coat of arms
|mayor||Henri Lenferink ( PvdA )|
|Seat of the municipality||Suffer|
|23.27 km 2
21.97 km 2
1.3 km 2
|Residents||124,757 (Jan 31, 2019)|
|Population density||5361 inhabitants / km 2|
|Important traffic route|
|Postcodes||2301-2303, 2311-2318, 2321-2324, 2331-2334|
|Website||Homepage of Leiden|
Leiden ( Latin Lugdunum Batavorum ) is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland . With 124,757 inhabitants (as of January 31, 2019), Leiden is the fourth largest city in the province of South Holland after Rotterdam , The Hague and Zoetermeer . Together with the surrounding communities Leiderdorp , Oegstgeest , Katwijk , Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude, Leiden has more than 254,000 inhabitants. This makes Leiden in South Holland the third largest agglomeration after Rotterdam and The Hague. Leiden has the oldest university in the Netherlands. The city is also known for its old town and the canals . The artist Rembrandt was born in the city.) (formerly Leyden ,
Leiden is located in the north of the Dutch province of South Holland , about 45 km southwest of Amsterdam and about 18 km northeast of The Hague . The Oude Rijn flows through Leiden . In the inner city area, the Nieuwe Rijn splits off, but in the west of the inner city it merges with the Oude Rijn. The Rijn-Schiekanal and the Zijl also split off in Leiden to the north and south. Clockwise, starting in the north, Leiden borders on Teylingen , Leiderdorp , Zoeterwoude , Leidschendam-Voorburg , Voorschoten , Wassenaar , Katwijk and Oegstgeest .
It is often said that Leiden is identical to the Roman settlement Lugdunum Batavorum . It is believed, however, that the present-day city did not emerge until the 11th century as a settlement around the Burcht . Nevertheless, Leiden used this Latin name until the early modern period. The Roman settlement was closer to Katwijk than to Leiden. However, between AD 47 and AD 275 at the latest, the Roman fort Matilo was on the soil of the Leiden district of Roomburg . The Fossa Corbulonis , which branches off from the Oude Rijn to the southwest towards the Meuse , an artificially created waterway at the same time, testifies to the massive presence of the Romans in what is now Leiden's urban area.
The wool trade with England and Flanders brought prosperity and prosperity to Leiden in the 13th and 14th centuries. The Dutch Count Floris V granted Leiden city rights in 1266 . The 15th century was a period of economic crises because of the turmoil of the Hook and Cod War , a civil war.
During the Eighty Years' War , Leiden joined the uprising against the Spaniards. After a siege that had lasted since May 25, 1574 , the Geusen succeeded in liberating the city on October 3, 1574 , among other things by flooding the surrounding polders . Legend has it that after the Spanish besiegers were driven out, a pan with carrot stew ( hutspot ) was found in their camp . This meant that the starved city population was able to have a proper meal again for the first time. That is why this dish is served in all restaurants every year during the celebrations of Leidens ontzet on October 3rd. As a thank you for the courage shown by the people of Leiden, shortly afterwards, by decision of the government under the leadership of William of Orange , the city received the first university in the Republic of the Netherlands .
Afterwards, many Protestants from Antwerp, Brussels and other areas conquered by the Spanish fled to Leiden, so that the city had to expand its city walls several times between 1575 and 1650. During this epoch Leiden experienced a great cultural and scientific development: painters like Rembrandt and his students and scientists like Antoni van Leeuwenhoek , the discoverer of bacteria , lived and worked in Leiden.
However, from around 1700 onwards there was another decline. To this day, however, the University of Leiden , at which the members of the Dutch royal family who are designated for royal dignity also study, has remained a stronghold of science in the Netherlands. For example, the physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek discovered the principle of the Leiden bottle in Leiden in 1746 when he received electric shocks during laboratory tests with the appropriate arrangements of glasses and metal parts.
From around 1795 to 1813, Leiden was occupied by French troops (" French era "). On January 12, 1807, a ship loaded with 17,400 kilograms of gunpowder exploded in the middle of the city. 151 people died, over 2,000 were injured and around 220 houses were destroyed.
Distribution of seats in the municipal council
The council of Leiden has 39 seats. Below is the compilation of the municipal council from 1982:
|City party Leiden Ontzet||-||-||-||-||-||-||1||2||0||-|
|Leiden Weer Gezellig / De Groenen||-||-||-||1||1||1||0||-||-||-|
|RPF / SGP / GPV||0||0||0||-||1||-||-||-||-||-|
|Leiden Weer Gezellig||-||1||0||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
- Parties that took part in the election but were unable to obtain a seat on the council will not be considered.
