Systema Naturae

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Title page of the 1st edition of Systema Naturæ
Ratio Editionis - The editions authorized by Linné

Systema Naturæ (mostly written Systema Naturae ) is the short name of a work by Carl von Linné that was first published in 1735 and had a total of twelve editions by 1768 . Linné classified the " natural kingdoms " animals , plants and minerals through the five consecutive ranks of class , order , genus , species and variety .

While the first edition consisted of seven double folio sheets, the work comprised more than 2,300 octave pages after the publication of the third volume of the 12th edition . Linnaeus described about 7700 plant, 6200 animal and 500 mineral species on them. In the 12th edition he gave a so-called "trivial name" on the margin for all species of all three natural kingdoms . These form the basis of the two-part names on which today's biological nomenclature is based. The first volume of the 10th edition, published in 1758, is of particular importance for zoology , in which Linnaeus for the first time consistently gave two-part species names for animals. Its appearance, together with Carl Alexander Clerck's work Svenska Spindlar, published a year earlier, marks the beginning of modern zoological nomenclature . Linnaeus mineralogy , however, soon proved to be insignificant.


In mid-April 1735, on the advice of Johan Browall , Linnaeus set out from his Swedish homeland to obtain his doctorate at the Dutch University of Harderwijk . Linné had previously studied at the universities in Lund and Uppsala . While studying botanical scripts in Olof Celsius ' library, at the end of 1729 Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum was created, a script that laid the foundation for Linnaeus' independent organizing principle for plants . In 1730, Olof Rudbeck got him a job at the Uppsala Botanical Garden with the task of compiling a catalog of the plants growing there. In Uppsala, Linné also gave private lessons in docimastics , mineralogy, botany and dietetics . He cataloged his bird and insect collection and worked on numerous manuscripts, some of which accompanied him on his trip to Holland .

Linnaeus's path to Holland led him via Hamburg , where he met the editor of the newspaper Hamburgische Reports von neue Taehrlichen Dinge , Johann Peter Kohl , who had already reported several times about Linnaeus in his newspaper. In the edition of June 10, 1735, Linné's stay in Holland was announced and "[...] three tables in large folio [...]" that had been worked out with particular diligence and skill. In Leiden Linné Jan Frederik Gronovius and Isaac Lawson showed some of his manuscripts, including the first draft of Systema Naturæ . Both were so impressed by the originality of Linna's approach to classifying the three natural kingdoms - minerals , plants, and animals - that they decided to publish the work at their own expense. Gronovius and Lawson worked as proofreaders for this and other works by Linnaeus, which were written in Holland, and monitored the progress of the printing process . The completion, originally planned for mid-September 1735, was delayed until the end of the year due to numerous corrections.

Edition history

1st edition

The first edition appeared at the end of 1735 under the title Systema naturæ, sive regna tria naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species in Leiden . It was published by Theodor Haak and produced in the print shop by Johan Wilhelm de Groot. The first edition consisted of 14 folio pages that were approximately 540 millimeters wide and 416 millimeters high. Pages 2 and 14 were not printed. The first page served as the title page. The three kingdoms of nature were presented in tabular form on a double page:

With the exception of the plants, Linnaeus also gave Swedish names for many of the species listed in these tables. The work was introduced by the general observations on the three kingdoms of nature dated July 23, 1735, which Linnaeus set out in 20 points ( Observationes in Regna III. Naturæ ). He gave such briefly summarized observations for each of the three kingdoms of nature. Linnaeus dedicated the most extensive and detailed representation to the plant kingdom. Another sheet shows a key to his plant sexual system ( Clavis systematis sexualis ). Linnaeus Methodus , which described the procedure for classifying any natural object in its classification scheme and should actually be part of the first edition, was no longer finished in time.

The sales price of the first edition was 50 stuivers . The entire proceeds went to Linnaeus. The exact number of copies is not known. Felix Bryk estimated it to be 150 copies in 1954. The work was first discussed in early 1737 by Johann Ernst Hebenstreit . It appeared in the Acta Eruditorum magazine .

On the occasion of Linné's 200th birthday, a reprint of the first edition was published in 1907 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . On November 14, 2007, a copy of the first edition of Systema Naturæ, owned by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, was auctioned at Christie's auction house for a price of £ 180,500 .

