangeable. "
According to Fredrickson, it is not the “difference” but the “feeling of difference” that serves racists as a motive for exercising power or as a justification for treating “ethno-racial others” cruelly or unjustly. There is no real difference required to construct “we” and “they”; a “perceived difference” is sufficient. It neither specifies the type of exercise of power; it can range from “unofficial, but consistently practiced social discrimination to genocide” (Fredrickson, p. 16 f.), Nor does it determine whether the difference is biological, cultural, religious or otherwise Nature is. “Usually, however, the perception of the other as 'race' takes up differences that are in some sense“ ethnic ”. According to the definition of the political scientist Donald L. Horowitz, ethnicity is “based on a myth of common ancestry, which is mostly associated with supposedly innate characteristics. A certain notion of attribute attribution and a resulting affinity are inseparable from the concept of ethnicity . ”The hallmarks and identifiers that one usually thinks of are language, religion, customs and physical characteristics (innate or acquired). One or more of these (sometimes all) can serve as sources of ethnic diversity; each of them can provoke contempt, discrimination or violence on the part of the other group who does not share the characteristic or characteristics which have become the criterion of the ethnically other. As I once did in an earlier essay, the essence of racism can be described as hierarchically ordered ethnicity; in other words, with the use of power, difference becomes something that arouses hatred and is disadvantageous ”(Fredrickson, p. 142).
While Memmi focuses on the hierarchization, i.e. the valuation, of the differences, Fredrickson particularly emphasizes their absolutization; the “difference”, the “ethno-racial” otherness must be permanent and without the possibility of bridging the differences . The group construction is biologized or also essentialized in that the ethnic, cultural or other differences are explained as irreconcilable, quasi-biological differences; the group construction becomes the race equivalent. “It is true that the Shoah and decolonization may have discredited regimes that I have described as 'openly racist'; but this good news should not be exaggerated into the belief that racism as such is dead or dying [...] What has been termed "new racism" in the US, UK and France is a mindset that uses cultural differences instead of genetic make-up and solidify into essential differences, which in other words makes culture the functional equivalent of race ”(Fredrickson, p. 144). "One can speak of the existence of a racist attitude when differences, which are otherwise regarded as ethno-cultural, are declared to be innate, indelible and immutable" (Fredrickson, p. 13).
Racism, Fredrickson said, "denies the possibility that racists and their victims can live together in the same society, except on the basis of domination and subordination." Based on Pierre-André Taguieff , he speaks of racisms of inclusion and those of exclusion. "It is also considered impossible that the ethno-racial difference can be canceled out if people change their identity" (Fredrickson, p. 17). For Fredrickson, the persistence and unbridgeability of difference are the decisive features in order to distinguish racism from other forms of intolerance and discrimination. “It might be useful to use another term, such as ' culturalism ', to describe the inability or unwillingness to tolerate cultural differences; but if real assimilation is offered, I would refrain from using the term racism ”(Fredrickson, pp. 14-15).
However, it is important to distinguish between different conceptions of culture. “If one assumes that culture is constructed historically and represents something flowing, temporally and spatially variable that can adapt to external circumstances, then the term culture is diametrically opposed to that of race. But culture can be reified and essentialized to such an extent that it becomes the functional equivalent of the concept of race ”(Fredrickson, p. 15). "A deterministic cultural particularism can have the same effect as a biologically based racism [...]" (Fredrickson, p. 16) The borderline between "culturalism" and racism is, according to Fredrickson, quickly crossed, "Culture and even religion can be so Essential characteristics freeze so that they can serve as the functional equivalent of biological racism. This has been true to some extent for the perception of blacks in the US and Great Britain for some time, as well as that of Muslims in some predominantly Christian nations ”(Fredrickson, p. 148).
Individuality and human rights
For Christoph Butterwegge , racism is a “way of thinking that ascribes different abilities, skills and / or character traits to large groups formed according to physical or cultural characteristics political rights are declared, i.e. the existence of privileges or the right to them is legitimized, the validity of universal human rights is negated. "
According to Manfred Kappeler, racism disadvantages larger groups of people due to their biologically or culturally justified foreignness and denies their claim to human or civil rights as well as human dignity . His "deeply inhuman core" consists in the fact that he does not see people as personalities with their own talents and talents, but only as members of their "race" or " culture " and thus denies them any individual development opportunities that go beyond supposed collective characteristics.
The historian Georg Kreis also focuses on human rights and dignity, and he also emphasizes the generalization of the difference:
“The lines between racism and xenophobia cannot be drawn sharply. From the victim's point of view, it is not particularly important to which analytical category one ascribes an act. Different forms of discrimination merge into one another. At its core it is about human rights, about respect for human dignity. Perhaps one would like to have a definition after all, hence the suggestion to understand racism as a position from which a disparaging attitude towards a group based on impersonal characteristics and the individual judges negatively because of the negative group image as well as the entire group because of negative individual experiences becomes."
Definition of racism according to Philomena Essed
For Philomena Essed , racism is “an ideology, structure, and process by which certain groupings are viewed as essentially different and inferior“ races ”or ethnic groups based on actual or ascribed biological or cultural characteristics. Subsequently, these differences serve to explain why members of these groups are excluded from access to material and non-material resources. Racism always includes group conflict with regard to cultural and material resources. ”“ […] Racism is a structural phenomenon. This means that ethnically specified inequality is rooted in economic and political institutions, in the field of education and training and in the media and is reproduced through these structures. "
In doing so, it expands the term “racism” in such a way that it not only connects an ideology or specific historical manifestations, but also real structures and processes, whereby its definition also includes phenomena such as everyday racism or institutional racism .
Definition of racism according to Robert Miles
Robert Miles, on the other hand, understands racism as a “process of the construction of meanings”, through which “certain phenotypic and / or genetic characteristics of people are assigned meanings to gestalt, so that a system of categorizations emerges” in which those affected “add additional (negative assessed) properties are assigned ". This definition again emphasizes the ideological aspect of racism. At the same time, however, it closely links it to the “process of race construction” and thus limits it to its classic variant.
Definition of racism according to Mark Terkessidis
In 1998, Mark Terkessidis criticized the narrowing of the racism discussion to prejudice and ideology. Based on Immanuel Wallerstein , he understands racism as a separation between “us” and “you”, which in modern times was constituted by exclusion through inclusion. Through slavery, colonization and later through labor migration, groups of people were included in a system and excluded through specific practices of exclusion. The “ racist knowledge ” arose in order to legitimize and explain the practice of discrimination and the separations that have arisen in this way.
Terkessidis defines racism in three points: 1. Exclusion practice (based on Robert Miles understood as discrimination in the distribution of social resources, services and positions); 2. Racization (definition of a group as a natural group and at the same time definition of the “nature” of this group) and 3. “Differentiating power” (a form of violent relationship, for example the power to dominate certain people, to subject them to special legislation or to deport them, etc.) ).
Only when these elements come together can one speak of racism meaningfully.
Terkessidis also points out that the aspect of “devaluation” does not always have to be present, but that the separation between “us” and “you” based on arbitrary characteristics can itself have a racist character. In this respect, he understands racism as an apparatus in which discriminatory practice and knowledge are constantly supported.
Criticism of the use of the term
Fredrickson notes that the term "racism" is often used imprecisely and without reflection "to describe the hostile or negative feelings of one 'people' or ethnic group towards another and the behavior resulting from that attitude" (Fredrickson, p. 9 ). At a workshop “New terms for the immigration society” in 2013, the participants in the “Racism” group agreed that cases of racism exist when people are discriminated against or persecuted on the basis of attributions. Racist thinking is based on the unchangeable affiliation of the person to a group that is assessed as inferior to the “own” group of the ascribing person.
Kurt Horstmann suggested not calling any discrimination against any group as racism, and considers it appropriate to dispense with the term “racism” in refugee research and instead use the terms “ xenophobia ”, “xenophobia”, “xenophobia” and to avoid the like.
Ancient Greece and Rome
The question of whether there was racism in ancient Greece and ancient Rome is answered differently. It has to be seen in connection with how the ancient Greeks used the term “ barbarians ” since Homer and Herodotus : This apparently only referred to language .
David Theo Goldberg , who regards the “concept of exclusion” as central to the investigation and differentiation of racist discrimination, denies racism because the Greeks did not categorically abhor the “barbarians” (see Homer , Herodotus , Aeschylus , Xenophon and others).
Even Yves Albert Dauge denies that there was in the Roman world racism. Although in ancient times feelings of superiority of a tribe or people over other groups and ethnic, religious or cultural stereotypes were widespread, there is no exact equivalent in the Greek or Latin language for the terms “race” or “racism”. For the same reason, Christopher Tuplin sees no reason to speak of racism in the Greek world; in his opinion, the discussion of racism should include a definition of race.
Authors such as Christian Delacampagne or Benjamin Isaac , Professor of Ancient History at Tel Aviv University , take a different view and emphasize that on the one hand ideological constructions analogous to the concept of race have existed and on the other hand, racism is basically culturally arguing anyway. Both refer extensively to Aristotle 's construction of the barbarian and a legitimation of slavery operated with it. Barbarians were said to be less human because they had only limited reason.
Benjamin Isaac uses for antiquity, in addition to "early racism" or "ancient racism", mainly the term "proto-racism", which was coined in the 1970s by the French Egyptologist Jean Yoyotte . He wants to express two things: Although there was a type of racism in antiquity, this was different from the classic racism that developed in the 18th and 19th centuries. But ancient racism is proto-racism, i.e. a precursor of racism, in that it - according to Isaac - influenced later racist thinking. For Isaac, racism is characterized by associating individuals or groups of people with unchanging physical or mental characteristics. These collective characteristics are predetermined for the racist, they cannot be changed, because they are either inherited or determined by climatic and geographical conditions. Some stereotypes were already used in antiquity to legitimize imperialist aggression against "inferior" peoples.
Furthermore, ancient elements of proto-racism have become fundamental building blocks of modern racism. They were conveyed to the founders of modern racist ideology through authors of the 18th century. The Greco-Roman antiquity did not know any theory of biological determinism, but it was found early on, at the latest from the 5th century BC. BC, the idea that people have appropriate characteristics depending on their geographic origin. According to this theory, people in the hot south are more intelligent, albeit more fearful and timid, than people in the cold north, who are inventive, impulsive, if reckless, due to the inhospitable landscape. Athens and later Rome saw themselves as the ideal middle between extremes, with the pleasant climate of Greece and Italy as an argument. According to Isaac, proto-racism exists on the one hand in these anthropogeographical ideas - on the other, Aristotle in particular (and others after him) took the view that certain people were born to be slaves. According to this view, there are people of a higher order and those of a lower order. According to Isaac, this distinction also testifies to proto-racism: The question to be considered is what are the explanations given in ancient literature for the presumed superiority or inferiority of specific groups. If these consist of theories regarding heredity or unalterable exterior influences, it is possible to speak of proto-racism.
According to Isaac, ancient (proto-) racism manifested itself particularly in the form of the so-called “climate theory”, which ascribes certain properties to different non-Greek peoples. It is reflected for the first time in the Hippocratic writing About the Environment (Latin De aeribus aquis locis ). With regard to the mythical people of the “macrocephalous”, which the author of De aeribus described, climatological proto-racism is mixed up with the idea that the corresponding characteristics can be inherited. However, this version of the theory remains ambiguous - certainly not least because of the limited knowledge of hereditary biology at the time. The climate theory in De aeribus is always associated with the theory of the inferiority of foreign peoples due to their political constitution (despotism). Whether politics and order ( nomos ) or human nature ( physis ) should be decisive for the image of the foreign cannot be answered precisely. Due to the sophistically shaped rhetoric, which aims to win over representatives of different theories as much as possible, the extent and the manner in which climate theory was applied was varied.
Phenotypes and character
Vincent Rosivach wrote that the (mostly) red and blonde hair of the Thracians and other peoples in northern Greece was often considered a hallmark of inferior people. Thracians formed an ethnically closed group of slaves in the Archaic Athens. They were bought under Solon. People with this phenotype appeared almost exclusively as slaves in Athens. Corresponding associations on the part of the Greek population were the result. In comedies, the characters of slaves were depicted exclusively with red hair. “Red” or “Blondschopf” were typical slave names.
With Plato there was a dichotomous view that dismissed everything unathenic as effeminate (or feminine), alien, cowardly, mendacious, without a point of view, primitive or decadent. In his Politeia he relates the three parts of the soul to the character traits assigned to the individual foreign peoples; He saw the Thracians and Scythians as warlike, Phoenicians and Egyptians as eager to earn a living. His student Aristotle gives the same examples of warlike peoples. The Thracians and Scythians, the two foreign peoples in the north, are therefore both named as warlike; Both call exclusively their own people as suitable for ruling or for the best rule.
Aristotle makes a simpler differentiation than Plato when he asserts a Europe-Asia divide among the non-Greek peoples, the Asia Minor are more "slavish". According to Aristotle, those who are naturally slavish are not clearly characterized by nature by physical appearance and distinctive features. Aristotle in particular ascribes the servile peculiarity to the barbarians because they lack the political structures that enable a community of the free and equal.
India, China and Japan
In Asia there are also forms of racial discrimination that go back a long way, which had class and culture-related bases and which functioned without a concept of race. The Chinese developed culturalist ideas of barbarians centuries before the Greeks. After they originally assumed that they could be civilized through contact with Chinese culture, they were ultimately compared with animals that are fundamentally culturally deficient. Frank Dikötter pointed out that there was a long-standing racist tradition of its own in the Chinese Empire , before people there came into contact with European racial ideas.
This also applies to India , where the caste scheme and untouchability were legitimized with the help of organic metaphors ( Purusha ) and prohibitions on mixing. This biologization of social differences was by no means unique. In the course of the racial typology imported by European imperialism and with the help of the Aryan myth based on it, it was subjected to a folkish interpretation, which claimed that the caste scheme was the product of light-skinned Aryan immigrants who had subjugated the dark-skinned indigenous population. Gail Omvedt writes: "Punjabi Brahmans and Punjabi Untouchables were ethnically the same, and Tamil Brahmans and Tamil Untouchables were not racially different." (For example: "The Brahmins of the Punjab and the untouchables of the Punjab were ethnically identical, and the Tamil Brahmins were different not in the race from the Tamil untouchables. ")
There were also socially based caste differences in Japan . Racist discrimination against the Buraku , a caste engaged in lowly and unclean activities, dates back to the 14th century. In addition to this inward-looking racism, there was also outward-looking racial discrimination against the Ainu . The term “race” borrowed from the Europeans was later applied to both the Buraku and the Ainu and, as Richard Siddle , Michael Weiner and others have shown, their discrimination based on caste thinking and cultural chauvinism was adopted.
The proto-racism of the European Middle Ages can be shown using various indicators. For one thing, it is the time of a contested picture of the African, for which Peter Martin has collected material that points to contradicting conceptions that vacillate between Wolfram von Eschenbach's beautiful, black Queen Belakane and the black, Muslim devils of the Roland song . Later, with the anti-Jewish pogroms during the First Crusade and the great plague, ideologies and practices of marginalization and annihilation emerged, which for Léon Poliakov and others belong to the history of anti-Semitism and racism. It can be countered, however, that the rejection of Jews (see anti-Judaism ) and Muslims was primarily articulated in a religious way.
Reconquista and Conquista
With the European discovery of America and the Alhambra Edict, the year 1492 is considered to be a symbol of a mixture and superimposition of different practical and ideological forms of racial discrimination.
Norman Roth and others have shown how anti-Semitism began to take on its modern form through the idea of "purity of blood" ( Spanish limpieza de sangre) in politics towards the Jews. With the question of blood purity and origin, research was carried out on allegedly Jewish blood up to a sixteenth - i.e. over four generations. It was even considered dangerous to let nurses from converted families breastfeed Christian children because their milk could allegedly be harmful.
First encounters of sailors from Spain in 1492 with the indigenous people of Arawak were peaceful. In his logbook, Christopher Columbus already saw them as future subjects or even as slaves . The conquest of America had two racist dimensions with the mass enslavement and genocide of the Indians, which according to Jared Diamond mainly occurred through infiltration of epidemics, and the subsequent "replacement" by kidnapping African slaves. In the dispute between Bartolomé de Las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda about the question of whether the indigenous population of later America were human beings and how they should be treated, the concept of the barbarian, coined by Aristotle, was used. On the other hand, due to the development of a diverse, mixed society, a caste system based on skin colors began to develop that knew numerous shades. Imanuel Geiss has documented one of the common subdivisions:
“Mestizo emerges from Spaniards and Indian women. Castize is made from Spaniards and mesticines. Castizo and Spaniard create Spaniards. A mulatto emerges from a Spaniard and a negress. Morisco emerges from Spaniards and mulattos. Albino is made from Spaniards and Morisca. Torna Atras is born from Spaniards and Albina. Lobo arises from Indian and negress. Coyote is made from Indians and mesticine. Chino is made from lobo and Indian woman. Cambuxo is made from chinos and negresses. Cambuxo and Indian woman create Tente en el aire. Albarasado emerges from Tente en el aire and Mulattin. Varsino is made from Albarasado and Indian woman. Campamulatte is made from Varsino and Cambuxa. "
Mestizo , painting 1780, Colección de Malu y Alejandra Escandón, Ciudad de México
Mulatto , painting c. 1780, Collección de Malu y Alejandra Escandon, Ciudad de México
Colin Tatz , Director of the Center for Comparative Genocide Studies in Sydney, explains in this context that this so-called racism without races is not a new, but an old concept. The concept of race was not yet available to the European colonial rulers in America. To legitimize their actions, they used the traditional culturalist notion of barbarians as inferior people.
In the course of the colonization of America , further racist aspects came to the fore: as a conquest with marginal consequences for the Indians, as transatlantic slavery and as a power struggle for participation in a postulated white supremacy.
The European colonization of America from the 16th century onwards was accompanied by mass slavery and the Atlantic slave trade , through which Africans were abducted to all parts of North, Central and South America and used as cheap labor: in British, Dutch, French and Spanish colonies (later USA, Brazil and the European colonies in the Caribbean ).
Slavery was also a phenomenon among the Indians of North America , but not in general. At first, like the Europeans, they used traditional ideas about those who were defeated in wars to legitimize their actions, and the governors of the colonies tried to stir up an aversion between Indians and blacks in order to prevent cooperation or collusion. While z. B. the Seminoles gave refuge to escaped Afro-American slaves ( Black Seminoles ), the Cherokee , for example, after their attempted adaptation to the society of European immigrants (see Five Civilized Tribes ), also introduced slavery and practiced it with similar severity as the European and US -american slave owners.
Transatlantic slavery was a system that (as Orlando Patterson put it) aimed at the "social death" of slaves in addition to its economic calculation. According to his analysis, the essence of racial discrimination lies in the destruction of the social and cultural identity of those who are or will be subjected to it. Estimates of the number of people affected vary between 11 million and 15 million. The most important European-influenced operators of this policy in the 18th century (according to figures given by Albert Wirz): “1. England with a share of 41.3%, 2nd Portugal (29.3%), 3rd France (19.2%), 4th Holland (5.7%), 5th Brit. North America / USA (3.2%), 6. Denmark (1.2%), 7. Sweden and Brandenburg (0.1%). "
From the 17th century, the possession of slaves developed alongside land ownership to a central status feature. In the USA, the slave question increasingly divided the southern and northern states. Industrialization set in in the northern states and the number of slaves slowly declined, while the owners of the vast rice and cotton plantations in the southern states continued to practice slavery on an increasing scale. In the much-noticed preamble to the Declaration of Independence , Thomas Jefferson declared life, freedom and the pursuit of happiness to be an inalienable human right. Slavery came under pressure to justify itself (although it was not directly addressed there).
Initially, slavery was defended mainly on religious and philosophical grounds; later advocates mostly used "scientific" justifications. For example, assumed biological differences such as a different blood color or the allegedly smaller brains of blacks were taken as evidence (s) for the inferiority of the black “race”. Statistical and psychological arguments were also used, such as: B. the claim that mental illness is much rarer among slaves than among free blacks. " Drapetomania " (the desire to run away) was invented as a psychiatric diagnosis. Such racism ( scientific racism ), which allegedly draws on findings from the natural and social sciences to justify and justify racist practices, increased significantly after the abolition of slavery.
Racism developed differently, the movement to abolish slavery (see abolitionism ) was more popular in the northern states than in the southern states. Even after the formal abolition of slavery under Abraham Lincoln , problems of racism persisted, and until the 20th century some historians argued that slavery was necessary for blacks to civilize them.
In the 17th century, racism was barely widespread among white servants doing similar work in the colonies. Historian Kenneth M. Stampp, author of several standard works on slavery history, generally judged black and white workers to be "remarkably uninterested in the visible differences." This caused discomfort among the owners and it was used as a countermeasure e.g. For example, Virginia passed a law forbidding marriages between whites and blacks or Indians in 1691. Sometimes the white workers also helped the black slaves with resistance actions. From the 18th century onwards, with the growth of racial slavery and the installation of white workers as their paid overseers, racism increased and white servant rebellions decreased.
The system of white supremacy took on different forms in America, each of which set whiteness as the central norm for participation in political rights and opportunities for social development. In Brazil it was reflected, among other things, in the politics of branqueamento , with which the “white” Brazilians improve the “Brazilian race” and through the addition of “white blood” imported with the help of European immigrants, the “black element” in the Brazilian population wanted to disappear by 2012. Brazil is also considered an extreme example of the “social construction” of race, where a direct assignment of skin color and social success is the case (to this day) and where a person's social advancement is also reflected in the classification into a “whiter” color class .
In the USA, white supremacy was not only expressed in the politics of racial segregation, but also expressed itself as a suspicion of insufficient “whiteness” towards various European immigrant groups. Karen Brodkin described for the Jews and Noel Ignatiev for the Irish how they were able to “turn white” in lengthy and painful processes or how they could become part of the local leadership. Americans of Irish descent would have achieved their “whites” in the first place in a racist qualification process, that is, through sometimes violent and hateful dissociation movements from other minorities.
Conversely, the anthropologist John Ogbu put forward the controversial thesis of "acting white" (acting white or acting), according to which the black minority (former slaves) in the USA show an internal cohesion that is described as box-like and thus prevent blacks themselves from advancing.
In the age of imperialism , Leopold of Belgium had a reign of terror ( Congo horror ) established in the Congo . In Australia , the racism of the labor movement led to the establishment of an exclusive “white” state under the motto “ White Australia ”. In East Asia, the European model fell on fertile ground and Japan presented itself as the hope of the non-white races. in the USA the ideology of manifest destiny was transferred to imperial politics and presented as a civilization mission.
British rule in India is differentiated in that the local forms of rule were retained for a long time. From the 18th to the middle of the 19th century it was not particularly noticeable when British soldiers and employees of the East India Company married Indian women. The children they shared and the communities established in this way were then called Eurasians. It was only with the increased migration of British and European women and after the sepoy uprising that the Anglo-Indians were more separated and avoided by the British and the Indians, and they still play a special role as Anglo- Indians up to the present day .