The city's cabinet has the following five city councilors for the period 2018-2022:
|City Council of Education, Youth and Finance||Paul Dirkse||D66|
|Councilor for Labor, Economy and Culture||Yvonne van Delft||GroenLinks|
|Councilor for Health and Wellbeing||Marleen ladies||PvdA|
|Councilor for Sustainable Urbanization||Fleur Spijker||D66|
|City Councilor for Sustainability and Mobility||Martine Leewis||GroenLinks|
The city is the seat of Airbus SE and the Eurotransplant Foundation . IKEA's European headquarters , the INGKA Foundation , is also in Leiden. The armaments company KNDS and Heerema Marine Contractors are also based in Leiden.
The once important textile industry is no longer important. But Leiden also had other industries, for example the manufacture of lighters and steel processing. Today the tertiary sector (service sector) has a large market share. In Leiden u. a. Achmea , an insurance company, and many training institutes are based. The largest employer in the Leiden region is the hospital, which is located in the Bio Science Park Leiden , where several companies from the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries have also settled.
There are direct rail connections from Leiden Centraal station to Rotterdam via The Hague , to Amsterdam via Schiphol or Haarlem Airport and to Utrecht via Woerden . There are also direct trains to Gouda at peak times . Other stations are De Vink (on the route to The Hague) and Leiden Lammenschans (on the route to Utrecht).
The city is connected to the trunk road network via two motorways: the A 4 runs east of the city and the A 44 to the west . Two connecting routes are planned between the A 4 and the A 44. Amsterdam's international Schiphol Airport is located around 30 km northeast of the city and can be reached directly by train.
The municipality of Leiden is divided into four districts, ten districts and 54 so-called neighborhoods.
Water and nature
Especially in the city center , water is an important part of the streetscape. In addition to the Oude and Nieuwe Rijn rivers , the city has various canals and singles . The most famous canal is called the Rapenburg . Outside the center, in addition to the Oude and Nieuwe Rijn, rivers, canals, the Zijl , the Haarlemmertrekvaart and the Trekvliet connect the city and the recreational areas outside the city with water.
The 'Polderpark Cronesteyn' is located on the southeast side of the city, on the site of the former Cronesteyn Castle. This park consists of different cultural landscapes and has a heron forest. There is also a visitor center and a campsite. This park forms the connection between the city and the Groene Hart .
Two universities have their headquarters in Leiden. The University of Leiden was founded in 1575, making it the oldest university in the Netherlands . There are also many institutions and companies that are connected to this university and the like. a. the University Library in Leiden , the Observatory in Leiden and the University Hospital in Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum . The university has six faculties and more than 18,000 students. The core of the university is in the academy building. The University of Leiden also has its own botanical garden, observatory and university library. The Hogeschool Leiden is a technical college with around 6000 students and is located in the Leiden Bio Science Park . In this Bio Science Park there are also departments of biotechnological companies. The US Webster University has had a department in Leiden since 1983 .
There are also various institutions for vocational training in Leiden. The ROC Leiden , with more than 10,000 students, the ROC Mondriaan and the ID College . The 'Leidse Instrumentmakersschool' is a well-known school for precision mechanics . There is also a People's University in Leiden .
Overview of the secondary schools in Leiden:
- Da Vinci College (3 departments) (off)
- Bonaventura College (3 departments) (Roman Catholic)
- Vlietland College
- Visser 't Hooft Lyceum
- Leonardo College
- Stedelijk Gymnasium Leiden (2 departments) (off) only high school
- Driestar College (reformed)
- Luzac college
- Instituut RR Vrijbergen
Culture and sights
Leiden has several museums of international importance:
- the Reichsmuseum für Völkerkunde , (Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde) ;
- the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden , the most important museum for archeology in the whole country, with a temple donated in the 1960s by the then Egyptian President Nasser ;
- the municipal museum De Lakenhal (= "the Gewandhaus"), including modern art and an interesting collection of paintings from the period 1600–1900;
- the Boerhaave Museum with a natural history and medical history collection;
- the Naturalis Museum of Natural History with an important collection of extinct animal species;
- the botanical garden ( Hortus Botanicus ), which has existed for over 400 years, with greenhouses and many rare plants; in 1594 the first tulips blossomed on Dutch soil, which Carolus Clusius , botanist at the University of Leiden, had planted;
- the Siebold House at Rapenburg, which opened in 2005 and is dedicated to Japanese culture and the influence of Western European scientists on it ; It is located in a canal house that was rented by the German doctor and natural scientist Philipp Franz von Siebold .