2nd to 5th edition

Title page of the 2nd edition

In 1740 Linné learned from Jan Frederik Gronovius that a translation of the first edition was in print in Germany. Its editor and translator was Johann Joachim Lange , who rearranged Linné's work and provided it with a German translation in a parallel second column. This edition appeared in 1740 in quarto format in Halle and comprised about 80 pages. Linné later authorized this edition as the third edition of Systema Naturæ .

The second edition appeared in 1740 under the changed title Caroli Linnæi naturæ curiosorum dioscoridis secundi Systema naturæ in quo naturæ regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponuntur and was distributed by the German bookseller Gottfried Kiesewetter in Stockholm . The second edition originally planned by Gronovius, which, like the first, was to be provided by Theodor Haak, did not materialize. Haak had bought the remaining copies of the first edition in March 1739 and made their sale a condition for a new edition. The second edition was printed in the more manageable octave format and was 80 pages long. It was bound with the second edition of Fundamenta Botanica . Linné dedicated this and all subsequent editions to his patron Carl Gustaf Tessin . The dedication is dated May 20, 1740. In this edition, Swedish names for stones and animals are given again.

This edition was reprinted twice with only minor changes. An edition edited by Bernard de Jussieu appeared in Paris in 1744 , which contained French instead of the Swedish name and which was later run by Linné as the fourth edition of Systema Naturæ . The printing of this edition was supervised by Linnaeus' friend Abraham Bäck , who was in Paris at the time. The version of the second edition, led by Linné as the fifth edition, was edited by Michael Gottlieb Agnethler and appeared in 1747. It contained German names instead of the Swedish names.

6th to 9th edition

The sixth edition appeared in 1748 under the title Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata, again changed by Gottfried Kiesewetter in Stockholm. The volume of the work, once again published in octave format, had grown to 224 numbered pages. The individual kingdoms of nature took up about the same amount of space: the six classes of the animal kingdom were presented on 76 pages, the 26 classes of the plant kingdom were dealt with on 68 pages and the three classes of the mineral kingdom took up a space of 65 pages. A Latin and a Swedish index completed the sixth edition of Systema Naturæ . Linnés Lectori is dated August 2, 1748, his dedication to Carl Gustaf Tessin on August 18, 1748.

The sixth edition contained eight panels, six of which illustrated the Linnaeus classes of the animal kingdom:

In the same year Kiesewetter published another edition in Leipzig , which is counted as the seventh edition of Systema Naturæ and in which the Swedish names were again replaced by German ones. Based on this edition, a ninth edition, edited by Jan Frederik Gronovius, was published by Theodor Haak in Leiden in 1756. It contained French instead of German names. Gronovius made additions to the fish and expanded the insect section based on the works of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Carl De Geer . Linnaeus contributed some new plants.

A special feature is the eighth edition, published in 1753 by Lars Salvi in ​​Stockholm under the title Herr Archiaterns och Riddarens D. Caroli Linnæi Indelning i Ört-Riket, efter Systema Naturæ, på Swenska öfwersatt af Johan J. Hairman ... because it only covers the plant kingdom includes. The Swedish translation was made by Johan Johansson Nahrungsmittelman . It is dedicated to Ulrika Lovisa Tessin .

10th and 11th edition

Title page of the 1st volume of the 10th edition

This tenth edition, which is important for the rules of zoological nomenclature , was published in two volumes in octave format: the first, published in 1758, dealt with the animal kingdom, the second with plants, published the following year. A third volume planned by Linnaeus on the mineral kingdom was not published. With the tenth edition, the work published by Lars Salvi in ​​Stockholm got its final title: Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (roughly: System of nature for the three realms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with properties, differences, synonyms and localities ). Both volumes together filled about 1,400 octave pages and contained no illustrations. After the Museum Tessinianum , Linné used the binary nomenclature for the first time consistently in zoology. The class Quadrupedia (quadruped), strongly attacked by Jacob Theodor Klein and others, disappeared and was replaced by the class of mammals (Mammalia). At the same time, Linné Peter Artedis gave up the classification of fish in favor of his own and for the first time assigned whales to mammals. In the first volume Linnaeus described a total of 312 animal genera with 4,378 species.

In the second volume, Linné continued the binary nomenclature of plants begun in Species Plantarum in 1753 . Since he had numbered the species belonging to a genus, he introduced capital letters for the newly described species. In his treatment of the myrtle , for example, he added six new species bearing the letters A to F to the seven originally numbered species. In the appendix, Linnaeus listed under the heading Genera Plantarum Nova Addenda in addition to the fifth edition of Genera Plantarum published in 1754, the description of 69 new plant genera and gave improved descriptions for eight other genera.

The new edition of Systema Naturæ received wide attention. In Sweden the magazine Lärda Tidningar reported and in Great Britain the Gentleman's Magazine . In Germany it was discussed in Johann Friedrich Gleditsch's Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis , in the Göttingische advertisements of learned things , in August Ludwig von Schlözer's Recent History of Erudition in Sweden and by Rudolf Augustin Vogel in his New Medicinische Bibliothek .

For the eleventh edition, which, according to Linnaeus, should have appeared in Leipzig in 1762, he only laconically remarked: “nil additum” (nothing added). However, the existence of this requirement is unclear. It is possibly identical to the so-called “Piratenauflage”, which appeared from 1760 to 1770 with a foreword by Johann Joachim Lange and whose first two volumes are identical to the tenth edition, apart from slight deviations.

12th edition

The twelfth and last edition of Systema Naturæ produced by Linné had the same full title as the tenth edition. The octave format was retained as the book format. In his Ratio Editionis , which preceded the tenth edition, Linné gave an overview of all the editions he had authorized. In addition, he looked back on his work. He cited the collections he oversees in Uppsala and Stockholm and thanked his patrons Adolf Friedrich , Ulrika Lovisa Tessin , Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl De Geer . The trips he made through the Swedish provinces of Lapland (1732), Dalarna (1734), Öland (1741), Gotland (1741), Västergötland (1746) and Skåne (1749) are just as part of this review as his traveling students .

The first volume on the animal kingdom had to be divided into 1327 numbered pages due to its size. The two parts appear in 1766 and 1767 respectively. In 1767 the volume on the plants, which grew to 736 numbered pages, followed. For the first time, Linnaeus also used the binary nomenclature for the natural kingdom of minerals in the third, 222 numbered page volume. About 530 types of minerals were described in it, which Linnaeus divided into 54 genera. This volume is the only one that contained images:

They served to illustrate the terminology ( termini artis ) that he had introduced to describe the species.

This edition was discussed by the Swedish magazine Lärda Tidningar and in the German magazines Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis and Göttingische advertisements of learned things .

One as “13. Edition “designated edition was published from 1767 to 1770 in Vienna by Thomas von Trattner . It is an unchanged reprint from the twelfth edition. Only the title page has been adjusted and the last page of the third volume with the error corrections ( errata ) is missing.


In the first edition, in the observations in the three natural kingdoms ( Observationes in Regna III. Naturæ ) that preceded his work, Linnaeus outlined the delimitation of the three natural kingdoms in point 15 as follows: “The stones grow. The plants grow and live. The animals grow, live and feel. ”(“ Lapides crescunt. Vegetabilia crescunt & vivunt. Animalia crescunt, vivunt & sentiunt ”). His order of natural objects was based on five hierarchical levels of class , order , genus , species and variety . He did not make use of the family rank between order and genus , which Pierre Magnol had introduced in 1689 . Linnaeus also used these terms, which are still used today in biology, for the classification of minerals. Unless otherwise stated, the following summary of the content refers to the twelfth edition of Systema Naturæ .

Animal kingdom

"Animalia corpora organisata, viva et sentientia, sponteque se moventia"

"Animals: organized bodies, living and feeling, moving spontaneously"

- Carl von Linnè : Systema Naturæ . 10th edition, 1758


Linnaeus' division of the animal kingdom was based largely on John Ray's Synopsis methodica Animalium (1693), which in turn was based on Aristotle's writing Historia animalium . According to the inner structure of the heart and other characteristics, Linnaeus distinguished six classes: mammals (Mammalia), birds (Aves), amphibians (Amphibia), fish (Pisces), insects (Insecta) and worms (Vermes).

Linnaeus divided the mammals mainly according to the number, position and shape of the incisors , canines and molars into seven orders, which together comprised about 230 species of mammals. The structure of the birds was based on Ray's Synopsis Methodica Avium (1713) and was supplemented in the twelfth edition by the work Ornithologia (1760–1763) by Mathurin-Jacques Brisson . The distinction between the six orders of birds with around 930 species was mainly based on the shape of the beak . Linnaeus' amphibians were divided into four orders with around 290 species. When describing them, he often referred to the illustrations in Albert Seba's thesaurus . The fish were organized according to Peter Artedis Ichthyologica up to the ninth edition before Linnaeus developed his own classification scheme. The approximately 400 species in the four orders of bony fish were classified according to the location of their pelvic fins . When classifying the insects, Linnaeus could not rely on any generally accepted scheme, despite the numerous described and illustrated insect species. The seven orders of insects he created were based essentially on the number and nature of their wings . For his five orders of worms, Linné took over the system from Jean-André Peyssonel (1694–1759). Like Bernard de Jussieu and Abraham Trembley , he assigned corals and similar living things to the animal kingdom and not the vegetable kingdom. Linnaeus' "worms" class comprised approximately 1150 species.

Position of man

Presentation of the order Anthropomorpha in the 1st edition of Systema Naturæ

For the first time since Aristotle's Historia animalium , Linnaeus put humans back into the animal kingdom in 1735 . The teachings of scholasticism had meanwhile given humans a special role and placed them above the animal kingdom. Linné placed humans together with the monkeys and sloths in the order Anthropomorpha (human figures) introduced by John Ray , which was part of the Quadrupedia (four-footed) class. As a distinguishing feature of humans from the other genera of this order, he cited the ability of humans to self-knowledge: " Nosce te ipsum " ("Know yourself!"). According to their geographical origin, he distinguished four groups within the genus Homo : the European, the American, the Asian and the African. As the only external characteristic, he also gave a skin color for each of these groups . Linnaeus kept this representation until 1758.

With the appearance of the tenth edition, Linnaeus' systematics changed significantly. He now classified humans in the order of primates within the class of mammals (Mammalia) and differentiated between two types of humans, day and night people. He referred to the orangutan as night owl ( Homo nocturnus ) or caveman ( Homo troglodytes ) . His diurnal person ( Homo diurnus ) is modern man who received his species name Homo sapiens , which is still valid today, in 1758 . Linnaeus extended the characterization of his four geographical varieties of man to include the characteristics of temperament and posture . The Europeans differed from the other human varieties by the characteristics white, sanguine, muscular ("albus, sanguineus, torosus"), the Americans by the characteristics red, choleric, upright ("rufus, cholericus, rectus"), the Asian by the characteristics yellow, melancholic, stiff ("luridus, melancholicus, rigidus") and the African by the characteristics black, phlegmatic, limp ("niger, phlegmaticus, laxus").


The "Hamburger Hydra" in Albert Seba's Thesaurus from 1734 (Volume 1, Plate 102), which Linnaeus recognized as a forgery

Up to and including the fifth edition of Systema Naturæ , Linnaeus's portrayal of the animal kingdom contained a section entitled “Paradoxa” (“ Paradoxes ”), in which he listed mythical creatures , such as those depicted in medieval bestiaries . He relegated them to the realm of superstition because of their mythical nature and tried to give a natural explanation. During his short stay in Hamburg , Linnaeus managed to expose the so-called "Hamburger Hydra" as a forgery . In the first edition he listed ten mythical creatures: the hydra , the frogfish (a frog that transforms into a fish), the unicorn (which he interpreted as reports of the narwhal ), the pelican (which transmits its blood to its offspring ), the satyr , the Scythian lamb , the phoenix , the bernikel tree (a tree that bears white shells from which geese hatch), the dragon and the clock of the dead . In the second edition he added the manticore , the antelope , the lamia and the siren to this list .

Plant kingdom

"Vegetabilia corpora organisata & viva, non sentientia"

"Plants: organized bodies and living, not sentient"

- Carl von Linnè : Systema Naturæ . 10th edition, 1758

Linnaeus' classification of the plant kingdom was based on the structure of the flower and fruit , which he called " fruiting organs " (fructificatio). Conrad Gesner was the first botanist to consider classifying plants according to the structure of their flower or fruit. However, Gesner himself did not set up a corresponding system. The subdivision of plants in Andrea Cesalpino's work De Plantis Libri XVI , published in 1583, was mainly based on fruit characteristics. His system was taken up by Robert Morison and John Ray and later continued by other botanists, in Germany for example by Christoph Knaut . Other systems, such as those of August Quirinus Rivinus (1690) and Heinrich Bernhard Rupp (1718), were based on the regularity or irregularity and the number of petals . Pierre Magnol based his systematics in 1720 on the diversity of the sepals . The most ingenious system of plant classification came from Joseph Pitton de Tournefort , who in 1694 determined his classes according to the shape of the flower and its orders according to the position of the fruit. Linnaeus had already studied all these plant classifications in his youth and in 1738 published Classes Plantarum, a detailed comparison of these and other plant classifications.

Linné's system was based in particular on the works of Cesalpino and Tournefort. He differentiated his classes according to the number and position of the stamens and the orders according to the number of pistils . He formed the genera through a series of well-defined characteristics of the flower, the fruit and the seeds (generative characteristics), which he described in detail in Genera Plantarum . Important parameters in the description were the number, the shape, the proportion and the position. In order to delimit a species, he finally used vegetative characteristics, for example roots, stems or leaves. Linnaeus' first comprehensive treatment of the plant kingdom was Species Plantarum , which was completed in 1753 .

Mineral rich

"Lapides corpora congesta, nec viva, nec sentientia"

"Stones: massive bodies, neither living nor feeling"

- Carl von Linnè : Systema Naturæ . 10th edition, 1758

Linnaeus used the same principles in his classification of the mineral kingdom as in the animal and plant kingdoms. Of the known methods of classifying minerals, he rejected the physical, which went back to the formation of the minerals, and the chemical, which was based on a destructive analysis, in favor of the method he characterized as natural, which was based on easily observable characteristics. It was difficult for him to find an analogy to increase for the formation of minerals. Linnaeus, who assumed that the earth was completely covered with water at the beginning, suggested that two descendants had emerged from the water: the shaping “salt man” who shaped the “earth woman”. Salts and earth are therefore the real parents of minerals. Linné also postulated four different salts (Salia) and four different earths (Terræ), which each stood for the atmosphere, the ocean, the plants and the animals and from which the various minerals consisted. He divided the mineral kingdom into three classes: Petræ (stones) were mixtures of earths, Mineræ (minerals) combinations of earths and salts and Fossilia (fossils) agglomerations of earths. The twelfth edition comprised a total of eleven orders in 54 genera with more than 500 species.

Linné's mineralogy lasted for about half a century and was supported by the French mineralogists Jean-Baptiste Romé de L'Isle (1736–1790), René-Just Haüy and Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu . On the other hand, criticism came mainly from Germany and Sweden. Ultimately, a system based on chemical characteristics prevailed, such as that represented by Abraham Gottlob Werner , for example .


Extended editions of "Systema Naturæ"

Linnaeus' work was expanded by some authors in its entirety or only with regard to individual kingdoms and translated into other languages. The Dutch doctor Maarten Houttuyn began a work based on the establishment of Systema Naturæ in 1761 , which he called Natuurlijke Historie . By 1785 this work grew to 37 volumes and comprised around 22,000 pages and 296 copperplate engravings. As early as 1763 Linnaeus scoffed at his friend Abraham Bäck about the size. He saw it as a sign of little wisdom that what one scholar tried to explain as succinctly as possible was extended as far as possible by another. However, Houttuyn's work influenced a number of similar depictions of nature, for example Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller's German-language overall depiction of the animal kingdom, which was published from 1773 to 1775.

From 1777 to 1779 Johann Friedrich Gmelin published a four-part extension of Linné's description of the mineral kingdom, which had more than 2200 octave pages and was illustrated with 63 images. From 1788 to 1793, 20 years after Linné's last edition of Systema Naturæ , Gmelin tried again to compile all known species of the three natural kingdoms in a work called Systema Naturæ . Gmelin described this edition with over 6000 pages, about five times as extensive as the 13th edition of Systema Naturæ . The descriptions of the animals, published in seven parts, fill over 4000 pages. Gmelin's 13th edition served again as a model for further editions. Ebenezer Sibly (1751–1800) began an extended English translation in 1794, which by 1810 grew to 14 volumes. A similar attempt came from William Turton (1762-1835), whose seven-volume A General System of Nature appeared from 1802 to 1806 in London.

After that it was never again possible to summarize all known animal and plant species in a single work. The number of known animal species reached around 50,000 by 1800, and by 1850 it was already around 400,000. Taxonomists assume that between 1.5 and 1.8 million living organisms have been correctly described and named to date. Estimates of the actual number of species vary between 3.6 million and over 100 million. Usually, however, a number of species in the order of magnitude of around 10 million is assumed. The Biodiversity computer science tries today with the help of database systems to combine the names of all known species, along with other information, such as their distribution, at central locations. Examples are the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EoL).

Influence on the zoological nomenclature

In the tenth edition of the Systema Naturæ , published in 1758 , Linné presented all the organisms he knew in the binary notation that is customary to this day and which he first used consistently for plants in his work Species Plantarum from 1753 . Unhandy terms such as Physalis amno ramosissime ramis angulosis glabris foliis dentoserratis have been replaced by easy-to-remember double names such as Physalis angulata . The first name denoted the genus , the second name, the epithet (called species name in zoology), together with the first, characterized the species .

In 1842/1843 Hugh Edwin Strickland developed a comprehensive draft for a zoological set of rules on behalf of a committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science . In it he selected the twelfth edition of Systema Naturæ as the starting point for the zoological nomenclature. His draft was controversial, in particular which year the zoological nomenclature should be based on. In 1877, William Healey Dall made an attempt to combine the nomenclature rules of botany and zoology, which differed from one another, and proposed the twelfth edition published in 1768 as a basis. In 1886, the American Ornithologists' Union made its own proposal based on the work of Strickland and Dall. In this proposal the final separation of botanical and zoological nomenclature was carried out and the beginning of the zoological nomenclature was fixed at 1758. Based on a set of rules presented by Charles Émile Blanchard at the first International Zoological Congress in 1889, the beginning of the zoological nomenclature was finally fixed at the year 1758 at the fifth International Zoological Congress in Berlin .

In the current edition of the International Rules for Zoological Nomenclature , the publication date of the first volume of the tenth edition of Systema Naturæ is anchored in Article 3.1 and is set to January 1, 1758. This means that animal names from works published before January 1, 1758 are not available. As a rule , the 1758 edition of Systema Naturæ enjoys priority over more recent descriptions , provided that the Linnaeus description in question meets the criteria required by the nomenclature rules and the name has been used since 1899. The only exceptions are the 66 Swedish spider species, which were described in Clerck's work Svenska Spindlar , published in 1757 . Clercks Svenska Spindlar is the only publication that has priority over the tenth edition of Systema Naturæ and thus contains the first correctly introduced animal names in modern zoological nomenclature.



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Individual evidence

  1. Carl Linnaeus to Gabriel Gyllengrip, October 5, 1733, letter L0027 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed September 13, 2010).
  2. Hamburg reports . In: Felix Bryk (ed.): Linnaeus abroad: Linnés collected youth writings with autobiographical content from the years 1732-38 . In own publishing house, Stockholm 1919, pp. 81–162.
  3. Johann Peter Kohl (ed.): Hamburg reports of new learned things, for the year 1735 . Number XLVI, Hamburg June 10, 1735, p. 386.
  4. ^ Jan Frederik Gronovius to Carl Linnaeus, August 19, 1735, Letter L0036 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed September 1, 2010).
  5. ^ Jan Frederik Gronovius to Carl Linnaeus, November 7, 1735, Letter L0054 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed August 29, 2010).
  6. Felix Bryk: A fantasy price for the first edition of Linné's Systema Naturae Leiden 1735 . In: Taxon . Volume 3, Number 8, 1954, pp. 225-227.
  7. Lot 110 / Sale 7471 (accessed September 3, 2010).
  8. ^ Jan Frederik Gronovius to Carl Linnaeus, May 13, 1740, Letter L0384 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed September 1, 2010).
  9. Jan Frederik Gronovius to Carl Linnaeus, March 17, 1739, letter L0278 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed September 9, 2010).
  10. ^ Jan Frederik Gronovius to Carl Linnaeus, August 31, 1740, letter L0394 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed September 1, 2010).
  11. ^ Charlie Jarvis: A concise history of the Linnean Society's Linnaean Herbarium, with some notes on the dating of the specimens it contains . In: B. Gardiner, M. Morris (Eds.): The Linnean Collections . The Linnean Society: London 2007, p. 15 ( online ).
  12. Systema Naturæ . 10th edition, Volume 2, Stockholm 1759, pp. 1055-1056, online .
  13. Marc Ereshefsky: The Evolution of the Linnaean Hierarchy . P. 495.
  14. ^ A b c Dan H. Nicolson: Stone, Plant, or Animal . P. 7.
  15. ^ WT Stearn: The Background of Linnaeus's Contributions to the Nomenclature and Methods of Systematic Biology . P. 16.
  16. ^ Richard Pulteney: A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus . P. 173.
  17. ^ Richard Pulteney: A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus . P. 174, p. 183, p. 195, p. 201, p. 209, p. 223.
  18. ^ Gunnar Broberg: Homo sapiens: Linnaeus's Classification of Man . Pp. 158-165.
  19. Eckhard Rohrmann: Myths and Realities of Being Different: Social Constructions since the Early Modern Era . VS Verlag für Sozialwissen, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-531-15527-2 , p. 83.
  20. ^ Gunnar Broberg: The Dragonslayer . In: TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek . Volume 29, number 1/2, 2008, pp. 29–43, PDF ( Memento of the original from June 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. Sandra Knapp: Fact and fantasy . In: Nature . Volume 415, 2002, p. 479, doi: 10.1038 / 415479a .
  22. ^ Richard Pulteney: A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus . Pp. 240-243.
  23. Arthur J. Cain: Numerus, figura, proportio, situs: Linnaeus' definitory attributes . P. 17.
  24. ^ Rachel Laudan: From mineralogy to geology: the foundations of a science, 1650-1830 . P. 74.
  25. ^ Rachel Laudan: From mineralogy to geology: the foundations of a science, 1650-1830 . Pp. 73-75.
  26. ^ Rachel Laudan: From mineralogy to geology: the foundations of a science, 1650-1830 . P. 76.
  27. ^ Carl Linnaeus to Abraham Bäck, October 14, 1763, Letter L3313 in The Linnaean correspondence (accessed September 27, 2010).
  28. ^ Charles D. Sherborn: Index animalium 1902 .
  29. ^ Charles D. Sherborn: Index animalium 1922-1931 .
  30. ^ Edward O. Wilson: Taxonomy as a fundamental discipline . In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B . Volume 359, 2004, p. 739, doi: 10.1098 / rstb.2003.1440 .
  31. ^ EG Linsley, RL Usinger: Linnaeus and the Development of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature . Pp. 41-42.
  32. Article 3.1 In: International Code of Zoological Nomenclature . 4th edition 1999, ISBN 0-85301-006-4 .
  33. AnimalBase list of the 66 species of spiders described by Clerck in 1757.

Contemporary reviews

  1. ^ [Johann Ernst Hebenstreit]: In: Acta eruditorum . Volume 3, Number 2, 1737, pp. 64-71, online
  2. Lärda Tidningar for år 1758 . Lars Salvii, Stockholm February 13, 1758, pp. 49-62.
  3. Lärda Tidningar for år 1759 . Lars Salvii, Stockholm 1759, pp. 173-174.
  4. ^ [Anonymous]: An account of the first Volume of a new and enlarged edition of Professor Linnæus's SYSTEMA NATURÆ: in which is exhibied a view of the author's system, so far as respects the animal kingdom . In: Gentleman's Magazine . Vol. 29, 1759, pp. 454-457, online .
  5. ^ [Anonymous]: An account of the first volume of a new and enlarged edition of Professor Linnæus's SYSTEMA NATURÆ. Continued from p. 457 . In: Gentleman's Magazine . Vol. 29, 1759, pp. 509-511, online .
  6. ^ [Anonymous]: An account of Linnæus Systema naturæ. (Continued from p. 511.) . In: Gentleman's Magazine . Vol. 29, 1759, pp. 564-566, online .
  7. ^ [Richard Pulteney]: Account of Professor Linnaeus's Systema Naturae . In: Gentleman's Magazine . Volume 35, 1765, pp. 57-61.
  8. ^ Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis . Volume 8, IF Gleditsch, Leipzig 1759, pp. 679-691, online .
  9. ^ Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis . Volume 9, IF Gleditsch, Leipzig 1760, pp. 598-605, online .
  10. ^ [Anonymous]: Stockholm . In: Göttingische displays of learned things. The second volume to the year 1759 . Jul 5, 1759, pp. 692-696, online .
  11. ^ [Anonymous]: Stockholm . In: Göttingische displays of learned things. The second volume to the year 1760 . December 22, 1760, pp. 1326-1327, online
  12. August Ludwig von Schlözer: Latest history of erudition in Sweden . Piece 4, 1759, pp. 513-525.
  13. August Ludwig von Schlözer: Latest history of erudition in Sweden . Piece 4, 1760, pp. 683-687.
  14. Rudolf Augustin Vogel: New Medical Library . Volume 4, part 4, Vandenhöck, Göttingen 1760, pp. 289-296, online .
  15. Lärda Tidningar for år 1766 . Lars Salvii, Stockholm 1766, pp. 229-231.
  16. Lärda Tidningar for år 1767 . Lars Salvii, Stockholm 1767, pp. 134-136.
  17. Lärda Tidningar for år 1767 . Lars Salvii, Stockholm 1767, pp. 329-330.
  18. Lärda Tidningar for år 1768 . Lars Salvii, Stockholm 1768, pp. 297-299.
  19. ^ Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis . Volume 15, IF Gleditsch, Leipzig 1768, pp. 322-333, online .
  20. ^ Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis . Volume 16, IF Gleditsch, Leipzig 1770, pp. 104-128, online .
  21. ^ Commentarii de rebus in scientia naturali et medicina gestis . Volume 16, IF Gleditsch, Leipzig 1770, pp. 338-344, online .
  22. ^ [Anonymous]: Stockholm . In: Göttingische displays of learned things. The second volume to the year 1767 . Aug 15, 1767, pp. 783-784, online .
  23. ^ [Anonymous]: Stockholm . In: Göttingische displays of learned things. The second volume to the year 1768 . Aug. 11, 1768, pp. 781-782, online .
  24. ^ [Anonymous]: Stockholm . In: Göttingische displays of learned things. The first volume for the year 1770 . Jan 6, 1770, pp. 21-24, online .

Soulsby numbers

Number and page number in Basil Harrington Soulsbys A catalog of the works of Linnaeus… from 1933:

  1. Systema Naturæ . 1st edition, Soulsby number 39, p. 9.
  2. ^ Method . Soulsby number 40, p. 9.
  3. Systema Naturæ . 3rd edition, Soulsby number 47, p. 9.
  4. Systema Naturæ . 2nd edition, Soulsby number 46, p. 9.
  5. Systema Naturæ . 4th edition, Soulsby number 48, pp. 9-10.
  6. Systema Naturæ . 5th edition, Soulsby number 50, p. 10.
  7. Systema Naturæ . 6th edition, Soulsby number 51, p. 10.
  8. Systema Naturæ . 7th edition, Soulsby number 52, p. 10.
  9. Systema Naturæ . 8th edition, Soulsby number 53, p. 10.
  10. Systema Naturæ . 10th edition, Soulsby number 58, p. 10.
  11. Systema Naturæ . 11th edition, Soulsby number 61, p. 11.
  12. Systema Naturæ . “Pirate Edition”, Soulsby number 60, p. 11.
  13. Systema Naturæ . 12th edition, Soulsby number 62, p. 11.
  14. Systema Naturæ . 13th edition, Soulsby number 116, p. 15.
  15. Natuurlijke history . Soulsby number 73, p. 12.
  16. ^ The knight Carl von Linné ... complete natural system . Soulsby number 95, p. 18.
  17. The knight Carl von Linné's complete natural system of the mineral kingdom . Soulsby number 100, p. 14.
  18. Systema Naturæ . 13th edition, Soulsby number 117, pp. 15-16.
  19. ^ A Genuine and Universal System of Natural History . Soulsby number 129, pp. 16-17.
  20. ^ A general system of nature . Soulsby number 137, p. 17.

Web links

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Digital copies of the editions
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on November 11, 2010 in this version .