Yamato breed in Japan
The modernization of the Meiji period in Japan also led to the development of imperialist ambitions, which were implemented in the First Sino -Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War , among others . Under the slogan “Asia for Asians!”, An ideological reversal of the European-American stereotype of the “ yellow danger ” was used and the Asian community of states warned of the “white danger”. On the other hand, their own aggressive and expansionist colonial policy was legitimized with racist paternalism. According to this, the Asian population should be composed of the "five races" of the Japanese , Chinese, Koreans , Manchu and Mongols , of which the Japanese " Yamato race" would be the most developed and most progressive and therefore called to enlighten the others, culturally and to perfect morally and above all to lead. To this day, according to Jared Diamond , studies in Japan that show that there is a certain probability that the Japanese themselves mainly descended from Korean immigrants have not been accepted without resistance.
When Japan's proposal for a declaration on racial equality, which was introduced at the Versailles peace negotiations , was rejected despite the majority approval, the latter stepped up its imperialist efforts in the Pacific region. The escalating contradictions between the Japanese ambitions and the ambitions of England and the United States eventually led to the “racial war” military conflict described by John Dower, Gerald Horne and others.
Historically, there has always been discrimination against the Buraku in Japan . Even today, many people from the Buraku minority in Japan are discriminated against. Although they do not differ noticeably from other Japanese in religion, customs or appearance, they were considered a separate breed. Some of them were even referred to as Hinin (非人, "non-human"). They had to live in certain localities, their children were not allowed to attend normal schools and they were only allowed to work in jobs that were considered unclean, such as the grave digger. In 1871 the Buraku were legally equated with the other Japanese. The Buraku still struggle with discrimination today. Since the family name can also provide information about the origin, the descendants of the Burakumin have been allowed to change their names for several years.
German Confederation (1815-1870)
From 1884 Germany participated in imperialism and colonialism with the acquisition of the German colonies and protected areas . In Germany, too, the alleged superiority of Northern Europeans was invoked.
The economically and militarily strengthened Germany devoted itself increasingly to world politics. Anti-Semitism and anti- Slavism grew under the influence of the Pan-German Movement and Völkisch Movement , which emerged around the turn of the century . The idea of living in the east at the expense of “inferior” peoples was born.
Since the partitions of Poland , numerous Poles lived in the German Empire. From 1880 the German Empire in divided Poland pursued a more stringent Germanization policy . According to Bismarck , the creation of the “Prussian Settlement Commission” meant that German resettlers should create a “living wall against the Slavic flood”. In the course of industrialization, the East Elbe landowners deployed many Polish workers who were viewed and discriminated against as inferior Slavs. The Ruhr Poles, which were active in the mining industry, were considered to be “wage pushers and people who smuggled diseases” and were subject to communal Poland surveillance offices.
In 1899 the “ Reich Central Office for Combating the Gypsies ”, or “Zigeunerzentrale” for short, was founded in Munich for the police registration of “ Gypsies ” and “people wandering like Gypsies”. This group of people was systematically discriminated against and criminalized by special laws. All gypsies were successively registered independently of criminal offenses.
In 1900 there was a Boxer revolt against the colonial powers in China . These suppressed the uprising with German participation in a brutal manner of warfare against the civilian population. The "punitive expeditions" carried out by the German expeditionary corps from September 1900 onwards were guided in a special way by a racist idea of revenge.
Kaiser Wilhelm II had told the German soldiers that they should let the name Germany become known in China in such a way "that a Chinese never again dares to look at a German even scornfully." In retrospect, this so-called “ Huns' speech ” is received as a brutal expression of “a socially Darwinist- charged militarism”. The sinologist Klaus Mühlhahn discovered numerous religious expressions in Wilhelm's speech, which led him to interpret the Boxer War primarily as a religious war .
The Herero and Nama uprising in German South West Africa led to the genocide of the Herero and Nama in 1904 . In the Shark Island concentration camp ( Shark Island ), individual medical experiments were carried out on inmates. Corpse preparations from prisoners were also sent to Germany for racial research. The German literature of the time indulged in racist fantasies and demanded short shrift with the "black crowd".
From 1905 onwards, the "civil marriage between whites and natives" was banned in the colonies, and extramarital sexual relationships were outlawed by society in order to prevent the "sale". In 1912 there was a mixed debate in the German Reichstag . The bans were the colonies to the loss of World War I on.
During the First World War, hundreds of thousands of Africans, Indians and members of other nations fought in the service of their colonial powers England (e.g. Gurkha ) and France (e.g. Tirailleurs sénégalais ) on the Western European theater of war. During the war years from 1914 to 1918, these African and Asian soldiers were portrayed in the German press as particularly bestial and lustful fighters.
Because of the growing anti-Semitism in the officers' corps, combined with the accusation of shirking the Jews, the census of Jews in the German Army was ordered in 1916 .
Weimar Republic (1918–1933)
In the Weimar Republic - as in Austria - the Jews were portrayed as devious war profiteers in the stab- in-the-back legend , and Jewish war graves were desecrated. As a counter-reaction, the Reich Association of Jewish Front-Line Soldiers was founded. Right-wing extremists and ethnic groups openly called for the murder of exposed Jewish politicians such as B. the Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau and there were numerous acts of violence.
In 1920 the National Socialist German Workers' Party announced its 25-point program , which was anti-Semitic in points 4 to 8. The German fraternity as the umbrella organization of the German and Austrian fraternities decided in Eisenach to introduce the racial standpoint so that only German students of Aryan descent should be admitted.
The agitation against the occupation of the Rhineland was not only permeated by "racist accompanying music" in the battle papers of the extreme right-wing parties or political groups. The French occupation troops, some of them from Africa, provided the occasion . The children of some black soldiers and German women born during this period were instrumentalized as black disgrace and in some cases as a "danger to German racial purity". The children affected were later recorded as so-called "Rhineland bastards" by the Nazi authorities and illegally forcibly sterilized.
The new genres of music such as swing and jazz were viewed by many people, especially from the völkisch movement, as un-German and “ negro music” and there were frequent disruptions in music events such as the opera Jonny plays . In 1930 the Thuringian minister of education and the interior, the National Socialist Wilhelm Frick , published a decree against the Negro culture for German nationality.
National Socialism (1933–1945)
Racism was part of the ideology of National Socialism . According to the so-called "racial science", Nazi research postulated the existence of superior and inferior human races. According to this, all of humanity could be divided into three racial groups:
- culture-creating races (the Nordic-Aryan race), the so-called master race
- culture-bearing races (e.g. Asian and African races)
- culture-destroying races (e.g. the Semitic race)
Jews were assigned to the Semitic race (cf. Nuremberg Race Laws ). High-quality people could only come from the first group of culture-creating races. Sexual contact between members of the “high” and “inferior” races has been termed “ racial disgrace ”. Certain groups defined by the National Socialists, which, like Jews or Gypsies, were assigned to group 3, they assumed that they wanted to “decompose the master race” and therefore had to be destroyed to protect the “ national community ”. The Slavs were also considered " subhumans " and were included in group 3.
In addition to Adolf Hitler himself ( Mein Kampf ), the theoretical, pseudo-scientific and pseudo-legal foundations were primarily provided by Nazi ideologues Alfred Rosenberg and Hans FK Günther , Minister of Justice Otto Georg Thierack , President of the People's Court and Judge Roland Freisler and a few others, in numerous publications. However, it should be noted that her thoughts were mostly based on older racist theories and that racism was relatively widespread throughout Europe until 1933. What was new about Nazi racism was that the freedom of science was made subject to political reservations. Among the numerous race theorists of the 19th and early 20th centuries had the French Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882) with the attempt on the inequality of human races and the British-German writer Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) with the foundations of the nineteenth Century had the strongest influence on the National Socialist racial ideology. Chamberlain's admirers included Kaiser Wilhelm II , Rosenberg and Hitler, who Chamberlain met in Bayreuth in 1923.
The victims of Nazi racism were persecuted, forcibly sterilized , deported and murdered during the National Socialist era . The entire health care , social policy and population policy were "racial" aspects into line , which also determined the admissibility of marriages. This program also included ancestral passes . The Aryan certificate to be carried out on the basis of these ancestral passports or the "Great Aryan certificate" was a condition for a career with the SS . Nazi agencies used entries on births in old church registers (they could be used to verify family trees ); the parishes of parishes provided them with this information.
Western zones of occupation and the Federal Republic of Germany (since 1945)
In 1946, the Reich Central Office for combating the Gypsy plague was restored as a "Landfahrerstelle" in the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office . The rural driver position was dissolved in 1970 because of the violation of the constitution.
In 1956, the Federal Court of Justice refused to pay compensation to a “mixed race gypsy” for his forced resettlement in 1940. The exclusion and resettlement policy of the “Gypsies” pursued by the National Socialists was not “racially” motivated, but a “common police preventive measure” at the time to “fight the Gypsy plague”. In 2015, judges of the BGH distanced themselves from the judgment practice of their predecessors, many of whom had already been active as judges before 1945.
In 1950 the Council of Europe adopted the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ( European Convention on Human Rights ) . The contracting states agreed on a ban on discrimination based on race, skin color, language and religion (Articles 14 and 12 of Protocol).
The Federal Republic of Germany joined the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), a United Nations human rights treaty that came into force in 1969. It is directed against all racial discrimination based on race, skin color, origin, national and ethnic origin.
In the 1990s there were racially motivated pogroms and attacks in the Federal Republic of Germany and increasingly in the new federal states . The most sensational were the assassination attempt in Mölln , the assassination attempt in Solingen , the riots in Rostock-Lichtenhagen , the riots in Hoyerswerda , the hunt in Guben , the assassination attempt on the Angolan Amadeu Antonio Kiowa and the Magdeburg ascension riots . Many of these riots and murders were committed by teenagers or young adults belonging to the so - called neo - Nazi scene. Damage to property, for example directed against Jewish cemeteries or visible as racist graffiti, was no exception.
Incidents with a racist background had only rarely been publicly noticed in West Germany , such as the suicide of eleven-year-old Tadesse Söhl in 1981, whose motives only came to public discussion in the 1990s as a result of literary and cinematic processing.
According to a report by the Federal Agency for Political Education on racist prejudice, written by Werner Bergmann, there were more than 100 fatalities from right-wing extremist violence in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1990 to 2003 . The report mentions that in the past the Council of Europe and the United Nations have criticized the German police's actions against foreigners on several occasions. According to a 2003 report by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), “blacks” as an “outwardly recognizable minority” in Germany are particularly affected by racism. In its report on 2005, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution lists a total of 355 offenses with xenophobic and 49 offenses with anti-Semitic motives.
In the years 2000 to 2006, the right-wing terrorist National Socialist Underground (NSU) probably committed numerous ethnic and racist murders and bomb attacks. Twelve parliamentary committees of inquiry and one court process have since attempted to clear up the numerous investigative errors that went along with it.
Based on the partially racist migration debate triggered by Thilo Sarrazin with derogatory statements about Turks and Arabs in 2009 (interview in Lettre International ) and 2010 ( Germany abolishes itself ), the ICERD complaint of the United Nations and the 5th ECRI- Audit report of the Council of Europe on the inadequate protection against discrimination and hate speech in Germany. The federal government promised an investigation.
The head of the network " School without Racism - School with Courage ", Sanem Kleff , stated in an interview in mid-March 2018 that although the corresponding numbers in connection with the exercise of physical violence were falling, verbal attacks at German schools were increasing massively.
In his study published in 2015, the social scientist Johannes Zuber came to the conclusion that current racism in Germany is not a marginal phenomenon, as politicians and social elites predominantly claim, but is again part of everyday life in German society. The biological-racist ideology remains the theoretical center of derogatory, marginalizing and discriminatory practices and behavior. From today's perspective, the deep roots of the biological-racist as well as partially National Socialist and eugenic theorems in German society seem frightening.
Immediately after the annexation of Austria to the Nazi state , pogrom-like riots against Jews and their property occurred in the weeks after March 12, 1938. With the support of the NSBO and National Socialist SME organizations, a real Aryanization race began. Thousands of Austrian National Socialists and their followers took up residence as temporary administrators in Jewish shops and factories and confiscated the property of Jewish citizens against illegible receipts.
General Present Appearances
In the German-speaking countries it is often assumed to this day that racism is primarily present in the form of xenophobia (from Greek: xenos foreign, guest / phóbos fear). There is a relationship between racism and xenophobia, but racism and xenophobia cannot simply be equated. In the racist German National Socialism, native “non-Aryans” (Jews) were treated much worse than foreign “Aryans” (for example Scandinavians and other North and West Europeans). On the other hand, it is assumed that xenophobia does not know any racial terms, but rather promotes ethnopluralism. It is also assumed that people who think racially are often not aware that they think racially, which at the same time implies that they do not associate their perceptions with the term “race”. The term xenophobia (fear of the stranger) is therefore often used instead of “racism”.
This general assumption is supported by studies in Switzerland , where, based on a study by the Federal Commission against Racism, it can be assumed that racism in the narrower sense is much more widespread in Switzerland than originally assumed. Despite assimilation, integration and naturalization, blacks are socially marginalized even after decades and are rejected in applications, sometimes even with clear naming of skin color as a derogatory factor.
In racism research, for example, it is increasingly pointed out that racism is not an individual problem, but that racist knowledge is determined by social discourse. According to Arndt, racism is "linked to social conditions that are very resilient and resistant, maybe even irreparable." This means that racism is "(not) an individual problem" and therefore "cannot be dealt with individually". This also includes "making oneself aware that the omnipresence of racism in the past and present has grown socio-political identities - that the core of racism is the construction and hierarchization of blacks and whites ." Arndt describes the social aspects of these constructions: “In the socialization shaped by racism, these constructs were conveyed and global power and domination relationships were based. A reality of sociopolitical identities was created. We are not born black or white , but made them. This makes it necessary to perceive and represent black and white experiences and perspectives. Where this is ignored, racism cannot be overcome. "
Since the 1990s there has also been a change of perspective in science. Thus - as in critical whiteness research - the objects of research are not primarily the objects of racism, but the structures that make racism possible.
The United Nation's Special Adviser on Genocide Prevention announced in early 2013 that the global risk of religious and ethnic violence may be higher than ever before, citing tensions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo , Iraq , Kyrgyzstan , Mali , Myanmar , Pakistan , Sudan and Syria as examples.
Racism in football
Causes of Racial Thinking
There have always been different ideas about the causes of racist thinking . According to rationalist theories , classical racism emerged in the 18th century. Leading theorists of the western world (like Immanuel Kant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ) tried to explain the racial differences scientifically. They assumed that the human races show not only biological (predominantly physical) differences, but also fixed and unchangeable characteristics in terms of their mentality and character. Later, modern biology and genetics in the wake of Charles Darwin seemed to provide clues. Other representatives of the Enlightenment, such as Johann Gottfried Herder , distanced themselves clearly from the division of people into races. Herder wrote:
“I see no reason for this naming. Race leads to a difference in descent, which here either does not take place at all, or in each of these world lines includes the most diverse races under each of these colors. [...] In short, there are neither four or five races, nor exclusive varieties on earth. "
After 1945, open racism in science receded.
Psychologically oriented theories see the causes of racist thinking primarily in psychologically justified tendencies to demarcate one's own group and outgroups , which serve to strengthen the sense of identity and self-worth and are usually associated with stereotypical prejudices and clichés about “others” and “strangers”.
The projection of one's own psychological components onto the other group is of particular importance as a means of overcoming one's own internal conflicts (see defense mechanism ). The psychoanalyst Julia Kristeva sees the defense of the alien as a defense against projected unconscious, fear-inducing aspects of one's own, in which all those components of the alien trigger fear that cannot be integrated into one's own “symbolic household”.
“The stranger, figure of hatred and the other, is neither the romantic victim of our domestic comfort nor the intruder who is responsible for all the evils of the community. [...] The stranger is in us in a strange way. "
She advocates admitting and accepting the nonintegrability of the stranger and advocates getting along with him beyond traditional strategies such as leveling, marginalization, extinction, exaggeration or humiliation.
Approaches based on group psychology, such as the theory of social identity according to Henri Tajfel, point to the relevance of belonging to certain social groups for the self-image of an individual. According to him, a group is constituted to distinguish itself from other groups, with certain distinguishing features being emphasized in a stereotyping and sometimes pejorative way.
Sociologically oriented theories (see under Conceptual Dimensions ), racism is an ideology that serves to enhance one's own group and stabilize one's self-esteem and in this sense devalues and excludes other people.
Racism must be differentiated from forms of cultural or religious intolerance which, on the basis of the same psychological mechanisms, also lead to rejection and oppression of other groups of people. In contrast to racism, the difference to one's own group in these cases is not viewed as hereditary and unchangeable. Integration of different population groups is fundamentally possible through religious conversion or the adoption of a different cultural identity.
Peter Schmitt-Egner criticizes both social-psychological and economic-functionalist explanations of racism. On the basis of Karl Marx's theory of value , Schmitt-Egner intends instead to “prove racism as a socially necessary semblance of bourgeois society, ie. H. to develop how in the contradictions of the economic form the objective possibility of racism is hidden. "
Preventing and Combating Racism
At the international level, several organizations are working to prevent and combat racism. At the level of the Council of Europe, ECRI and at the level of the UN, CERD carries out regular monitoring of the member states with regard to racism. In their country monitoring reports, both commissions send recommendations to the authorities of the member states on preventing and combating racism.
On this basis, the 47 member states of the Council of Europe have enacted rules in the penal codes to punish so-called hate crimes. Hate crime includes all racially motivated crimes, e.g. B. Genocide and other racially motivated crimes against humanity and war crimes, racially motivated murder, assault and arson, sedition, racially motivated libel, defamation and threats, and the denial of genocide. The OSCE collects statistics on racially motivated crimes in its member states.
Almost all member states of the Council of Europe have also passed an anti-discrimination law which, among other things, a. prohibits racial discrimination. The 28 EU states have also committed to enacting such laws in the EU equality directives. Germany has passed the so-called General Equal Treatment Act.
Almost all member states of the Council of Europe have also set up one or more national equality bodies or anti-discrimination bodies, whose task it is to prevent racial discrimination at national, regional and local level and to contribute to the fight against racism. In Germany this is the federal anti-discrimination agency at the federal level .
With its 16 general policy recommendations and CERD with its 35 general recommendations, ECRI helps member states and equality authorities with specific recommendations in their work.
International Day and Weeks Against Racism
The “International Weeks Against Racism” organized by the Foundation for the International Weeks Against Racism took place from March 12th to 25th in 2018 ( see also Foundation against Racism and Anti-Semitism ).
March 21, 1966 was declared International Day Against Racism by the United Nations . The occasion was the Sharpeville massacre in Sharpeville , South Africa in 1960 , which left 69 dead. Six years after that summed up the UN General Assembly the resolution 2142 (XXI) that the "elimination of all forms of racial discrimination" prompts.
- May 19, 2018 to January 6, 2019, Deutsches Hygiene-Museum Dresden: Racism - the invention of human races .
Monographs and edited volumes
- Étienne Balibar : race, class, nation. Ambivalent identities . Argument, Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-88619-386-1 (together with Immanuel Wallerstein ).
- Martin Barker : The New Racism . Junction Books, London 1981, ISBN 0-86245-038-1 .
- Heidi Beutin et al .: Racial ideology. Her career in the German-speaking countries since 1815 and her academic dissolution in the present . Ossietzky Verlag, 29413 Dehre 2015, ISBN 978-3-944545-06-6 .
- Frank Böckelmann : The yellow, the black, the white. Eichhorn, Frankfurt 1999, ISBN 3-8218-4475-2 .
- Ljubomir Bratić : Political Anti-Racism , Self-Organization, Historicization as Strategy and Discursive Interventions, Vienna: Löcker 2010, ISBN 978-3-85409-533-0 , 239 pages
- María do Mar Castro Varela, Paul Mecheril (ed.): The demonization of others. Criticism of racism in the present (= X texts on culture and society), transcript, Bielefeld 2016, ISBN 978-3-8394-3638-7 .
- Luca Cavalli-Sforza , Francesco Cavalli-Sforza: Different and yet the same. A geneticist removes the basis of racism . Droemer Knaur, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-426-77242-6 .
- Margrit Bensch: Racism as a cultural development theory. Forms of Biological Thought in Social Darwinism . Dissertation, Technical University of Berlin 2008.
- Alex Demirovic (ed.): Conjunctions of racism . Westphalian steam boat, Münster 2002, ISBN 3-89691-516-9 .
- Frantz Fanon : Black skin, white masks . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1986, ISBN 3-518-37686-1 .
- Michael G. Hanchard: The Specter of Race: How Discrimination Haunts Western Democracy. Princeton University Press, Princeton 2018, ISBN 978-1-4008-8957-0 .
- Alice Hasters: What white people don't want to hear about racism but should know . Hanser, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3446264250 .
- Wulf D. Hund : Racism. The social construction of natural inequality . Westphalian steam boat, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-89691-453-7 .
- Siegfried Jäger , Jürgen Link (Ed.): The fourth power. Racism and the Media . DISS-Verlag, Duisburg 1993, ISBN 3-927388-36-X .
- Claus Melter, Paul Mecheril (ed.): Criticism of racism . Volume 1: Racism Theory and Research. Wochenschau Verlag, Schwalbach / Ts. 2009. 2nd edition 2011 (= Politics and Education 47), ISBN 978-3-89974-367-8 .
- Albert Memmi : Racism . Athenaeum, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-445-04872-X .
- Robert Miles : Racism. Introduction to the history and theory of a term . Argument, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-88619-389-6 .
- Kurt Möller / Florian Neuscheler (eds.): “Who wants to have them here?”. Rejection attitudes and discrimination in Germany. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-17-032799-3 .
- Paul Jobst : The "animal" construct and the birth of racism. On the cultural presence of a damning argument . Unrast, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-89771-731-X .
- Nora Räthzel: Theories about racism , argument, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-88619-258-X .
- Thomas Schirrmacher : Racism. Old prejudices and new insights . SCM Hänssler, Holzgerlingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-7751-4999-0 .
- Mark Terkessidis: Psychology of Racism . Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1998, ISBN 3-531-13040-4 .
- Bernd Winter: Dangerously foreign. Germany and its immigration . Lambertus, Freiburg 2004, ISBN 3-7841-1543-8 .
- Wolfgang Wippermann : Racial madness and belief in the devil . Frank & Timme, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-86596-007-3 .
- Charles Rojzman & Ralf Mansour-Agather (transl.): The hatred, the fear and the democracy. Introduction to Social Therapy of Racism. From the Franz. - AG Spak & Regenbogen Bayern, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-930830-05-1 .
On the history of racism
- Michelle Alexander : The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness , Ingram Publishers Services 2020, ISBN 978-1-62097-545-9
- Boris Barth : Racism . In: European History Online , ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2011. urn : nbn: de: 0159-2010092160
- Christian Delacampagne : The History of Racism . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2005, ISBN 3-538-07206-X .
- Oliver Demny: Racism in the USA. History and analysis of a race construction . Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2001, ISBN 3-89771-007-2 .
- George M. Fredrickson : Racism. A historical outline . Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 . Reclam 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-018839-2 .
- Imanuel Geiss : History of Racism . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-518-11530-8 .
- Christian Geulen : History of Racism . CH Beck, Munich 2007. 2nd edition 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-53624-3 , 3rd edition reviewed 2017, ISBN 978-3-406-67796-0 .
- Peter Glanninger: Racism and right-wing extremism. Racist argumentation patterns and their historical lines of development . (Human and society. Series of publications for social medicine, social psychiatry and medical anthropology, Volume 16) Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-57501-7 .
- Wulf D. Hund , Christian Koller , Moshe Zimmermann (eds.): Racisms made in Germany (= Yearbook Racism Analysis, Volume 2). Berlin etc .: Lit-Verlag 2011.
- Christian Koller : Racism . Stuttgart: UTB 2009, ISBN 978-3-8252-3246-7 .
- Christian Koller : Metamorphoses of Modern Racism , in: Learning from History: Racism as Ideology in Past and Present , September 17, 2014.
- Peter Martin: Black devils, noble Moors. Africans in the consciousness and history of the Germans . Junius, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-930908-64-6 .
- George L. Mosse : The History of Racism in Europe . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-596-16770-1 .
- Rosa A. Plumelle-Uribe: White barbarism. From colonial racism to the racial politics of the Nazis . Rotpunktverlag, Zurich 2004, ISBN 3-85869-273-5 .
- Léon Poliakov : History of anti-Semitism in 8 volumes , Heintz, Worms (volumes 1 to 6) and: Athenaeum, Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main (from volume 7, 1988):
- From ancient times to the crusades. 1977, ISBN 3-921333-99-7 .
- The age of demonization and the ghetto . 1978, ISBN 3-921333-96-2 .
- Religious and Social Tolerance under Islam . 1979, ISBN 3-921333-93-8 .
- The Marranos in the shadow of the Inquisition . 1981, ISBN 3-921333-98-9 .
- The Enlightenment and its anti-Jewish tendency . 1983, ISBN 3-921333-88-1 .
- Emancipation and racial madness. 1987, ISBN 3-921333-86-5 .
- Between assimilation and “Jewish world conspiracy”. 1988, ISBN 3-610-00417-7 .
- On the eve of the Holocaust . 1988, ISBN 3-610-00418-5 .
- Léon Poliakov, Christian Delacampagne, Patrick Girard: Racism. About xenophobia and racial madness , Luchterhand-Literaturverlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-630-71061-1 .
- Léon Poliakov : The Aryan Myth. On the sources of racism and nationalism , Junius Verlag, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-88506-220-8 .
- Karin Priester : Racism. A social story . Reclam, Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-379-20076-X .
- Hering Torres, Max Sebastián: Racism in the premodern. The “purity of blood” in Spain in the early modern period , Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-593-38204-0 .
- Walter Demel: How the Chinese turned yellow. A contribution to the early history of racial theories . In: Historische Zeitschrift , 255 1992.
- Fatima El-Tayeb: Germany post-migrant? Racism, foreignness and the middle of society . In: From Politics and Contemporary History 14–15 / 2016. April 4, 2016. pp. 15–21 ( online )
- Gábor Paál: Racism or the fear of the stranger. In: Clas, Detlef & Paal, G .: Foreign Home - Migration Worldwide . Filderstadt 2007, ISBN 3-935129-35-1 .
- Pierre-André Taguieff : Le neo-racisme différentialiste . In: Langage et Société . 34 (1985)
- Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR High Commissioner for Human Rights ): ohchr.org (English)
- World Conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (WCAR), Durban , 2001: un.org (English)
Council of Europe
- European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), (English)
- Anti-Racism Information Center North Rhine-Westphalia e. V. (ARIC-NRW): aric-nrw.de
- Birgit Rommelspacher , comlink.de: Racism and right-wing extremism - The dispute about the causes
- christinemorgenstern.de: Theory, history and present of racism
- Albert Memmi , dir-info.de: definition of racism
- Ulrich Kattmann , shoa.de: Racism, biology and race theory
- German UNESCO Commission , 1978, unesco.de: Declaration on “Races” and racial prejudice
- Association for Human Rights (VRM): Menschenrechte.li (Independent National Human Rights Institution)
- Liechtenstein-Institut , liechtenstein-institut.li: Extremism in Liechtenstein (annual monitoring )
- afrika-wien.at: Africans in Vienna: between mystification and demonization
- Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs , bmeia.gv.at: Fight against racism, xenophobia and discrimination
- Federal Ministry of Economics and Labor , 2008, Irmtraud Voglmayr, uibk.ac.at: Guidelines for a non-discriminatory use of language (PDF; 1.6 MB)
- Association for civil courage and anti-racism work , zara.or.at ( including advice center for victims and witnesses of racism; annual report on racist attacks and structures in Austria)
- Federal Commission against Racism : ekr-cfr.ch
- Foundation against Racism and Anti-Semitism : gra.ch (e.g. chronology of racist incidents in Switzerland from 1992, campaigns)
- Swiss Competence Center for Human Rights (SKMR): skmr.ch
Notes and individual references
- UNESCO, Declaration on Races and Racial Prejudice, November 27, 1978
- Die Zeit : Lexicon in 20 volumes , Zeitverlag, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-411-17560-5 (complete works), Volume 12, p. 89; Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus AG, February 27, 2007.
- Lexikon der Politik, Ed. Dieter Nohlen, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-36904-9 : Volume 1. Political Theories, p. 497.
- Imanuel Geiss : History of racism. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-518-11530-8 .
- See e.g. B. Albrecht Dihle : The Greeks and the foreigners. CH Beck 1994, ISBN 3-406-38168-5 .
- George M. Fredrickson: Racism - A historical outline . Hamburger Edition, 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 .
- Léon Poliakov / Christian Delacampagne / Patrick Girard: Rassismus. About xenophobia and racial madness. Luchterhand-Literaturverlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-630-71061-1 , p. 59.
- Christina von Braun : Blood as a metaphor in religion and art , from p. 5.
- George M. Fredrickson: Rassismus - Ein historical Abriss , Hamburger Edition, 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 , p. 38 f.
- Lexikon der Politik, Ed. Dieter Nohlen, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-36904-9 : Volume 1. Political Theories, p. 498.
- Manfred Kappeler: Racism: on the genesis of a European form of consciousness, publishing house for intercultural communication . Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-88939-118-4 , p. 36.
- Christian J. Jäggi: Racism - A global problem . Orell Füssli, Zurich 1992, ISBN 3-280-02121-9 , p. 32.
- Christian Delacampagne: The history of racism . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2005, ISBN 3-538-07206-X , p. 141.
- Voltaire: "The race of the neighbors is une espèce d'hommes différente de la nôtre comme la race des épagneuls l'est des levriers [...]. On peut dire que si leur intelligence n'est pas d'une autre espèce que notre entendement, elle est très inférieure. »From Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des Nations (1755) La Négrophobie de Voltaire
- Also to be found in: Léon Poliakov / Christian Delacampagne / Patrick Girard, Rassismus. About xenophobia and racial madness , Luchterhand-Literaturverlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-630-71061-1 , p. 77.
- Noah began, and became a farmer, and planted vineyards. And as he was drinking of the wine, he was drunk and lay uncovered in the tent. When Ham, Canaan's father, saw his father's nakedness, he told his brothers outside. So Shem and Japheth took a garment and placed it on both of their shoulders, and went backwards and covered their father's nakedness; and their faces were turned away, so that they could not see their father's nakedness. When Noah woke up from his wine and learned what his youngest son had done to him, he said, Cursed be Canaan, and be a servant of all servants among his brethren. And he said further, Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem, and Canaan be his servant. God spread Japheth out and make him dwell in the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be his servant. (Moses 9: 20-27.)
- Human . In: Lexicon of Biology . Volume 9. Spectrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2002, ISBN 3-8274-0334-0 , p. 176
- in Volume 1, p. 20; it is the first animal species that Linnaeus has listed in this work.
- Léon Poliakov, Christian Delacampagne, Patrick Girard: Rassismus. About xenophobia and racial madness . Luchterhand-Literaturverlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-630-71061-1 , pp. 20, 21.
- Léon Poliakov: The Aryan Myth. On the sources of racism and nationalism . Hamburg 1992, from p. 269. Imanuel Geiss: History of racism . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1993, pp. 168-169. George L. Mosse: The History of Racism in Europe . Frankfurt am Main 1990, from p. 76. Léon Poliakov u. a., racism. On xenophobia and racial madness, Hamburg 1992, from p. 98.
- Uncommented text selection from The Downfall of the Best. Gobineau's attempt at a race theory . In: Detlev Claussen: What does racism mean? Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1994, ISBN 3-534-12033-7 , from p. 27.
- Horst Seidler: The biologi (sti) ical foundations of racism . In: Justin Stagl, Wolfgang Reinhard (ed.): Limits of being human: Problems of a definition of the human . Böhlau, Vienna, Cologne, Weimar 2005, ISBN 3-205-77297-0 , pp. 723.1 (Quote: "Racism is the belief that human populations differ in genetically determined characteristics of social worth, so that certain groups are superior or inferior to others. There is no convincing scientific evidence to support this belief . ").
- staff.uni-oldenburg.de (PDF)
- Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza: The History and Geography of Human Genes . Princeton University Press, 1994. 518 pages. ISBN 978-0-691-08750-4 . therein Chapter 1.6, Scientific Failure of the Concept of Human Races, pp. 19-20.
- Lexikon der Politik, Ed. Dieter Nohlen, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-36904-9 : Volume 1. Political Theories, p. 502.
- Meyers Lexikon , Volume 9. Leipzig 1942, p. 76.
- Robert Miles: Racism. Introduction to the history and theory of a term . Argument-Verlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-88619-389-6 , p. 60.
- In German, the difference between racialism and racism is difficult to convey. In Anglo-American parlance, both expressions are sometimes used coextensively. Frank Hamilton Hankins first used the term racialists in 1926 in his book: The Racial Basis of Civilization: A Critique of the Nordic Doctrine . In it he deals with the idea of "Nordic superiority" [nordicism], or its representatives [nordicists]. In the environmental and plant discussion, he differentiates egalitarians (such as Franz Boas ) from racialists who assume a primacy of race and racial inequality and are advocates of racial segregation, to whom he includes Gobineau, Stoddard and also the Ku-Klux- Klan matters. The term racism was later coined and denoted "racism". See z. B. George M. Fredrickson: Rassismus - Ein historical Abriss , Hamburger Edition, 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 , pp. 156-164.
- Robert Miles, Racism. Introduction to the history and theory of a term . Argument-Verlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-88619-389-6 , p. 61.
- Hirschfeld 1938, p. 260; quoted from George M. Fredrickson: Racism - A Historical Outline . Hamburger Edition, 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 , p. 164.
- Hirschfeld 1938, p. 57; quoted from George M. Fredrickson: Rassismus - Ein historical Abriss , Hamburger Edition, 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 , p. 164.
- quoted from the paperback edition Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1972; later also in: Structural Anthropology II. Suhrkamp 1975
- General Policy Recommendation No. 7, I. Definitions 1.a). (PDF) European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)
- Ivan Hannaford, Race - The History of an Idea in the West, ISBN 978-0-8018-5223-7 .
- Etienne Balibar: Racism and Nationalism . In: race, class, nation. Ambivalent Identities Argument Verlag 1998, ISBN 3-88619-386-1 , p. 52.
- Léon Poliakov / Christian Delacampagne / Patrick Girard, Rassismus About Xenophobia and Rassenwahn , Luchterhand-Literaturverlag, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-630-71061-1 , p. 43.
- Robert Miles. In: Constitution of meaning and the concept of racism . From the English by Nora Räthzel (Ed.); Theories about racism. Argument-Verlag, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-88619-258-X , p. 26
- Stuart Hall: Racism as an ideological discourse . In: Nora Räthzel (ed.): Theories about racism . Argument-Verlag, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-88619-258-X , p. 11
- “A deterministic cultural particularism can have the same effect as a biologically based racism, as we shall find out later in the discussions on völkisch * nationalism in Germany and South Africa. British contemporary sociologists have identified and analyzed a phenomenon they call the 'new cultural racism'. John Solomos and Les Back, for example, argue that race is now 'coded as culture' and that 'the central feature of these processes is that the characteristics of social groups are fixed, naturalized and embedded in a pseudobiologically defined culturalism'. Racism is therefore an ideology 'which owes its effectiveness to the ability to pick and use ideas and values from other socio-historical contexts' ('scavenger ideology'). But there are also "strong continuities in the construction of images of the" other "as well as in the images that racist movements use to define the boundaries of 'race' and 'nation'". These continuities, in my view, indicate that there is a general history of racism and a history of particular racism; but in order to understand the various forms and functions of the general phenomenon with which we are concerned, it is necessary to know the specific context of each. ”In: George M. Fredrickson: Rassismus - Ein Historischer Abriss . Hamburger Edition, 2004, ISBN 3-930908-98-0 , p. 16
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- “ [Anti-Semitism] is a racism that is more closely defined by its object; anti-Semitism is a racism directed against the Jews. As such, he has special characteristics that are related to his particular victim and the peculiar relationships between him and his attacker. "Albert Memmi: Rassismus . European Publishing House, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-434-46096-9 , p. 72.
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- Albert Memmi: Racism . 1992, Frankfurt a. M., p. 164; quoted on the website of the Federal Commission against Racism
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Note. An early, narrower definition of Memmis from 1964 found its way into the Encyclopædia Universalis , making it possibly the most common definition of racism: Le racisme est la valorisation, généralisée et définitive, de différences biologiques, réelles ou imaginaires, au profit de l 'accusateur et au détriment de sa victime, afin de justifier un aggression ; originally in Essai de définition du racisme , La Nef 19-20 (1964), 41-47.
See article Racisme of the Encyclopædia Universalis; Paris 1972, p. 915 f .: “It is difficult to find a definition of racism that would be generally accepted. That is at least astonishing for an object that has been picked up so frequently and in so different ways. The reasons for these difficulties become more understandable when one realizes that the bedrock of racism; H. the concept of pure race applied to humans is insufficiently defined and that it is practically impossible to assign a precisely defined subject area to it. On the other hand, racism is not a scientific theory, but a complex of mostly contradicting opinions that are by no means derived from objective statements and are external to those who utter them, to justify actions that in turn arise from fear of the other as well as the Desire to attack this other in order to dispel fear and assert oneself to the detriment of the other. Finally, racism appears as the special case of a more general behavior: the use of actual or fictitious biological differences, which can also be psychological or cultural in nature. Racism therefore fulfills a certain function. From what has been said, it follows that racism is the generalized and absolute valuation of actual or fictitious biological differences for the benefit of the accuser and to the detriment of his victim, with which aggression is to be justified. "
- "To summarize even further, racism consists of three essential elements: 1. the insistence on a difference, 2. its use as a myth and 3. the convenience of this use." Albert Memmi: Rassismus . Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-434-46096-9 , p. 224.
- Racism only begins with the interpretation of the differences ; Albert Memmi: Racism . European Publishing House, Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-434-46096-9 , p. 37.
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