The Pieterskerk ("St. Petrikirche"), construction started in 1121, dates mostly from the 16th century. There are many tombs of famous Dutch people in this church. St. Peter is the patron saint of suffering, hence the keys in the city's coat of arms (St. Peter has the keys to the heavenly gate). On special occasions such as B. Honorary doctorates or anniversaries, the Pieterskerk is used by the university as an auditorium. - Another Gothic church is the Hooglandse Kerk , the size of which towers high above the surrounding houses in the city center.
The main building of the university is located on one of the most famous canals in Holland, the Rapenburg , and was originally a monastery church.
Masterpieces of Renaissance architecture are the town hall (Stadhuis, Raadhuis), in whose design the Bremen builder Lüder von Bentheim was involved, and the Rijnhuis of the early modern water and shipping administration.
There are many hofjes spread across the city . These are groups of small, often very popular houses because of their simplicity, mostly around a courtyard with a fountain or herb garden, which were donated by rich people between 1600 and 1900. Thought as private retirement, widow or poor welfare institutions (compare the Fuggerei in Augsburg ), these little houses are now often inhabited by students or nurses. These hofjes are all under monument protection ( Rijksmonument ).
The Burcht is an artificially raised escape hill from the 11th or 12th century that was fortified and walled in the 17th century. It offers a good overview of the city center. In summer some events take place here such as B. Theatrical performances take place.
A specialty of Leiden are the Muurgedichten ( wall poems ) that can be seen on the walls of houses in the street area of the city center. The 101 texts by well-known and unknown poets from all over the world are the result of a project that began in 1992 with a poem by Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva and ended in 2011 with the poem Regen, meer en wind by Danila Stoyanova . The poems are painted in different designs in the original language and script on the walls of the houses.
Leiden also has various windmills . One of the last remaining is the Molen De Valk, which has been converted into a museum and shows the history of the mills in Leiden.
As a city of books, Leiden has the following major libraries:
- Leiden University Library, the oldest university library in the Netherlands
- the Leiden Public Library BplusC
- Bibliotheca Thysiana, since 1655.
There are various parishes in the city of Leiden.
- Maria Zetel the Wijsheid
- Parish of Lam Gods
- Parish of H. Lodewijk
- Parish of St. Peter
- Parish OLV Hemelvaart en Sint Joseph
- Parish OLV Onbevlekt Ontvangen Hartebrug
- RK vicariaat Merenwijk
- Parish of Saints Fredericus en Odulfus
- Leidse binnenstadgemeente ( Protestant Church in the Netherlands )
- Leidse students Ekklesia (pkn, student church)
- Apostolic Church
- New Apostolic Church
- Baptist Church in Leiden
- Christian Reformed Church
- Evangelical community
- Eglise Wallone (French)
- Evangelical Lutheran Congregation
- Reformed Church (cleared)
- International Church of Leiden (English)
The following local newspapers appear in Leiden:
- Leidsch Dagblad
- Mare (University Gazette)
- Leids Nieuwsblad (free newspaper)
- Witte Weekblad (free newspaper)
- Het op Zondag (free newspaper)
- Website of the municipality (Dutch, English)
- City's tourist website (Dutch, German, English)
- Naturalis Natural History Museum website (Dutch, English)
- Website of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde (Dutch, English)
- Website of the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Dutch, English)
- Website of the City Museum De Lakenhal (Dutch, English)
- Botanical Garden website (multilingual)
- Leiden University website (Dutch, English)
- Sieboldhuis website (Dutch, English, Japanese)
- Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand . In: StatLine . Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Dutch)
- See Johann Peter Hebel : Misfortune of the city of Leiden. In: Treasure chest of the Rhenish family friend . Cotta, Tübingen 1811, pp. 108–110 (copy from ULB Düsseldorf ) or as full text on Wikisource .
- Result of the local elections: 2014 2018 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed on June 3, 2018 (Dutch)
- seats in the municipal council: 1982–2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed on June 3, 2018 (Dutch)
- College van burgemeester en wethouders Gemeente Leiden, accessed on June 3, 2018 (Dutch)
- Stedelijk Molenmuseum De Valk. ( Memento from February 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive )