|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Swabia|
|Height :||494 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||146.84 km 2|
|Residents:||296,582 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||2020 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0821|
|License plate :||A.|
|Community key :||09 7 61 000|
|LOCODE :||DE Terms and Conditions|
42 city districts
17 planning rooms
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Eva Weber ( CSU )|
|Location of the city of Augsburg in Bavaria|
Augsburg ( [ 'aʊ̯ksbʊrk ] ) is a circle-free city in the southwest of Bavaria and one of the three Bavarian cities . It is a university town and seat of the government of the Swabian district and the district office of the Augsburg district to the west .
The city became a major city in 1909 and, with over 300,000 inhabitants, is the third largest city in Bavaria after Munich and Nuremberg . The Augsburg conurbation also ranks third in terms of population and economic power in Bavaria and is part of the Augsburg planning region , in which around 885,000 people live. In 2017, Augsburg had the second-lowest rate of all criminal offenses among German cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants.
The name of the city, which is one of the oldest in Germany , goes back to 15 BC. Roman army camp founded in BC and the later Roman provincial capital Augusta Vindelicum . In the 13th century, the city broke away from episcopal rule , became an imperial city by 1316 at the latest and was often the scene of diets with close ties to the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire , which were financed by the merchant families Welser and Fugger ("Fuggerstadt"). After the Reformation , Augsburg, in which the Augsburg Religious Peace was concluded in 1555 , became biconfessional.
The city is the only German city with a public holiday that is limited to the city area, the Augsburg High Peace Festival, which is celebrated every year on August 8th. This makes Augsburg the city with the largest number of public holidays in Germany.
The city lies on the rivers Lech , Wertach and Singold . The oldest part of the city as well as the southern quarters are located on the northern foothills of a high terrace that arose between the steep hillside of Friedberg in the east and the high Riedeln of the western hillside.
In the south extends the Lechfeld , an ice age gravel plain between the two large rivers Lech and Wertach, in which rare primeval landscapes could be preserved. The Augsburg city forest and the Lechtalheiden are among the most species-rich Central European habitats.
Augsburg is bordered by the Augsburg - Western Forests Nature Park , a large forest area. In addition, the urban area itself is also heavily greened, which is why the city was the first German city to be awarded the greenest and most livable city in the Europe-wide competition Entente Florale Europe in 1997 . The city is the largest communal forest owner in Bavaria and the third largest in Germany.
The city is surrounded in the east by the district of Aichach-Friedberg and in the west by the district of Augsburg . Due to the elongated city area in north-south direction, many cities and municipalities border on Augsburger Flur.
The agglomeration is formed by Friedberg (district of Aichach-Friedberg), Königsbrunn , Stadtbergen , Neusäß and Gersthofen (all district of Augsburg), starting in the east and following clockwise , all of which with their settlement core border directly on the built-up area of Augsburg.
In addition, the municipalities of Rehling , Affing , Kissing , Mering and Merching (all districts of Aichach-Friedberg) as well as Bobingen , Gessertshausen and Diedorf (all districts of Augsburg) border the city (clockwise from the north).
The urban area consists of 42 urban districts , which form 17 planning areas. This type of urban structure has existed since 1938. The total area is 147 square kilometers (39th place among major German cities ).
The districts are partly formerly independent communities , partly newly established residential areas. Some districts have spatially separated settlements ( residential areas ) with their own names. Not in the administrative structure called district are the Augsburg old town as part of the city center and the Augsburger textile quarter , which lies partly in fashioning Mr. Bach partially in the city center.
The former barracks and residential areas of the US Army kept their names after the troop withdrawal in 1998, including Centerville , Cramerton , Reese , Sheridan , Sullivan Heights and Supply-Center . Many of these barracks are now residential areas.
The city lies on three rivers: The Lech is the largest flowing waters and by the influx of Wertach to the north of the nature sanctuary Wolfzahnau widened opens. The third Augsburg river, the Singold , has its source in the Ostallgäu and flows into the city's widely ramified artificial stream and canal system. The numerous canals in Augsburg - most of them flow through the Lechviertel in the old town - are spanned by 500 bridge structures. Augsburg applied for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List under the title "Hydraulic engineering and hydropower, drinking water and fountain art in Augsburg" and was thus included in July 2019. In addition to the canals and magnificent fountains, the waterworks at the Red Gate and the waterworks at the Hochablass are among the most important monuments of historical water management .
in the urban area
|29 Lech canals||77.7 km|
|4 Wertach channels||11.6 km|
|19 streams||45.6 km|
|Total length||174.1 km|
The factory canal into which the Singold flows is derived from the Wertach in Göggingen, flows north as the Wertach Canal, Holzbach or Senkelbach and returns to the Wertach after the Augsburg balloon factory .
At the Hochablass , the Hauptstadtbach and the Neubach are diverted from the Lech, which merge again after a few hundred meters, to briefly flow downstream into the Herrenbach, which flows north (downstream Proviantbach with its outflows and feeders, Hanreibach and Fichtelbach) and the Kaufbach, which flows west forks. The Kaufbach feeds the Schäfflerbach and the city ditches and inner city canals, which flow together again to the north on the grounds of the UPM-Kymmene and as a city stream in the western area of the Wolfzahnau flow again with the Proviantbach to reach the Lech a few meters before the Wertach confluence . The Mühlbach flows through the Pfersee district.
The Kuhsee and the smaller Stempflesee are located in the alluvial forest that the Lech flows through . In the north of Augsburg there are the Autobahnsee , the Kaisersee and the Europaweiher at the Augsburg Garbage Hill . In the south of Augsburg there are the Wertach reservoir, the Lautersee and the Ilsesee (local recreation area).
The nature reserves in the south of Augsburg serve the Augsburg drinking water supply . The city forest and the Lechau forest near Unterbergen are therefore designated as drinking water protection areas. The water drawn from there with a degree of hardness of 13.5 ° dH (medium hard) supplies the cities of Augsburg, Neusäß, Friedberg and Stadtbergen.
nature and environment
After the large-scale incorporations of the 1970s, the city is one of the greenest cities in Germany with around a third of green and forest areas .
The Augsburg city forest - with around 21.5 square kilometers the largest Bavarian alluvial forest - forms a closed forest area in the southeast and is of high regional importance for nature conservation and as a local recreation and leisure area. There are seven landscape protection , four FFH and two nature protection areas in the urban area (as of May 2016).
The south-west of the city is covered by parts of the Augsburg-Westliche Wälder nature park . This 1,175 square kilometer nature park is the only one in Bavarian Swabia. It is bounded in the north by the Danube , in the east by the slopes of the Wertach and Schmutter and in the west by the Mindel . In the south it extends to the edge of the Unterallgäu .
The city is known nationwide as a model city for environmentally friendly lighting. Measures against light pollution in the area of public lighting have reduced electricity consumption and thus carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent, which leads to annual savings of 250,000 euros.
In a study by the Geers Foundation in 2011, Augsburg had the second best value of German cities with over 250,000 inhabitants after Münster - only 17.0 percent of the city area was exposed to a daily average of more than 55 decibels .
In November 2013, Augsburg was awarded the German Sustainability Prize as the “most sustainable city in 2013”.
The city lies in the transition between the humid Atlantic and the dry continental climate on the Lechfeld plain in a slight valley location. Other weather-determining factors are the Alps as a Central European and the Danube as a regional weather divide . Therefore the weather is relatively changeable. Over the past six decades, Augsburg has seen an increase in temperature, a decrease in precipitation and an increase in the occurrence of extreme values.
The weather periods vary between moderate, not too cold winters and warm, not excessively hot summers. Large amounts of snow, which protect the vegetation during periods of frost, usually do not fall until January and last until mid-March. Larger amounts of precipitation are recorded in early summer, mostly from westerly winds. Longer dry periods occur in midsummer and early autumn.
The foehn brings warm and dry air currents from the south into the lower Alpine foothills to Augsburg all year round . Associated with this is good visibility, so that the Bavarian and Allgäu Alps can often be clearly seen.
The average annual temperature is around 8.4 degrees Celsius , and the annual rainfall is around 850 millimeters. During the hot summer of 2003 , a temperature of 36.0 degrees was measured on August 13, the absolute maximum value since the beginning of temperature observations is 37.1 degrees on July 27, 1983. The lowest registered temperature was -28.2 degrees, measured on February 12, 1929.
Due to its location in the most thunderstorm-intensive state of Bavaria, Augsburg is often affected by violent storms, which lead to enormous floods in the Lech and Wertach. This had the greatest impact in 1999 when a weir broke on the Wertach and entire parts of the city were flooded.
On autumn days it is often foggy in Augsburg because of its location in the valley of the Lech. After Munich, Augsburg is the snowiest city in Germany.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Augsburg
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020; weatheronline.de
At the time of the Roman Empire , over 10,000 people lived in Augsburg. The population hardly increased in the following centuries. Around 1500 Augsburg was one of the largest cities of the Holy Roman Empire with a population of around 30,000 after Cologne and Prague .
With industrialization in the 19th century, Augsburg began to experience strong population growth. In 1806 about 26,000 people lived in the city, in 1895 there were more than 80,000 and 180,000 in 1939. During the Second World War the city lost around 20 percent of its population (38,958 people), so that in 1945 146,000 people lived in Augsburg. The population reached its pre-war level five years later, partly due to the large number of German refugees from Central and Eastern Europe .
The eligible population rose from 267,121 people on January 1, 2010 to 290,743 on June 30, 2016 (+ 8.8%) and reached 295,895 on December 31, 2017. Since May 2011 the number has always been higher than the previous month. The mark of 290,000 inhabitants was exceeded in April 2016. In the 2010s, Augsburg was the 23rd largest German city . A forecast published in 2012 predicts that Augsburg's population will increase by 3.9 percent by 2025, making it the third strongest population growth of all major German cities.
Between 1988 and 2018, the urban district grew from 247,731 to 295,135 by 47,404 inhabitants or 19.1%.
|1386||18,000||after political and urban turmoil (united attacks by the Bavarian dukes and the bishops)|
|1450||15,000||after papal disputes and the political work of Bishop Anselm von Nenningen|
|1490||25,000||Beginning of the economic boom, after the loss of Levantine trade, the dwindling importance of Venice and not least as a result of the establishment of the Swabian Federation|
|1617||50,000||Peak of the flowering period|
|1631||36,000||Population decline as a result of the Thirty Years War|
|1650||25,000||after the end of the Thirty Years War|
|1855||27,500||in 4000 houses|
|1861||45,389||in 13,150 families|
|1864||49,332||in 14,645 families, with the military (253 families, 7,277 people), of which 14,078 Protestants , 45 Reformed and 128 Israelites|
|1871||46,599||December 1, 1871, 5,512 buildings, 1,604 Protestants, 827 Reformed|
|1900||89,170||with the garrisome (one infantry regiment No. 3, four squadrons Chevaulegers No. 4, a field artillery regiment No. 4), of which 23,995 are Protestants and 1,171 Jews; according to other information of which 24,086 Evangelicals, 63,766 Catholics|
|1910||102,487||of which 25,256 Evangelicals, 75,601 Catholics|
|1925||165,522||thereof 33,354 Evangelicals, 129,319 Catholics, 175 other Christians, 1,203 Jews|
|1933||176,575||thereof 33,344 Protestants, 139,552 Catholics, 84 other Christians, 1,030 Jews|
|1939||180.039||thereof 34,280 Evangelicals, 139,595 Catholics, 1,000 other Christians, 551 Jews|
|1960||205,000||36,100 of them displaced|
On January 1, 2008, Augsburg had 267,836 residents with main and secondary residences and 264,265 without secondary residences. In November 2008, 9,181 of the city's 138,300 employable citizens were unemployed, which corresponds to an unemployment rate of 6.5 percent. In February 2010 the unemployment rate in Augsburg was 6.2 percent, in the Augsburg district it was 4.0 percent. For the entire region, the rate was 5.4 percent. Almost 500,000 people live in the Augsburg conurbation, which includes the directly adjacent suburbs.
The proportion of foreigners was the end of 2017 with 21.8 percent (64,627 inhabitants) compared the German cities rather high. Most of the citizens of non-German origin live in the planning areas of Oberhausen, Spickel-Herrenbach, Hochfeld and Lechhausen as well as Jakobervorstadt and come mainly from Turkey , Italy and the former Yugoslavia . The Syriacs (also known as Arameans , Assyrians or Chaldeans ) make up a considerable proportion . The first Syriacs came from southeast Turkey ( Tur-Abdin ) as guest workers to Augsburg in the mid-1960s. When the situation worsened for this Semitic Christian minority in their area of origin in ancient Mesopotamia , many came to Augsburg as refugees. They come from Turkey, Syria , Iran , Iraq and Lebanon . Most of the Syriacs who came to Augsburg belong to the Syrian Orthodox Church . Recently, however, Syriacs who belong to the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East have also come to Augsburg as refugees from Iraq and Syria. The Syriacs speak an Aramaic language to this day, namely the New East Aramaic , this language is spoken in two dialects. On the one hand it is the Surayt dialect (also known as Turoyo), on the other hand the Suret dialect. About 50,000 repatriates live in Augsburg . You are German citizens, the majority of whom were born in the former Soviet Union . Overall, around 45 percent of the city's population has a migration background (including foreigners, as of 2018).
The age structure is in line with the national German average, with 16.0 percent (43,213 people) of residents with their main and secondary residence being under 18 years of age. 52.2 percent (140,592 people) of all residents are female, 47.8 percent (128,857 people) are male.
Due to the positive migration balance, Augsburg's population is growing. The highest increases were in autumn due to the influx of 18 to under 25 year olds. Along with the increase in the age group of 25 to under 40-year-olds, the proportion of children under 10 has also increased since 2011, with the number of births also increasing steadily since 2012. The population growth is due to an increasing excess of external migration. The number of people who moved in has risen continuously since 2010 from 17,482 to 25,618 people (+ 45.5%) in 2015. Since the number of outward journeys increased less strongly in this period (by 25.0% from 16,136 to 20,169), the annual increase in migration increased since 2010 from 1,346 to 5,449 in 2015. The number of immigrants from EU countries has more than doubled from 2,059 to 5,665.
The young immigrants prefer urban districts close to the city center, where the highest proportion of single households can be found. The average household size is falling, mainly due to the increase in single households. The city of Augsburg is losing most of all due to the departure of 30 to under 50-year-olds, who (with their children) mainly migrate to the Augsburg area. The number of deaths in the city of Augsburg has been higher than the number of births since 1968. Despite the decline in the birth rate and the negative balance of migration among young families, the number of single parents rose.
The population of Augsburg is aging due to the increasing life expectancy and the aging of the proportionally particularly large age groups. In comparison with other cities, Augsburg has a low proportion of people aged 65 and over and a low old-age quotient. Due to the above-average immigration of 18 to under 30 year olds, Augsburg has the highest proportion in this age group in a city comparison. Augsburg only has a relatively low fertility rate, which is why the youth quotient is comparatively low.
In addition to the Christian, Jewish and Islamic communities, which together make up the majority of religious life in Augsburg, there are many small religious communities . In addition, the Association for Freedom of the Spirit in Augsburg has been a ideological community since 1911 .
According to the 2011 census , 16.8% of the population were Protestant , 46.0% Catholic and 37.3% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then and with 47% people who do not belong to any legally or corporately constituted religious community are a relative majority of the population. As of December 31, 2018, Augsburg had 298,255 residents, 39.1% Catholics , 14.2% Protestants and 46.7% residents did not belong to a public religious society .
Annual data on religious affiliation have been available from the population register since 1999. Until 2003, an absolute majority of Augsburgers were members of the Catholic Church: At that time, 50.2% Catholics, 17.4% Protestants and 32.4% people with another or no denomination or religion lived in the city .
Figures on other religious communities (in addition to the large official churches ) were last collected in the 2011 census. At that time 4.1% of the population were Christian Orthodox , 0.5% of the Jewish faith , 0.5% members of an evangelical free church and a further 6.1% belonged to other religious communities recognized under public law in Bavaria (including the old Catholic Church and Jehovah's Witnesses ). According to calculations based on the 2011 census figures, the proportion of the Muslim population in Augsburg was 8.8%.
The first data on the beliefs of the urban residents were obtained in 1833 as part of a census. 61% Catholics, 38% Protestants and 0.4% non-believers or atheists lived in the city. This ratio changed in particular through the incorporation of Catholic suburbs in favor of Catholics, so that the proportion of the Protestant population around 1950 was only around 23 percent. At the 1987 census, 66.5 percent were Catholic and 18.7 percent were Protestant.
The city was probably already since the 4th / 5th. Century seat of a bishop . Around 738 the diocese of Augsburg was renewed. From 1518, Martin Luther's teaching found supporters in Augsburg. The teaching spread more and more and finally led to the official introduction of the Reformation by the city council in 1534/1537. This was followed by the participation of the city in the Schmalkaldic War , and in 1548 a Reichstag was held in Augsburg, which regulated the practice of religion for a transitional period ( Augsburger Interim ). Seven years later (1555), equality between the two denominations was finally achieved in the Peace of Augsburg . In memory of this and of Luther's visits to Augsburg, the city is now one of the German Luther cities . The Reformation Anabaptists were also able to establish a relatively strong community in the city in 1524. In 1527, the so-called Augsburg Synod of Martyrs took place in Augsburg .
The Catholic population continued to belong to the diocese of Augsburg, which at the time was assigned to the archbishopric Mainz . After the city passed to Bavaria, the previous assignment remained. In 1821 the diocese of Augsburg and with it its parishes were assigned to the newly established archdiocese of Munich and Freising (see also the list of the bishops of Augsburg ).
The Protestant parishioners received the churches of St. Anna , St. Ulrich , Zu den Barfüßern and St. Jakob at the latest after the Peace of Westphalia . They were subordinate to the city council. After Augsburg passed to Bavaria, the parishes became part of the Protestant Church of the Kingdom of Bavaria , which initially comprised Lutheran and Reformed denominations.
The city then became the seat of its own deanery , which in 1827 initially belonged to the consistorial district of Bayreuth , from 1876 to the consistorial district of Ansbach and then from 1923 to the church district of Munich . It has been part of the Augsburg church district since 1971 . In addition to the parishes of the city, the Augsburg deanery also includes parishes outside the city area, especially in the districts of Augsburg and Aichach-Friedberg .
The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 in Augsburg confirmed the equal government and administrative system introduced by the city constitution of 1548 (final equality and exact distribution of offices between Catholics and Protestants). This agreement was to last until it was mediatized in 1805 and is still celebrated today at the Augsburg High Peace Festival.
After the end of the Anabaptist movement , free church congregations were constituted again in Augsburg in the 19th and 20th centuries. It all started with the Mennonites , who held religious service meetings in Augsburg from 1870 onwards. In 1863 the United Methodist Church received the rights of a "private church society". Around 1925 - starting from the mother church in Munich - the Baptists (in the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches ) started their work. Since 1968 there has also been a Free Evangelical Congregation in Augsburg, which now has four congregations.
The Orthodox Churches in Southern and Eastern Europe and the Middle East also have parishes in Augsburg. The Syriacs (also known as Assyrians or Arameans ) inaugurated their own church in Lechhausen in 1998, and the Marienkirche on Zusamstrasse is one of the first Syriac Orthodox buildings in Germany. The approximately 6,000 Syrian Orthodox Christians (called Syriacs in their own right) in Augsburg come mainly from southeast Turkey ( Tur Abdin ) and Syria , speak the language of Jesus ( Syriac-Aramaic ) and have their roots in Mesopotamia . At first these Christians came to Europe as guest workers , then from 1980 mostly as asylum seekers because they were discriminated against and persecuted in Turkey. The Greek Orthodox parish with more than 6000 parishioners was able to buy the Gospel Church in the former anti-aircraft barracks after the withdrawal of the American troops and renamed it after the patron saint Agios Panteleimon .
The Russian Orthodox Church in honor of the icon of the Mother of God “Joy of All Mourners”, which belongs to the Russian Orthodox Diocese of the Orthodox Bishop of Berlin and Germany , is located in the Pfersee district. The congregation in Augsburg has existed since the 1930s and now has around 120 members (2011).
There are also a large number of other Christian religious communities, for example, also in Pfersee, the Apostelin Junia Church of the Old Catholic Congregation , as well as the New Apostolic Church , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Jehovah's Witnesses .
The Muslims form the second largest religious community in Augsburg. The city has a large number of prayer and club rooms, which are run by different communities with their own goals and priorities.
The majority of Islamic citizens are immigrants from Turkey in the first to third generation (see demographics ). In addition, there are also associations and associated places of prayer for the Arab , Bosnian and Iraqi Muslims as well as two Alevi cultural centers.
It can be assumed that the first Jews came to Augsburg after the Jewish War in the first century and the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple by the Romans . There are documentary mentions from the 9th century. The Jews had their own street by the St. Leonhards Chapel as early as 1241 and their own court until 1433. On November 22, 1348, two members of the influential Portner family attempted a coup in order to gain power in the city. Since this uprising coincided with a pogrom against the Jews and the Portners had borrowed from Augsburg Jews to acquire their properties, it was assumed that they might have helped to stir up the pogrom themselves in order to take advantage of the chaos in the city and to get rid of their creditors. Even if the coup failed and the ringleaders were banished from the city forever, the ruling council could not or would not prevent the murder of the Jews. The Augsburg Jewish community was the first large community in the Roman-German Empire to fall victim to the persecution of the Jews at the time of the Black Death . On the decision of the city council of July 7th, 1438 that the Jews “should not stay longer in the place then from guarding the day for two years”, they were expelled from the city and settled outside the city gates in the village of Kriegshaber on. Under the protection of the Margraviate of Burgau , the Kriegshaber Synagogue was the center of the Jewish community for almost three hundred years . A large Jewish cemetery has also been preserved in Kriegshaber from this period.
The history of the Jewish community in Augsburg began again in 1803, when the city first granted citizenship to three Jews (the bankers Aron Elias Seligmann , later Freiherr von Eichthal, Jakob Obermayer and Henle Ephraim Ullmann) for an annual fee and a substantial loan amount, although the urban merchants had put up considerable resistance.
The number of Jewish families then rose only slightly (79 people in 1840 and 128 people in 1852), as their settlement continued to be strictly managed . The defeat of the conservative Catholics in the municipal council elections of 1857 brought a decisive turnaround, as a result of which the first Israelite religious community was founded in Augsburg in 1861. Until then, religious instruction was given by the teacher of the then still independent suburb of Pfersee , while the responsible rabbinate was Kriegshaber.
Three years before the government gave its approval, the house in Wintergasse A 13 was bought for 13,000 guilders in 1858 and initially converted into a pure synagogue and later expanded to include rabbis and teachers' apartments; its inauguration took place in April 1865.
As a result of this development, the city's Jewish population increased rapidly in the second half of the 19th century, with 1,156 Jews living in Augsburg in 1895. In the meantime a Jewish cemetery (1867) and a lively club life (a men's, a women's and a food club, each with charitable purposes) had arisen. The Jewish industrialists, bankers, traders and merchants played an important role in the economic life of the city and almost entirely belonged to the upper middle or upper class.
Even at this time, more and more parishioners were demanding the construction of a new synagogue , which was also necessary due to the urging of the city: the old building was in a dilapidated condition. In 1903 a garden property was acquired on Halderstrasse , for which an architectural competition was announced in 1912. In the years 1914 to 1917, the plans of Fritz Landauer and Heinrich Lömpel were finally implemented.
The suppression of the Jews reached its temporary peak during the November pogroms 1938 in the early morning of November 10, 1938: About 30 NSDAP members destroyed the interior of the synagogue and set fire, which was put out because of the surrounding residential and communal buildings and a gas station , so that the building itself was preserved and was misused as a set store for the city theater during the Second World War. An anti-aircraft artillery observation post was set up on the dome of the synagogue.
Although many Jews had emigrated since 1933, their number in the city had not fallen sharply due to the influx of Jewish citizens from rural communities, so that 356 to 450 community members were deported in seven transports to Auschwitz , Piaski , Riga and Theresienstadt . Only a few Jews from Augsburg survived the Shoah .
After the end of the Second World War, only a few former Augsburg Jews returned to the city, among them Ludwig Dreifuss , who was appointed the first post-war mayor by the American military government. In 1946 the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Augsburg-Schwaben was founded, which did not grow much for a very long time. Hans Erich Fabian, first chairman of the Berlin congregation, spoke of southern German problems with regard to the conflicts that arose between the few returning German Jews and the vast majority of Eastern European Jews, especially in southern Germany. It was feared that the German-Jewish traditions would not be able to hold their own. The clashes in Augsburg were particularly vehement, where 32 German Jews refused to grant community membership to the 60 Jews without German citizenship. The Central Council took a clear position on this, the community membership is independent of nationality and place of birth. Only after years did these Jews get two of the nine board seats. In 1987 the parish had 247 members. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990, this changed rapidly with the influx of numerous contingent refugees from the former Soviet Union , so that the community - which is responsible for all of Swabia - today comprises around 1,800 people.
With the establishment of the Wat Buddha Augsburg association (around 130 members), a temple was set up in the Göggingen district in 2002, which is mainly used by migrants from Thailand . Every first Sunday of the month the ceremony is broadcast from the Maha Dhamma Kaya Cetiya temple near Bangkok via the Internet. Believers from outside also travel on this date. The club has now moved to Königsbrunn.
Since January 2000 the Zen Buddhist group in Augsburg has been meeting every Wednesday and Sunday for regular meditation in Augsburg. Teaching and practice follow the traditional Japanese Rinzai Zen tradition.
Augsburg was founded in 15 BC. BC, because that year a legionary camp , which later also served as a supply depot, was built in the area of today's Oberhausen district . Emperor Augustus had given his two step-sons Drusus and Tiberius the commission. According to this founding date, Augsburg would be the second oldest city in Germany after Trier , whereby this can be assessed according to various criteria (see article Oldest cities in Germany ). What is certain, however, is that after Augusta Treverorum , today's Trier, it was one of the largest Roman settlements north of the Alps.
The settlement of Augusta Vindelicum (see origin of the name ), which Emperor Hadrian granted Roman town charter in 121 AD , was formed around the camp that was established before the turn of the ages . From around 95 AD Augsburg was the capital of the Roman province of Raetia , which extended to northern Italy. It is unknown when exactly Augsburg became provincial capital; However, some archaeological findings indicate that Kempten ( Cambodunum ) still had this function until the late 1st century AD.
According to new research, the Neckar-Odenwald-Limes was only laid out in AD 98 under Emperor Trajan , at the same time as the construction of the Roman trunk road from Mainz via Bad Cannstatt to Augsburg, which was secured for this year . A connection between these two strategic construction projects and the relocation of the capital of the province of Raetia from Kempten to Augsburg is obvious, but has not yet been positively documented (see Kinzigtalstrasse ).
In AD 260 the Germanic Juthung invaded Italy and Raetia and abducted thousands of Italians. On their return march, however, they were defeated by the Roman governor in a two-day battle and put to flight, as evidenced by the Augsburg victory altar found in 1992 . In 271 there were repeated advances by the Juthung and other tribes to siege the city.
After the division of the Roman province of Raetia in 294, Augsburg became the capital of the province of Raetia Secunda, into which the Alemanni invaded after the end of Roman rule around 450 , but the settlement - as the tradition of the 6th century suggests - but continued.
Even in late antiquity , Augsburg was possibly the seat of a bishop , even if there is no written or archaeological evidence for this. Traditions about a bishop Narcissus of Girona around 300, during whose time the alleged martyrdom of the Afra of Augsburg fell, are uncertain. The medievalist Bernhard Schimmelpfennig has worked out that this was very likely originally a male Roman saint named Afer, who probably became a woman named Afra by prescription.
It is unclear whether Augsburg continued as the administrative seat without interruption between antiquity and the Middle Ages. The settlement and the Christianity of its population are attested for the 6th century, as is evident from the mention of the veneration of the city saint Afra in the Vita sancti Martini of Venantius Fortunatus from 565 and from archaeological finds.
Augsburg was affected by fighting between Bavaria and Franconia at the time of Charlemagne . Bishop Simpert , appointed by Karl, did a great job of rebuilding the city. The importance of Augsburg increased again towards the end of the early Middle Ages , when King Otto I, with the help of Bishop Ulrich von Augsburg, defeated the Hungarians who were striving westwards in the battle of the Lechfeld south of the city in 955 .
On June 21, 1156, Augsburg received city charter again through Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa , which was extended almost a hundred years later in 1251 by the right to keep a seal and to tax its citizens. Barbarossas Augsburger Schied 1158 (two years after Augsburg was elevated to town) marks the official founding day of Munich .
Elevation of Augsburg to an imperial city
The high point of these developments was the imperial immediacy , which was granted on March 9, 1276 by King Rudolf von Habsburg with the privilege of having his own statutes. The town charter was summarized in the town book of 1276. The now expanded independence of Augsburg led to violent disputes with the bishopric as the prince-bishop's secular domain , which culminated in the relocation of the main episcopal residence to Dillingen an der Donau . According to Eberhard Isenmann, Augsburg's development into an imperial city was completed in 1316 when Ludwig the Bavarian guaranteed the inalienability of the city from the empire.
As a result, more and more patrician families took control of the city, but this did not always go smoothly: In 1368, for example, there was an uprising of the city's craftsmen, which led to the introduction of a guild constitution. Eleven years later Augsburg joined the Swabian Association of Cities , which disintegrated again in 1388.
As a result of the guild constitution and the associated regulation of all craft activities, the power of the guilds grew steadily and they were involved in the city government until 1547. Seven years earlier, in 1540, the Augsburg Stock Exchange was founded. The city developed due to its central location on old highways z. B. the Via Claudia Augusta , the Via Julia and the Via Imperii to an important trading city with connections to the Hanseatic cities on the North and Baltic Seas, as well as to Italy.
The high point of this period was the dictatorship of Ulrich Schwarz , who took over the mayor's office in 1469 with great political visions. At first he succeeded, among other things, in giving the lower guilds, which were previously underrepresented, a say in the city government and in releasing Augsburg from the debt trap. When the patriciate opposed him, however, he resorted to brutal means and executed the death penalty on the patrician brothers Vittel , which led to his own overthrow and his execution in 1478.
With the arrival of Günther Zainer , the Augsburg printing industry began to flourish . In 1468 he printed S. Bonaventurae meditationes vite domini . In addition to sacred literature, the typographer sold folk books in German, edification pamphlets, pharmacopoeias and calendars. In 1471, Zainer edited Type 3, one of the first German antiqua typefaces . Erhard Ratdolt perfected antiqua design from Venice. Other officers who emerged ensured that the city was one of the most well-known publishing houses in Europe at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. Last but not least, Johann Schönsperger contributed to this. Since the imperial city did not have a university and market opportunities outside the academic or ecclesiastical sector opened up the secular public, between 1480 and 1500 around 75 percent of the books produced in Augsburg were printed in everyday language. So the German Aesop brought it to 22 editions at that time. Schönsperger's Theuerdank is counted among the greatest products in the book printing of the Renaissance .
Even before the final fall of guild rule in 1547, Augsburg developed from the beginning of the modern era to the end of the Renaissance into one of the most important trading and economic centers in the world, which was mainly due to the influence of the Fugger and Welser merchant families . During this time Augsburg, along with Cologne, Prague and Nuremberg, was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1500 the city belonged to the Swabian Empire . After the Diet of Augsburg in 1518, Martin Luther had to answer for his theses in the Fugger houses before Cardinal Thomas Cajetan commissioned by the Pope . He arrived in town on October 7th and left on the 20th of the month. The negotiations with Cardinal Cajetan took place on October 12th, 13th and 14th. During his stay, Luther lived in the Carmelite Monastery of St. Anna , where the Augsburg mayor's son and Carmelite Christoph Langenmantel stayed, who looked after him on a friendly basis and advised him. When Martin Luther refused to revoke his theses, there was an urgent danger of arrest. On the night of October 19-20, Christoph Langenmantel led him secretly through a secret gate in the city wall so that he could escape. On November 25, 1518 Luther sent him a letter of thanks from Wittenberg . Augsburg was one of the representatives of the Protestant minority at the Reichstag in Speyer in 1529 , but did not take part in the protest . Their citizenship demanded the unhindered spread of the Protestant faith, which was formulated at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 with the Augsburg Confession by Philipp Melanchthon . The Confessio Augustana represents the confession and founding document of the Lutheran Church .
In the city of Augsburg there was an important Anabaptist congregation between 1524 and 1573 , which became known primarily through the Augsburg Synod of Martyrs in August 1527, an international gathering of delegates from different Anabaptist circles. Important figures of the Augsburg Anabaptists were Jakob Dachser , Hans Leupold and Pilgram Marbeck . Most of the synodals later died martyrs for their beliefs.
On July 22nd, 1534, the city council decided that only predicants who had been "installed" were allowed to preach in the city. Catholic worship was restricted to the eight churches of the monasteries. Smaller churches and monastery churches were closed. With this religious mandate, the council formally claimed the ecclesiastical sovereignty of the city.
In 1548, Emperor Charles V initiated a new patrician city constitution and issued the Augsburg Interim . With the new city constitution, the city introduced an equal system of government and administration (equal rights and exact distribution of offices between Catholics and Protestants - see Equal Imperial City ). The Augsburg Imperial and Religious Peace of 1555 also calmed the coexistence of citizens in the city. 28 years later - on February 14th, Jul. / February 24, 1583 greg. - the Gregorian calendar was introduced in Augsburg ; this led to a violent calendar dispute , which reached its climax in June 1584 with the expulsion of the Lutheran theologian Georg Mylius .
During the Thirty Years' War , the Fugger town was occupied by a garrison of eight companies of Bavarian troops in 1628, which resulted in weekly costs of 8,950 guilders. From 1629 under the occupation, the edict of restitution was enforced at the expense of the Protestants and the Protestants were removed from the city council and the schools. On April 19, 1632, the Swedish army under King Gustav Adolf stood at the gates and demanded the surrender of the city. On April 20, the city council approved the voluntary surrender against the free withdrawal of the Bavarian occupation forces. The new commandant was initially the son of the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna and after him Johann Georg from the Winckel. The Protestant citizens got their old rights back. At the beginning of 1634 there was hardly any food in the city because the surrounding area was completely devastated and looted by troops passing through. In the middle of 1634 two Swedish armies under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar and Gustaf Horn again used the city and the surrounding area as a camp and starting point for their operations in the battles for Regensburg and Landshut . After the total defeat of the Swedes near Nördlingen , Augsburg was surrounded and cordoned off by imperial and Bavarian troops in the autumn of 1634, with the intention of starving the city. All access roads were blocked and attempts were repeatedly made to cut off the water supply. In the city there was a famine with horrific accompanying circumstances and 5000 deaths at the end of 1634. After that only Protestant citizens were cared for. After attempts by the Swedish commandant to secretly get food from Ulm failed, the city capitulated on March 13, 1635. Under the new Bavarian city commandant Otto Heinrich Fugger , the religious state was restored at the time of the Edict of Restitution and the city had to pay compensation of 300,000 guilders . In the following 12 years Augsburg was no longer so badly affected by the war. It was not until the end of the war in September 1646 that Augsburg became the target of a united Swedish-French army under the commanders Carl Gustav Wrangel and Turenne . The city was so heavily shelled that the citizens were ready to hand the city over to the Swedes again. But the Swedes gave up the siege when a Bavarian relief army approached under the commanders Johann von Werth . Augsburg was also marginally affected by the last major field battle of the war in mid-May 1648. After the battle of Zusmarshausen , the Bavarian troops, fleeing from the Swedish-French troops, withdrew to the city walls. The Bavarian general Melander , who was fatally wounded in the battle, died in Augsburg.
In the 18th century the art of instrument making in Augsburg experienced a new boom. It is closely associated with the name of Georg Friedrich Branders (1713–1783), whose products were well received across Europe. On the music side, Johann Andreas Stein and his daughter Nannette Streicher made a name for themselves : the former was one of the favorite piano makers of the Mozart family, the latter learned this craft from her father, but moved to Vienna around 1800, where she ran her own musical salon and u. a. had a lively correspondence with Ludwig van Beethoven , who would probably never have written his best works without her instruments. In the 18th century, Augsburg was also one of the most important print product centers in Europe. On December 13, 1703, Augsburg was occupied by Bavarian troops under Elector Maximilian II Emanuel during the War of the Spanish Succession , but they had to vacate it again in 1704.
In 1784/1785 there were weavers ' unrest, which finally culminated in the weavers' revolt on January 29, 1794 . The background to the dispute was the emerging textile industry with its calico manufacturers, which threatened the weaving trade. In 1771 Johann Heinrich Schüle set up the Schüleschen calico factory in Augsburg, the first factory on the European continent.
With the Peace Treaty of Pressburg (December 26, 1805), Augsburg, which had already been occupied by Bavarian troops on December 21 , lost its imperial freedom and fell to the Kingdom of Bavaria . Until then it had been ruled by seven patrician families. From 1809 the city received its own police director and was directly subordinate to the district administration. That is why they were called "immediate circle". After the districts were renamed administrative districts and the district offices were renamed districts (1938), it became “district-free” because these cities outside of the district associations were directly subordinate to the government.
In 1862 the Augsburg district office was established, from which the Augsburg district later emerged. During the territorial reform of 1972, this was combined with the former district of Schwabmünchen , part of the former district of Wertingen and some places in the districts of Donauwörth and Neuburg an der Donau . The district of Augsburg received its current expansion with the spin-off of the municipality of Baar to the district of Aichach-Friedberg in 1994. Augsburg remained the seat of the district, the city itself was always independent.
In the 19th century, Augsburg once again gained importance as the center of the textile industry and mechanical engineering. In addition to the now only under the symbol MAN known Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nuremberg , in the Rudolf Diesel to to 1897 1893 Diesel Engine developed, for example, had the Messerschmitt AG since 1927 their headquarters here. With the Allgemeine Zeitung by Johann Friedrich Cotta , the most important German daily newspaper of that time appeared in Augsburg .
At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, technical progress was also noticeable in the Fuggerstadt: after horse-drawn trams had been introduced on rails in 1881, the electric tram went into operation in 1898 .
In April 1919 there was a short time in connection with the Munich Soviet Republic in Augsburg based on the Soviets (Rus. For "Councils"), a Soviet republic , but on Easter Sunday under the military pressure of ausgewichenen to Bamberg Bavarian government under Johannes Hoffmann soft had .
National Socialism and World War II
In the Reichstag election on March 5, 1933, the NSDAP received 32.3 percent of the vote in Augsburg. With the beginning of the “National Revolution in Bavaria” on March 9th, the terror against political opponents also began in Augsburg. At the end of March 1933, the city council elected in 1929 was dissolved and re-elected based on the results of the Reichstag elections on March 5, but without the city councils of the KPD . In May, the SPD , which had previously been excluded from almost all city committees, left the city council under pressure from the National Socialists, and the BVP followed on July 5 . The members of the DNVP joined the faction of the NSDAP.
At the city council meeting on April 28, 1933, the 2nd mayor of the SPD, Friedrich Ackermann , was formally retired and Josef Mayr , who had previously been acting provisionally, was elected as the new 2nd mayor. On July 31, the mayor Otto Bohl (BVP) was dismissed and replaced by Edmund Stoeckle (NSDAP), the mayor of Lindenberg im Allgäu , in the city council meeting on August 3 . Apparently Stoeckle could not gain the trust of the party leadership and was replaced by Josef Mayr in December 1934. The takeover of power in the city was thus complete. The reorganization of the empire in 1933 was Bayern in six districts divided. Augsburg became the capital of the Gau Swabia .
As early as March 9, 1933, communist functionaries were taken into “ protective custody ”. If the arrests were initially directed against communists and social democrats, Jews and other unpopular people, as well as members of the BVP, were quickly arrested. The fire in the singer hall (in today's Wittelsbacher Park ) on April 30, 1934 was the cause of a wave of arrests.
At the beginning of 1933 there were 126 Jewish-owned companies in Augsburg, including 20 in industry and 55 wholesalers. Their total number fell to 79 as a result of the reprisals by 1938. During the November pogroms on the morning of November 10, 1938, the synagogue built in 1917 was set on fire. As a result, Jewish shops and private homes were devastated and the male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps (KZ) in order to force them to emigrate and to confiscate their property ( Aryanization ). In 1985 the synagogue was reopened after a long restoration and partly used as a Jewish museum. A memorial stone in the Jewish cemetery commemorates the approximately 400 murdered Jewish victims of the Holocaust in Augsburg . In addition to many other resistance fighters such as Bebo Wager , the SPD member of the state parliament, Clemens Högg, was killed during the Nazi era.
During the Second World War , several satellite camps of the Dachau concentration camp were set up due to the decentralization of armaments production at the Messerschmitt AG aircraft factory in Augsburg and in the surrounding area . In the district of Kriegshaber there was a women's camp for 500 Hungarian Jewish women. In the district of Haunstetten, a men's camp for 2,700 concentration camp prisoners was built in the area of a former gravel pit and, after being destroyed in bombing, it was rebuilt in an air intelligence base in Pfersee . There was also a camp for 1,000 prisoners in Gablingen and in Horgau. 235 prisoners were murdered by SS men or died from the catastrophic living conditions and were buried in the Westfriedhof, as three memorial plaques commemorate. In the spring of 1945, 2000 prisoners were driven from the Pfersee barracks to Klimmach on a death march , and many of them died.
Augsburg suffered severe damage from air raids during World War II, as the city, with production facilities for important armaments companies (including Messerschmitt and MAN), was a military target for allied bomber groups. Augsburg was bombed more than ten times (see air raids on Augsburg ), two of them in attacks with greater impact: on April 17, 1942, the target was the submarine engine production of MAN , on February 25 and 26, 1944 the attack took place as part of the Area Bombing Directive of the city center, the Messerschmitt works and the main train station as a southern German railway junction. In December 2016, a dud was evacuated while evacuating 54,000 people .
On April 28, 1945, units of the 7th US Army entered Augsburg - thanks to the successful Augsburg freedom movement without fighting - and thus liberated Augsburg from Nazi rule. Here they set up a base with several barracks, which was only completely abandoned in 1998 when the last troops withdrew (see US Garrison Augsburg ).
Federal Republic of Germany
The old town with its important buildings was largely rebuilt after the end of the war, with some work continuing to the present day. The renovation of the Golden Hall, which opened in 1985 on the occasion of the city's 2000th anniversary, was not completed until 1996. As the capital of the administrative district of Swabia, Augsburg integrated itself into the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Free State of Bavaria.
With the construction of the Rosenaustadion , the city gained great importance in the post-war period for numerous sporting events, including the venue for the German Athletics Championships in 1953 and the German Athletics Championships in 1963, as well as other national athletics competitions. The highlight of these events were the canoe and kayak competitions on the ice canal as well as some basketball , football and handball preliminary round games of the 1972 Olympic Games , which were held in Augsburg. The final assembly of the Ecumenical Whitsun Meeting was held in the Rosenaustadion, which took place in Augsburg in June 1971 and is considered the first joint church convention for Protestant and Roman Catholic Christians and thus the forerunner of the Ecumenical Church convention.
In October 1970, the university was opened as the successor to several other universities and began its work with the economic and social science department. With the establishment of further faculties and the construction of a campus from 1974, its importance grew steadily, so that today around 20,200 students are enrolled there.
After the urban health system had been organized very decentrally and inconsistently for many centuries, the inauguration of the central clinic, which is now called "Klinikum Augsburg" , marked a significant turning point in 1982: Since then, all emergencies and operations have been treated centrally in one hospital; the smaller clinics have since specialized (see health system in Augsburg ).
The city experienced a serious natural disaster with the Whitsun floods in 1999 , when Lech and Wertach burst their banks after days of rain and the simultaneous melting of snow in the Alps. When a weir collapsed, entire parts of the city were flooded, causing millions in damage.
After Augsburg hosted the 5th German Fire Brigade Day in 1862 , the 27th German Fire Brigade Day also took place there from June 20 to 25, 2000.
In recent times Augsburg has been shaken by crises several times due to the bankruptcy of important companies and today has an unemployment rate that is above the Bavarian average . Various setbacks such as the failed expansion of the airfield into a large regional airport and the failed establishment of a BMW plant contributed to this. Augsburg has attracted attention in recent years through major cultural events such as the Mozart or Brecht year .
In 2011 Augsburg was one of the venues for the women's soccer world championship .
City goddess Cisa
Allegedly Cisa (dea Ciza) was the city goddess of Augsburg. In the marginal notes of the Excerptum ex Gallica Historia (around 1135) from the Ursberg monastery , the unsuccessful Roman siege of the city of Cisaris, later Augsburg, established by Swabian tribes between Lech and Wertach, is reported in detail. The city was named after a shrine to the goddess Cisa. In this text, the local names Kriegshaber are derived from a Greek Avar, Hafnerberg from a military prefect habeno ( also: Hebeino) and Pfersee from a military tribune Verres ( also: Verus ) ( see also : Derivation of the name Pfersee ).
The text from the 12th century turns out to be a diffuse compilation with a clear focus on the imaginative interpretation of no longer understood, probably pre-Alemannic local names , which is not unusual for legend research . Only the goddess Cisa remained in the discussion, certainly because Jacob Grimm explicitly emphasized the “value of the strange tradition” in his German mythology .
Whether an Alemannic Ziu veneration can be accepted at the location of today's Kitzenberg near the St. Ulrich and Afra basilica cannot be scientifically proven either. A provincial Roman Medusa head was known in Augsburg at least since the late Middle Ages , which was walled in in today's Ulrichskirche and is now in the Roman Museum. A representation of the Cisa can be seen on the weather vane of the Perlach Tower ; Furthermore, according to legend, some representations on the bronze doors of the cathedral point to the goddess.
The Stoinerne Ma
The "Stoinerne Ma" ("Stone Man") is a life-size stone figure on the eastern Augsburg city wall in the area of the so-called "Schwedenstiege", which is located in the immediate vicinity of the Gallus Church. It probably represents a one-armed baker with a loaf of bread and a shield. In the area of the feet there is a spiral-shaped pedestal .
According to legend, it is about the baker "Konrad Hackher", who baked bread from sawdust during a long siege of the city and threw it over the city wall into the ditch, clearly visible to the besiegers. The impression that there was still enough bread in Augsburg that it could be thrown over the wall is said to have demoralized the besiegers so much that they shot him with a crossbow out of anger. One hit cut off his arm, and soon afterwards they broke off the siege. Historically, the event belongs to the Thirty Years' War , more precisely to the siege of Augsburg during the years 1634/35, when Catholic Bavarian troops under General Field Marshal von Wahl wanted to recapture the city occupied by the Protestant Swedes. The baker's act has not been reliably proven.
There are, however, facts beyond this legend: In his meticulously researched contribution to No. 54 of the “Zeitschrift des Historische Verein für Schwaben”, published in 1941, Eduard Lampart defines the figure, which was then still on the corner of the Pulvergässchen / Unterer Graben, as a handicraft made out of some that did not originally belong together Share. It should be about finds from earthworks in the city, which were carted over generations to the mentioned corner house, because until 1810 it was the seat of the incumbent "municipal building supervisor". It is thanks to one of the building supervisors that the figure was erected between the beginning and the middle of the 18th century. It was only later that she was told that she represents the historically unproven baker's hero Hacker.
The statue is often headed for by walkers who stroll along the city wall. Since touching the stone figure's nose is said to bring good luck, this custom is particularly popular with lovers.
The seven children
In the house wall of the property Bei den Sieben Kindeln 3 () there is an embedded stone relief from Roman times depicting six playing, naked children who are gathered around a coffin.
Legend has it that the plaque was commissioned by a Roman officer to commemorate the drowning of one of his children (this is why it is called "seven" children, although the plaque only shows six: the seventh child drowned and lies in the coffin) . As far as we know today, the plate represents erots and once formed the long side of a so-called erotic sarcophagus .
The urban area had already been expanded again and again through the incorporation of surrounding communities, but it only took on larger dimensions in the 20th century. The incorporations can be assigned to two waves: a first before and during the First World War , a second in 1972 in the course of the Bavarian municipal reform . Augsburg's Lord Mayor at the time, Hans Breuer, would have liked to incorporate even more surrounding cities, but failed because of the resistance of the local population. A corridor was swapped with the neighboring town of Gersthofen on July 1, 1999 in order to set up a postal logistics center .
|July 1, 1910||Meringerau community (today Siebenbrunn )||953.7 ha|
|Jan. 1, 1911||Pfersee municipality||345.8 ha|
|Jan. 1, 1911||Municipality Oberhausen||862.2 ha|
|Jan. 1, 1913||City of Lechhausen||2794.4 ha|
|Jan. 1, 1913||Community Hochzoll (to 1905 Friedbergerau)||435.0 ha|
|April 1, 1916||Kriegshaber parish||5.9 ha|
|July 1, 1972||City of Göggingen||1079.2 ha|
|July 1, 1972||City of Haunstetten||1393.2 ha|
|July 1, 1972||Inningen municipality (with Bergheim )||3383.9 ha|
|May 1, 1978||St. Anton settlement||32.0 ha|
|July 1, 1979||Area part of Gersthofen||38.1 ha|
|July 1, 1999||Area part of Gersthofen (area swap)||1.6 ha|
Origin of name
The name of Augsburg is derived from the city's Roman name, Augusta Vindelicorum . The city had the first part of the name, Augusta , because it was built on the orders of Emperor Augustus by his two step-sons Drusus and Tiberius in 15 BC. BC (initially as a military camp) was founded. The second part, Vindelicorum , is the genitive plural of the Latin name for the tribe of the Vindeliker , who at that time settled in the foothills of the Alps between Lake Constance and Inn .
At the head of the city of Augsburg, as the chairman of the council since 1266, the city administrator , who was occasionally referred to as the mayor , has been shown to have been, which meant that both titles were sometimes used at the same time. It was not until 1548 that the title was finally set to Stadtpfleger. These officiated for several years and were elected for life from then on, which is why there were several city administrators at the same time.
After the transfer to Bavaria, a magistrate with two mayors was installed in Augsburg, which was supported from 1818 by an additional board of municipal representatives. In 1919, this two-chamber system was abandoned in favor of the establishment of a “city council”, which has been chaired by the “First Mayor”, who usually bears the title of Lord Mayor (see list of Lord Mayors of Augsburg ).
On March 16, 2008, Kurt Gribl ( CSU , at the time of the election, however, without a party) prevailed in a runoff election against incumbent Paul Wengert ( SPD ) and on May 2, 2008, took over the office of Lord Mayor. In the local elections on March 16, 2014, incumbent Gribl ran again as candidate for mayor for the CSU. He prevailed against his challengers with 51.8% without a runoff election and was thus confirmed in office.
On March 29, 2020, Eva Weber (CSU) was elected mayor as the first woman in the city's history. She won the runoff election with 62.3% against Dirk Wurm (SPD), who received 37.7% of the vote.
The city council is made up of 60 city councilors and the mayor.
|Election results of the city council since 1972 in percent|
|year||CSU||SPD||FDP||Green||ÖDP||Left 1||REP||NPD||Pro Augsburg||AfD||Others|
1 2002 as PDS , until 1984 the DKP is listed. In 2017, Alexander Süßmair resigned from the party, taking his city council mandate with him.
2 Christian Social Center (CSM): 3, Free Voters : 2, Polit-WG e. V .: 1
In the election to the 17th German Bundestag in September 2009 , Christian Ruck was directly elected by the CSU with 42.2 percent of the vote. Miriam Greetings for the FDP , Heinz Paula for the SPD , Alexander Süssmair for the Left Party and Claudia Roth for Alliance 90 / The Greens also moved into the Bundestag via the state list .
After Christian Ruck and Heinz Paula did not stand in the election to the 18th German Bundestag, only Claudia Roth from Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen was re-elected. Volker Ullrich (CSU) won the direct mandate, Ulrike Bahr was elected from the state list for the SPD . Alexander Süßmair and Miriam Gruß were not re-elected.
In Bavaria, Article 18a of the municipal code allows municipal citizens the right to initiate petitions within the framework of direct influence at the municipal level . Successful collections of signatures are voted on by means of a referendum . In Augsburg, citizens were called to the ballot box on the following issues:
- In 1995, the building contractor Ignaz Walter intended to build an underground car park near the center of Fuggerstrasse. A referendum was in favor of the building, another was opposed to it. In January 1996, 63 percent of those who voted voted in favor of rejecting the underground car park, while a minority of 37 percent wanted the building to be completed. The turnout was 36.3 percent.
- A few months later, the construction of the so-called “Schleifenstrasse”, including the bypass at the Red Gate, caused a stir. Various citizens 'initiatives, which presented noise pollution from traffic and impairment of the living environment, collected the necessary signatures for a citizens' petition. The Augsburg city council contrasted the rejection of the initiatives with the improved concept of a "city-friendly" tangent. It received 80 percent “yes” votes in the referendum in June 1997. 32.5 percent of those eligible to vote went to the vote on Schleifenstrasse, which was built afterwards.
- In 2007, concrete deliberations of the Augsburg city administration and the municipal transport company for the redesign of Königsplatz became the subject of a public petition. As part of the planning for the Augsburg mobility hub, the central bus stop system was to be enlarged and modernized. It was intended to intervene in the adjacent green area, including clearing trees. The opponents first demanded an ideas competition for an overall traffic concept before the conversion. On November 25, 2007, the referendum took place on the renovation. 53.2 percent of the citizens voting decided for this competition. The turnout was 24.2 percent.
- The city government consisting of CSU and Pro Augsburg decided after the competition for a car-free Königsplatz, achieved by relocating the main traffic axes. Citizens mobilized against this plan and called for the construction of a tunnel at Königsplatz. In the referendum on November 21, 2010, those eligible to vote were able to vote separately on a council petition, the referendum petition and a key question. The city council alternative, which provides a precautionary "relief road" if necessary, was preferred by the voters with 73.9 percent "yes" votes. The construction of a tunnel not only failed due to the required quorum of 19,391 votes, but would also have been rejected by a majority with 68.1 percent of the counted valid votes. The turnout was 28.8 percent.
Sometimes the local politicians react to resistance from the population even without a referendum, if there are signs of strong signature support from sympathizers for a project. After years of hesitation for financial reasons , the construction of the new Augsburg city library was completed in a short time, and the intended sale of the old city pool was halted by the will of the people.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In a shield split by red and silver, a green stone pine nut on a golden capital."|
Reasons for the coat of arms: The official heraldic description of the Augsburg coat of arms names a shield split by red and silver, on which there is a green pine nut on a capital that has also been green since 1985 . Accordingly, the city colors are red-green-white.
The oldest verifiable city seal of Augsburg from 1237 shows a two-tower city gate with a battlement wall and a star above it. In the archway is a tree of life , from 1260 a grape on foot, which probably alludes to the name of the city "Augster", which represents a grape variety.
In the 15th century a green grape was depicted in a red and white shield, which changed when a pine cone was found (probably the tip of a Roman grave building) in 1467: Since then, a stone pine nut has been depicted instead of the grape . The little head on the capital has been traceable since 1521, the top of the wall only since 1811. The meaning of these symbols is not clear. The city colors have been known since 1372. On the occasion of the 2000th anniversary in 1985, the coat of arms was redesigned in line with contemporary tastes.
As a stylized pine cone, the stone pine was the standard of the Roman legion of the Roman camp and became the symbol of the later Roman capital of the province of Raetia . The stone pine nut can still be found on numerous buildings and walls throughout the city as a symbol of Augsburg's dignity.
The pine nut stands in a red and white split shield, which can be traced back to the banner of the Bishop of Augsburg, who, like the old standard of the Duchy of Swabia , wore the colors red and white.
Augsburg entered into its first town twinning with Inverness in Scotland in 1956 at the suggestion of the British Consulate General in Munich . After the first mutual visits by official representatives in the same year, there was a permanent cultural exchange; the town twinning was never contractually stipulated.
|The Augsburg city partnerships|
|Inverness||Scotland , GB||1956|
|Dayton||Ohio , USA||1964|
|Jinan||Shandong , China||2004|
The first German- Japanese sister city federation goes back to the initiative of Magokichi Yamaokas , who studied in Munich before the Second World War and was interested in Rudolf Diesel , which is why he was often in Augsburg. After the war, Yamaoka was now head of the Yanmar Diesel Works and donated the Japanese Rudolf Diesel Memorial Grove in Wittelsbacher Park . He then used his political and private influence to link the cities of Amagasaki and Nagahama , where his company owned factories, with Augsburg, resulting in the double partnership in 1959.
In 1964 the connection to the American city of Dayton ( Ohio ) was established, which had its origins in the "People to People" project announced by US President Eisenhower in 1956. In addition, the Dayton-based company NCR had established its German headquarters in Augsburg.
After signing the Élysée Treaty in 1964, the Augsburg city council wanted to partner with a city in France. In consultation with the International Union of Mayors, the choice fell on the centrally located Bourges . The partnership agreement was signed in April 1967.
31 years later, on May 1, 2001, another partnership agreement was signed, the origin of which dates back to the post-war period: in 1955 the city of Augsburg sponsored all those displaced from the Czech city of Liberec (Reichenberg), the majority of whom were in the Fuggerstadt had found a new home. After the end of the Cold War , the formerly displaced first made cultural contact, which led to regular exchange programs.
The last partnership entered into is rooted in the provincial partnership of the Free State of Bavaria with the Chinese province of Shandong from 1987. As a result, the provincial capital Jinan became interested in entering into a partnership with a Bavarian city. After the first mutual visits and contacts, the mayors signed the partnership certificate on September 3, 2004.
In 1954, at the suggestion of the German Association of Cities , the then market town of Göggingen took on a " sponsorship for the Neudek district " ( Sudetenland ), which was taken over by the city of Augsburg with the incorporation of the city of Göggingen in 1972 and to the "displaced persons from the city and the Neudek district" was expanded. For some years now there have been friendly contacts with the city of Nejdek . In the same year Augsburg became a godfather for the Swabian Illertissen , which was promoted to town that year.
Only one year later, all Germans expelled from the Reichenberg region (Czech Liberec ), which is now part of the Czech Republic, were sponsored , which ultimately led to an official town twinning in 2001 after the fall of the Iron Curtain (see: town twinning ).
The Fugger city is also the godfather for a number of modes of transport. As early as 1909, a small cruiser was named SMS Augsburg during the imperial era, and two frigates Augsburg had been christened in the German Navy since 1958 , the F 222 and the F 213 . Since 2008, the Ammersee fleet's MS Augsburg passenger ship has also been named after the city. In addition, an ICE 3 operated by Deutsche Bahn has been operating since 2002 , a LINT 41 operated by Bayerische Regiobahn since 2008 and an Airbus A320-211 operated by Lufthansa under the name Augsburg since 1990 .
Events connected with Augsburg were shown in postage stamps on the 1000th anniversary of the Battle of Lechfeld (1955), the Ecumenical Whitsun Meeting (1971), the Olympic competitions on the Augsburg Ice Canal (1972), the 450th anniversary of the Confessio Augustana (1980), for the 2000 year celebration of the city (1985) or the 450th anniversary of the Augsburg religious peace (2005).
On the day of the postage stamp in 1984, a postage stamp appeared for the 16th century Augsburg post office. At Christmas 1995, motifs from the St. Mary's window in Augsburg Cathedral were issued. A series with motifs from the Augsburger Puppenkiste was published in the summer of 2017 . The private delivery company Logistic-Mail-Factory , based in Augsburg, issued several stamp series with a connection to the city, including motifs about the Fugger family , the Augsburg zoo or the doll box.
World Heritage List
The city of Augsburg, the plaintiff has succeeded in its historical centuries back reaching, advanced water management system in the World Heritage List of Unesco to get enrolled. The strict separation between drinking and industrial water was introduced here as early as 1545.
Culture and sights
Augsburg has always been a cultural center in its history and still today has a national significance for art and culture in various areas.
Ancient and Middle Ages
From the time of the Roman settlement as Augusta Vindelicum only a few finds remain today, most of which are exhibited in museums. The best way to glimpse the former life can be seen on the course of the Via Claudia Augusta , most of which is still there today.
In the Middle Ages, mainly sacred buildings were built, the most important of which are the Cathedral of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary and the Basilica of St. Ulrich and Afra , which still shape the cityscape today. The prophet windows from around 1140 in the southern upper aisle of the cathedral are the only surviving examples of Romanesque stained glass in the world . Other important ecclesiastical works of art from this period are the bronze doors of Augsburg Cathedral from 1065, which were renovated in 2000. Ortisei and Afra, in turn, together with the small Protestant Ulrichskirche in front of it, form a magnificent group of buildings. The Romanesque church of St. Peter am Perlach is one of the oldest brick buildings in southern Germany. Of the other preserved churches from the Middle Ages, the buildings of St. Moritz , St. Jakob , Heilig Kreuz (Catholic church) and St. Georg are particularly characteristic of the cityscape. They date from the Romanesque period, but have been rebuilt again and again since the Gothic period and some of them were badly hit in the Second World War. This is particularly true for the Barfüßerkirche and St. Stephan .
In addition, medieval Augsburg was surrounded by large fortifications and the continuous city wall , many parts of which are still preserved today, including the Fünfgratturm , the Red Gate and the Wertachbrucker Gate . Gold and silversmiths settled within these walls at the same time, and they built up an excellent reputation over the centuries. Her works can now be viewed in various museums and exhibitions. The city itself is still characterized by a noticeably high number of craftsmen in this field. The goldsmiths fountain on Martin-Luther-Platz testifies to their presence.
Around 1500 Augsburg was the fourth largest city in the empire after Cologne, Prague and Nuremberg , far ahead of Vienna or even Berlin. Therefore, the city has a large old town with numerous medieval churches.
Augsburg experienced its absolute peak at the time of the Renaissance , when artists such as Hans Holbein the Elder or Hans Burgkmair the Elder worked and made the city one of the most important cultural centers in Central Europe. During this time, some of the most important and well-known sights were built, financed not least by the wealthy merchant families of the Fuggers and Welsers . In the Church of St. Anna , the Fugger family had a burial chapel built as the first German Renaissance building. The Fugger houses in Maximilianstrasse , which is also otherwise important from an art-historical point of view, were built between 1512 and 1515 as the residence of the Fugger family. The Fuggerei was also the oldest social housing estate in the world that is still in use today. The Katharinenkirche was built in 1516/17 . The master builder Johannes Holl built the Köpfhaus . His son Elias Holl later built the town hall , which is considered the most important secular Renaissance building north of the Alps and towers over the magnificent fountain ( Augustus fountain , Hercules fountain and Mercury fountain ). The Perlach Tower also got its present appearance at that time. The Augsburger Zeughaus , the Stadtmetzg and the Neue Bau as well as the Heilig-Geist-Spital are other important buildings of the late Renaissance by Elias Holl and were built at the beginning of the 17th century.
Of the former Franciscan church built between 1609 and 1613, the current parish church of St. Maximilian , only the facade survived the last war. In contrast, the recently built Jesuit Church of St. Salvator was completely demolished in 1872. Only parts of the college , another Fugger foundation, have been preserved.
Baroque, Rococo and Classicism
But later epochs have also left their mark on Augsburg. Significant baroque sacred buildings are particularly Heilig Kreuz (Protestant church) , St. Michael and St. Margareth . Some older buildings such as the Imperial City Department Store were also rebuilt at that time. Above all, the rococo style , also known as the Augsburg taste , left its mark on the city: the episcopal residence and the Schaezlerpalais in particular date from this period . The interiors turned out to be particularly splendid. The Roeck House and the Martini Palais are also evidence of this time. Bothmersche Palais (1800) dates back to the classicism period .
Historicism and Art Nouveau
During the Industrial Revolution , factories were built such as the Schülesche Kattunfabrik , the Glass Palace or the Factory Castle , which today mostly serve other purposes (mostly as museums or art galleries), and industrial villas such as the Gignoux House , the Villa Haag or the Villa Silbermann . Representative buildings of historicism in Augsburg are above all the great house of the city theater and the building of the state and city library . The Art Nouveau left in Augsburg with the synagogue , the Kurhaus in Göggingen , the Sacred Heart Church in the district Pfersee and the old municipal swimming pool also extraordinary buildings.
After the Second World War, the cityscape was primarily shaped by buildings for major events, especially the Rosenaustadion as the most modern stadium of its time and many buildings constructed using exposed concrete , such as the Erhard Wunderlich sports hall , the congress center with the hotel tower or the Curt Frenzel Stadium .
The list of monuments published and maintained by the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation currently contains 1,226 individual monuments in Augsburg - these make up around 1.6 percent of the city's total building stock. In addition, Augsburg has 20 registered ensembles as well as the large-scale old town ensemble, which in turn has 65 protected squares and streets.
Even before the outbreak of the Second World War, the Augsburg Zoo was opened in 1937 , which was stocked with exotic animals after the end of the war and is now the most popular cultural institution in Bavarian Swabia with more than 500,000 visitors annually.
Museums and galleries
The Maximilian Museum was built in 1855 and completely renovated for the first time at the turn of the millennium, giving it a historical-modern flair. The exhibition area extends over several floors and is divided into permanent exhibitions, which include sculptures, goldsmithing, architectural designs and city history collections, as well as a part for temporary exhibitions.
Since 2006 there has been a permanent exhibition in the Jewish Culture Museum that documents the history of the Jews in Augsburg and Swabia from the Middle Ages to the present day. It documents “religious practice in the course of time” and makes clear “Jewish history as an integral part” of Augsburg and Swabian history.
The Swabian Crafts Museum is run by the Swabian Chamber of Crafts and shows historical workshops of old and mostly extinct crafts such as bathers , saddlers , shoemakers , watchmakers , bakers , bookbinders and trimmers . Original equipment, tools and work materials can be seen. A separate exhibition is also dedicated to the guilds .
In the Roman Museum , which is located in the rooms of the former Dominican monastery of St. Magdalena, archaeological finds from Augsburg and the surrounding area can be viewed from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age to Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. However, the focus is on objects from the time as the Roman provincial capital.
The Schaezlerpalais , which reopened in 2006 after extensive renovation measures, is on the one hand worth seeing as a highlight of the Rococo style , but on the other hand it also houses important art collections: the German Baroque Gallery , the Graphic Collection and the Karl and Magdalene Haberstock Foundation .
From there, there is also access to another collection, the neighboring State Gallery in the Katharinenkirche - Old German Masters , it has been located here since the early 19th century. Works by Albrecht Dürer can be seen here.
For fans of modern art, the Glass Palace with the Walter Art Museum and the neighboring Noah Gallery is the right place, because the private collection of the entrepreneur Prof. Ignatz Walter is shown here on 5500 square meters of exhibition space. The focus of the collection is contemporary art. The highlight is the glass art by Egidio Costantini, whose numerous works were created in collaboration with artists such as Picasso, Miró and Braque. The State Gallery of Modern Art , a branch of the Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich, and the H2 - Center for Contemporary Art are also located here.
The ice hockey museum is located next to the Plärrer and exhibits various exhibits by famous ice hockey players at home and abroad, for example the estate of Gustav Jaenecke. It also runs the Hall of Fame Germany, into which players, referees, coaches, officials and journalists are admitted.
The Museum Lutherstiege Augsburg shows objects and rooms from the time of Martin Luther.
In addition, the Fuggerstadt offers a large number of other museums and galleries with different themes and has recently received other important museums with the Bahnpark , the Fugger and Welser Adventure Museum , the Gas Works Museum and the State Textile and Industry Museum.
Administratively, several large museums such as the Schaezlerpalais, the Maximilian Museum and the Roman Museum have been combined in the Augsburg art collections and museums .
Theaters and stages
The Augsburg State Theater , the most important in the city, has a music theater, drama and ballet ensemble that performs at several venues - in the Great House , in the brechtbühne , in the Hoffmannkeller , on the open-air stage at the Red Gate and in the congress hall.
The Augsburger Puppenkiste , a puppet theater with productions such as Urmel from the ice or Jim Knopf and Lukas the locomotive driver, is known throughout Germany .
With the Sensemble Theater , Augsburg owns a nationally known experimental theater that initially played on an open-air stage and now has its own venue in the Augsburg culture factory . The pieces of the S'ensemble Theater range from spoken , musical , improvisational and expressive theater to performance and installation .
Augsburg's film theaters have a long tradition. The first documented screening took place on October 19, 1896 in the Mercur coffee house on Judenberg, where various short films - for example the arrival of a train at a train station - were shown by a cinematograph . In the years that followed, showmen regularly came to various folk festivals with their traveling cinematographs.
The Augsburg grocer Fridolin Widmann officially registered the first cinema building for the event of vaudeville in November 1906: The Thalia-Theater can thus call itself the oldest cinema in the city, even if this name is only proven in 1909.
Many early cinemas no longer exist or are under different names. The construction of two multiplex cinemas for Hollywood - Blockbuster , a Cinestar at the main train station and a Cinemaxx in the City-Galerie , which marked the end of traditional film theaters such as the Capitol , Dreimäderlhaus or the Filmpalast , marked a turning point at the turn of the millennium . Some smaller cinemas talked mostly as cinemas , the other cultural events offer ( Liliom , Mephisto , Savoy and Thalia ). Every summer, the Augsburg Lechflimmern takes place with daily open-air cinema in the outdoor pool on the Plärrer.
In the summer of 2006, the Bavarian film Who dies earlier is dead longer celebrated its premiere in the Mephisto .
Bands and performers
Augsburg is the home of several well-known music interpreters and bands throughout Germany. The best known is probably The Seer , which was founded in 1990 and plays a mixture of anthem-like rock and folk elements.
The band Impotenz was founded ten years earlier and initially attracted attention with its provocative lyrics. For example, the song Nutten an die Macht was even put on the prohibited list by the Bavarian Radio . In 1984 they actually wanted to record a single with Roy Black, which he had to cancel due to health reasons.
As early as the 1960s, Augsburg offered a good place for bands that have made a name for themselves above all on the local level - for example The Roughroads or The Shotguns . In contrast, the pop bands Nova International and Anajo have become known in recent times . The latter represented the federal state of Bavaria in the Bundesvision Song Contest in 2007 and came in ninth place. The group Dear John Letter , whose post-rock became known mainly through the Internet, has now also achieved national fame . Above all, the song Auf uns , which ARD made the World Cup song for reporting on the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, also helped Andreas Bourani , who was born and raised in Augsburg, to achieve great popularity in Germany.
Roy Black , who began as a beat singer with The Cannons , but then became famous for his hits (for example, You are not alone ), is not a native of Augsburg, but comes from the village of Straßberg a few kilometers south. Nevertheless, he spent his entire youth in the Fuggerstadt, as he graduated from the Holbein-Gymnasium there .
Many well-known Augsburg bands can be heard on the album 2000 Töne , which was recorded on the occasion of the city's 2000th birthday.
The most important choir in Augsburg are the Domsingknaben , a purely boys' ensemble that is under the patronage of the Cathedral of St. Mary's Visitation , which is why the singers were also called Marians in the past . The choir has a long tradition: It was first mentioned in a document in 1439. In addition to the regular organization of the liturgy of worship in the cathedral, its members regularly take part in concerts and trips abroad and have become known through numerous records and CD recordings.
The Augsburg Philharmonic Choir is just as important. In 2018 he celebrated the 175th anniversary. It is a merger of the Augsburger Liedertafel (1843) and the Oratorienverein Augsburg (1866). The Albert Greiner Sing- und Musikschule (today Sing- und Musikschule Mozartstadt Augsburg, SuMMA for short) and the Music School (today Leopold Mozart Center of the University of Augsburg (LMZ)) emerged from these two choirs. The Philharmonic Choir acts twice a year together with the Augsburg Philharmonic (which were founded over 100 years ago due to the urging of both choirs) and in return receives the Philharmonic for a choir concert a year, which usually takes place in the Kongress am Park. The choir is particularly known for its performances of Carmina Burana, but also for German premieres such as B. Andrew Lloyd Webber's Requiem. The Augsburg Christmas Singing (by Otto Jochum and Albert Greiner) in the Golden Hall of the town hall is performed annually during Advent. The choir has over 100 active members and has been directed by Wolfgang Reß since 1982.
Especially in the context of the Mozart Year 2006, the Mozart Choir Augsburg received nationwide attention. It was founded in 1976 and consists of experienced amateur singers. His repertoire mainly includes oratorios that are performed with well-known soloists or orchestras.
There are also a number of other choirs, most of which belong to Christian communities or organizations, music and general education schools. The mixed choirs of the former Albert Greiner Singing and Music School , since 2010 Singing and Music School Mozartstadt Augsburg , and the high school near St. Stephan , which are known far beyond the city limits, stand out .
The Bavarian Chamber Philharmonic is the most famous orchestra in Augsburg, although it was only founded in 1990. The chamber orchestra is especially devoted to the interpretation of classical and contemporary music and has now established itself in the world of music, which is partly due to two major awards that he was awarded in 1996: The Prize of the European economy and the Culture Prize of the European regions .
The Augsburg Philharmonic is the largest orchestra in the city and part of the Augsburg State Theater . In the theater, it takes part in up to 120 musical theater performances a year and has its own series of symphony concerts in the Kongress am Park. The 70 musicians also perform independently or in collaboration with other choirs.
Other orchestras are provided by many schools, organizations and music lovers, who ensure a large calendar of musical events in the city.
Augsburg can look back over the centuries on a number of important citizens whose anniversaries gave the city the opportunity to hold major events. Large events on the subject of Bertolt Brecht take place at regular intervals , including literary projects or theater performances. The Brecht Festival has been held annually since 2010 .
At the beginning of 2006, the so-called Mozart year , Augsburg presented itself as the German Mozart city , as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's father Leopold Mozart and his family came from the region and WA Mozart's (alleged) childhood sweetheart Maria Anna Thekla Mozart was a citizen of the city . In this context, numerous concerts and lectures took place in cooperation with the German Mozart Society (DMG) and the Augsburg Mozart Community, which was merged with DMG in 2011 and existed since 1937 .
The Augsburg International Film Festival has been held every March since 1985 and can be broken down into four sub-events: the Augsburg Children's Film Festival , the Days of Independent Film , the Augsburg Short Film Weekend and the international Cinema of Tomorrow symposium for young filmmakers and students. In 2006 the festival was canceled due to financing problems, which were resolved in autumn of the same year, so that the film days will also take place in the future.
The modular youth and pop culture festival has existed in Augsburg since 2007 and takes place annually and attracts around 30,000 visitors over three days.
From 2013 the STAC - the Show Festival (short: Stac Festival, or STAC) took place in the Reese Theater , which is located on the old barracks area of the Kulturpark West in Augsburg's Kriegshaber district . The STAC emerged from a free artist group of young adults, the Street Academy . STAC Festival gGmbH has been operating as a non-profit company since 2013 . At the end of May 2019, the STAC Festival lost its original, permanent venue due to the closure and ultimately demolition of the Reese Theater. In the search for a new location, the variety of possible event locations in the greater Augsburg area became apparent , which resulted in a new concept idea. In order to reach new catchment areas for artists and spectators and to be able to inspire more people with regional, performing arts, several event locations were selected in the entire metropolitan area.
The Augsburg media art festival lab.30 has also taken place annually since it was founded in 2003. Experimental local, regional and international projects that work with digital and analog technologies are shown.
There are also a number of other events of all kinds and styles, from concerts to art and cabaret days. The city is also the location of the Honky Tonk Festival.
The Augsburger Plärrer with about 1.2 million visitors each year, the largest festival in Bavarian Swabia and the third largest in Bavaria. The Plärrer takes place twice a year on the so-called small parade ground near the municipal outdoor pools: once in spring (beginning on Easter Sunday) and once in late summer (end of August / beginning of September) - it lasts about two weeks each time. Most of the showmen come from southern Germany. This folk festival can look back on more than a thousand years of tradition and attracts thousands of visitors every day. Bertolt Brecht honored it in 1917 in his poem Das Plärrerlied .
A second major event is the Augsburger Dult , a former church festival. This creates an almost one kilometer long street between Jakobertor and Vogeltor (along the old city wall), which offers the typical goods of a fair. The Dulten are visited by thousands twice a year: Once around Easter (the so-called Spring or Easter Dult) and around 29 September, St. Michael's Day (the so-called Autumn or Michaelidult).
On this day there is also the only opportunity of the year to look at the Turamichele , a mechanically moving figure of the Archangel Michael : It appears every full hour in the lowest west window of the Perlach Tower and gives the devil as many stitches as the clock strikes. On this day there will also be a big children's festival on the Rathausplatz.
Since 2016, the Augsburg Summer Nights have been held once a year in downtown Augsburg. The streets, squares and courtyards are transformed into a large festival zone with different music, exotic and regional delicacies and colorful lighting concepts.
Every year during Advent, the Augsburg Christkindlesmarkt is set up on Rathausplatz . It is mentioned in a protocol as early as 1498 and is one of the oldest Christmas markets in Germany. Since 1977 the “angel game” has been taking place on the Advent weekends and at the opening and closing of the market, with 24 people in angel costumes appearing on the balcony of the town hall.
As the scene of the Augsburg Imperial and Religious Peace of 1555, the first treaty for the peaceful coexistence of Catholics and Protestants, Augsburg also presents itself as a "City of Peace" and awards the Augsburg Peace Prize every three years , which has already been awarded to Michail Gorbatschow and Richard von Weizsäcker received.
The area around Maximilianstrasse with a wide range of bars, clubs and cafes is the center of nightlife . Larger discos are mainly to be found in the outskirts of the city, as well as smaller bars and pubs (in the working-class districts in the north of the city mainly so-called boizen , in the south of the city mainly student-style restaurants).
The best-known Augsburg specialty is the sheet cake known as plum dachi , baked from yeast or shortcrust pastry and topped with halved plums , allegedly invented in the city. The cake can be found in an Augsburg recipe book from 1830. Since the 19th century the mock designation Datschiburg has been used for the city and Datschibürger for the residents.
Typical accompaniments to Augsburg dishes are spaetzle , sometimes also served as a separate dish - Kässpatzen are served with fried onions and salad . (Cabbage) Schupfnudeln and roast pork , which is appreciated almost everywhere in Bavaria, are also popular.
A precise assignment of Augsburg to a language group turns out to be difficult, since the city forms the border between different areas of distribution of dialects and thus the language there is shaped by diverse influences. In principle, the dialect can be assigned to the East Swabian - Alemannic dialects with Middle High German relics, but is also interspersed with Central and South Bavarian dialect forms. The younger generations in particular speak a Swabian dialect that is more strongly influenced by High German and Bavarian .
Like all Alemannic dialects, Augsburger is located southwest of the fest-fescht line: historical / s / is shifted before / t / (and more rarely / p, b / and / k / ) in all positions to / ʃ / . (Examples: is → isch ; know → woisch ; Augsburg → Augschburg ; couldn't you even show me the best way to do it → kénndsch mr ned amol zoiga, wia i dés âm beschda zom dua hâb / hâo ). Further features are the rolled alveolar / r / → [r] and / n / apocopes. (Examples: speak → schsprecha ; or → odr , "The stone man" is pronounced dr schtoinarne Mâ (or dr schtoinerne Mo ), while the tram is known as Schtrossabô .)
sport and freetime
Since the 2011/12 season, the Fuggerstadt has had a club in the Bundesliga , FC Augsburg , which even qualified for participation in the 2015/16 Europa League . Previously, the club, founded in 1907, had won the championship title in the Regionalliga Süd in 2006 and thus returned to the 2nd Bundesliga after 23 years . The FCA, whose talent factory went through, among others, Helmut Haller , Christian Hochstätter , Bernd Schuster and Armin Veh , is the record champions of the Bayern League and also had its heyday in the mid-1970s, when an average of 23,000 football fans came to the home games.
In addition, there is a second traditional football club, TSV Schwaben Augsburg , which has played in the Bavarian League several times. The Swabians are best known for their other sports departments, above all the canoe and kayak team (see water sports ) . The women's soccer team of TSV Schwaben currently plays in the Regionalliga Süd , where the women of TSV Pfersee Augsburg were also to be found at times , but have since been relegated to the Landesliga Süd.
The TSG Augsburg 85 played at times of World War II in what was then the highest class, the Gauliga southern Bavaria , and was in 1964 the first champion of the newly introduced division South . After a short time in the Bayern League, the club sank increasingly in the lower leagues. TSV Göggingen Augsburg also experienced a similar fate , which after the Second World War temporarily played in the second highest German league, but is now in the Augsburg district league.
Until it was dissolved in 1995, the football club FC Enikon Augsburg, founded by Croatians in the 1970s, was one of the most successful migrant clubs in Germany and played in the Bayernliga, which was the fourth-highest league in the German football system at the time. In the same, but now fifth-rate league, Türkspor Augsburg is currently playing after his promotion in the 2018/19 season .
As the most consistent professional team in town, the first division ice hockey team Augsburger Panther play in the DEL , in which they reached the runner-up title in 2010. As champions of the Second Ice Hockey Bundesliga in the 1993/94 season, they are one of the founding members of the DEL.
The Panthers emerged from the Augsburg EV , founded in 1878 as the first ice skating club in Germany , which is still responsible for the youngsters. The club used to provide the amateur team of the DEL team and also took part in the game with the women's ice hockey team - the Icecats. With EG Woodstocks there is a third ice hockey team in Augsburg that currently plays in the Bavarian District League.
Augsburg has two traditional and successful tennis clubs: The men's team of the TC Schießgraben Augsburg played in the Bundesliga , but in recent years has only been at the level of the Bayern or regional league. The women's team took part in the 2nd Bundesliga from 2011 to 2012, but then relegated to the regional league.
The women's team of the TC Augsburg Siebentisch currently plays in the regional league, but has also participated in the Bundesliga . In 2011 the TCA was named "Bavarian Tennis Club of the Year" by the Bavarian Tennis Association . Born in Augsburg, Philipp Kohlschreiber began his tennis career with this club.
The Augsburg section of the German Alpine Club is the second largest club in the city and is ranked 37th among the largest sports clubs in Germany . Within the German Alpine Club (DAV) it is the thirteenth largest and at the same time one of the oldest sections . With the Augsburger Hütte , the Otto-Mayr-Hütte and the Otto-Schwegler-Hütte , it operates three Alpine Club huts , the Augsburger Bivouac and two section huts. The Alpen.Net section is also based in Augsburg.
With the establishment of the ice canal as a whitewater route as part of the 1972 Summer Olympics , the federal center for canoe slalom and whitewater was established in Augsburg , which has also been an Olympic base since 1992 . Accordingly, Augsburg has two successful clubs in canoeing: both athletes from Kanu Schwaben Augsburg , a division of TSV Schwaben Augsburg, and the Augsburg kayak club have won numerous national and international titles, including three Olympic gold medals from 1992 , 1996 and 2008 .
The SV Augsburg was founded in 1911 as a swimming club, but was best known for its water polo department . The SV was a founding member of the German Water Polo League in 1969 and played first-class from then until 1979 with short interruptions. The Augsburger Segler-Club is one of the oldest sailing clubs on the Ammersee and organizes several national and international regattas every year . In addition, the association can also count several internationally very successful sailors among its members.
The gymnastics club Augsburg 1847 is the second largest sports club in the city and is very successful in various sports: German championships in fistball , rhythmic gymnastics , group championships for young gymnasts and inline skater hockey were won. In the latter sport, the Skater Union Augsburg was a founding member of the Bundesliga in 1996 and was represented there until 2001.
Especially in the sports of handball and volleyball , the DJK Augsburg-Hochzoll , a merger of two previously independent clubs of the DJK Sports Association in 1999, has earned a high reputation. Some of their teams rose to the First Bundesliga. The DJK Augsburg-Lechhausen is also a member of the DJK Sports Association , which is particularly well-known for its softball department, which has played in the Bundesliga for several years .
In athletics , TG Viktoria Augsburg has produced many athletes, some of them internationally successful, but also won the German championship , the DVV Cup and the CEV Cup , the third-highest European Cup competition for club teams, with the women's volleyball team in the 1984/85 season .
The Post SV Augsburg was a founding member of the Table Tennis Bundesliga in 1966 and was able to keep this class for six years. Only then did the team have to relegate and have never been able to build on their old successes since then. Well-known players in the team were Peter Stähle , Toni Breumair and Martin Ness . The TSV Haunstetten played in table tennis also partially in the highest German league is also the holder especially successful handball section: The women's team currently plays in the second handball league .
The free balloon club Augsburg has been doing balloon sports in Augsburg since 1901, making it the world's oldest active air sports club . The SV Reha Augsburg is the only club in the city that has dedicated itself to disabled sports. The club's wheelchair basketball department played at times in the Bundesliga and is currently playing in the Oberliga Süd.
The biggest sporting event in Augsburg is the Augsburg city run , which takes place every summer and which in 2008 attracted almost 5,000 professional and amateur athletes. All participants can compete against each other in four disciplines, with the top places being endowed with cash prizes. The city run is the largest popular sports event in Bavarian Swabia.
A second major event is the RT.1 Skate Night Augsburg , which also takes place annually on several dates in summer. It is named after the main sponsor, a local radio station. An average of 4,000 inline skating enthusiasts drive different routes over streets and squares in the big city that are closed for this occasion and that belong only to them for a few hours.
The World Cup in canoeing makes an annual stop in Augsburg, where the ice canal is one of the best artificial whitewater facilities in the world and the Federal Center for Canoeing Slalom and whitewater is also based. The World Cup, which lasts several days, attracts thousands of sports enthusiasts every year. In 1985 and 2003 the world championships in canoeing also took place here .
In addition, numerous other sporting events are held at various locations in the city, aimed primarily at young people. The Perlach Tower Run is the oldest and most famous stair run in Germany and takes place every year on the Day of German Unity . A curiosity is the annual Augsburg backward run , which has been held on Shrove Tuesday since 2000. In 2007 he failed.
Leisure and sports facilities
The Rosenaustadion , which was built between 1949 and 1951 and was one of the most modern stadiums in Europe after its opening, is one of the most famous sports facilities in Augsburg . Especially up to the inauguration of the Munich Olympic Stadium, it was of immense importance for sporting events in Germany and was, among other things, the venue for the German athletics championships in 1953 and 1963 , several preliminary round football games of the 1972 Summer Olympics and some national athletics competitions - among other things, Ludwig Müller acquired his Reputation as the "hero of Augsburg". Nowadays it is used by some of the women's and youth teams of FC Augsburg to host their home games.
The supremacy of the Rosenaustadion as the largest sports facility in Augsburg came to an end in 2009 with the opening of a new football stadium after more than fifty years. The stadium planned under the project title "Augsburg Arena" is called WWK-Arena after the current sponsor . The new building serves as a pure football stadium for Bundesliga club FC Augsburg, and major events such as the 2011 Women's World Cup or the 2010 Women's U-20 World Cup have already taken place here . The stadium currently holds 30,660 spectators with standing room, and 28,367 spectators for international games due to the only available seats.
The Curt Frenzel Stadium , which opened on November 2, 1963, is used by the Augsburger Panthers for their home games in the DEL , the highest ice hockey league in Germany. When it opened, the building was considered a masterpiece of exposed concrete construction and in 1981 served as one of the venues for the junior ice hockey championship . In recent years the stadium has been modernized and completely closed to the hall.
The Augsburg sports hall, today the Erhard Wunderlich sports hall , was opened in 1965 as the first large hall structure in Augsburg after the Second World War and is considered an architectural masterpiece due to its suspended roof construction made of prestressed concrete , which was recognized in 2003 by an entry in the list of monuments. While it was the scene of several handball and basketball games at the 1972 Summer Olympics , nowadays it is mainly used for concerts and performances by artists.
The Augsburg Ice Canal , which was built especially for this purpose and where all canoeing disciplines took place, served as the third venue for competitions at the 1972 Olympic Games . The world's first artificial whitewater course has a grandstand for 24,000 spectators and is still in operation for World Cups in canoe slalom.
After the WWK Arena and the Rosenaustadion, the Ernst-Lehner-Stadion is the third large football stadium in Fuggerstadt, where TSV Schwaben Augsburg plays its home games. It is located on the grounds of the district sports facility south , a large sports facility on the western edge of the Siebentischwald forest with many sports fields and running paths (including the Max Gutmann running path ).
There are also other sports facilities such as the Haunstetten district sports facility (a stadium with a 400-meter arena for athletics and a 500-meter sand track for sand track races , in which international races have been held since the 1970s), the Paul Renz district sports facility (with the FC Augsburg youth center ), the Karl Mögele sports facility in Göggingen and the Anton Bezler sports hall in the same district. In the Lechhausen district , the 200-meter indoor cycle race track of the Radsportgemeinschaft Augsburg e. V.
Augsburg offers five indoor swimming pools , the old city pool , the Spickelbad and the Haunstetten and Göggingen indoor pools . The Plärrerbad is currently only available to clubs. They are supplemented by five outdoor pools , the family pool , the Bärenkeller and Lechhauser pools , as well as the "Fribbe" and the Haunstetten natural outdoor pool .
Green areas and parks
Even before it was named the greenest and most livable city in Europe in 1997 , Augsburg had the reputation of having an extraordinarily high number of green spaces, parks and gardens. These loosen up the densely built-up urban spaces in many places and offer residents an opportunity to rest and relax.
The most famous park is the park on Königsplatz in the heart of the city. The tree-lined green area with a fountain in its center is right next to the triangle of the same name, which serves as the main junction for trams and buses for local public transport. The park was laid out in 1911 as part of the redesign of the Bahnhofsviertel and today has the dubious reputation of being a meeting point and trading point at night, especially for alcoholics and drug addicts. With the renovation of Königsplatz in 2013, it became significantly smaller, and part of the previous area is now paved.
For a low admission fee, the botanical garden at the northern end of the Siebentischwald offers visitors a wide range of gardens such as the Japanese or the farmer's and apothecary garden on an area of around ten hectares . In total, more than a million bulb plants, over 1200 types of ferns , grasses , perennials and wild herbs , 280 rose and 450 types of wood, and a further 1200 types of plants in glass houses can be seen on the site .
The Wittelsbach Park , with an area of 20.8 hectares , the largest green space in built-up urban area and since 1980 a conservation area , in addition to the actual park and the north-eastern city garden and the slope to Wertachtal includes. The complex was only given the name of the noble Wittelsbacher family in 1906, but its predecessors existed much earlier. Until the construction of the exhibition grounds, the annual Augsburg spring exhibition took place on these open spaces . A kilometer-long air raid shelter system was dug under Wittelsbacher Park in 1944 , parts of which are still preserved.
Although the court garden was laid out from 1739 to 1744, it has only been open to the public since 1965, as it is located on the property of the bishop's residence . After the end of the Second World War, the park served as an orchard for a long time. It was only during its renovation in the 1960s that various trees, shrubs, flower beds, box hedges and pyramids were planted here, which can now be admired there as well as a water lily pond and a large fountain .
The history-steeped Stadtpflegeranger is the remainder of the originally much larger Angers from around 1820 in front of the old entrance on the western edge of the old town and today a small green area in the middle of the building complex of the Palace of Justice , State and City Library, St. Anna Primary School and City Theater (State Theater). A “history pillar” from the 1970s provides information on two thousand years of city history.
Economy and Infrastructure
The most important long-distance traffic route in the urban area is the federal motorway 8 in the direction of Munich and Stuttgart , to which Augsburg is connected with two direct junctions in the shape of a clover (Augsburg-Ost and Augsburg-West ). There are three more junctions in the suburbs of Dasing , Friedberg and Neusäß .
The " yellow motorway " B 2 reaches Augsburg from the north and merges into the motorway-like B 17 (west bypass) in the area of the northern city limits, which has multiple lanes in the urban area, is partially lower and only has exits without intersections. The B 17 then leaves Augsburg in a southbound direction and is expanded like a motorway to the A 96 . The extension of the section between Klosterlechfeld and the A 96 was completed in 2009. In the section from Stadtbergen to Oberhausen, the B 17 was given the name of the Augsburg twin town Dayton and is accordingly called the Dayton Ring . The B 300 is only expanded to include multiple lanes in the direct city area and the suburbs, after which it narrows to one lane per direction of travel.
With Schleifenstraße , a south-east connection from Blücherstraße in Lechhausen to the B 300 (Haunstetter Straße im Hochfeld ) was created in over ten years of construction from 1993 to 2004 (plans go back to the 1930s ). The route has four lanes throughout and leads from Lechhausen over a fourth, newly built Lech bridge through the textile district , dives into a 480 meter long tunnel at the level of Provinostraße, appears again on the surface after undergoing the B 300 (Friedberger Straße), bypasses it the red gate is extensive and joins the B 300 in the high field. The name Schleifenstraße comes from the fact that the street has created a loop-shaped bypass of the city center with an east and west connection to the motorway, with the south-east center around the red gate from Through traffic was relieved. As on the B 17, the individual streets were named after the Augsburg twin cities and the names Inverness , Nagahama or Amagasaki Allee .
|Karlsruhe - Pforzheim - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg - Munich - Rosenheim - Salzburg|
|Border / Poland - Berlin - Leipzig - Nuremberg - Augsburg - Munich - Garmisch-Partenkirchen - border / Austria|
|Augsburg - Landsberg am Lech - Schongau - Füssen - border / Austria|
|Geisenfeld - Schrobenhausen - Aichach - Augsburg - Krumbach - Memmingen|
The environmental zone , which includes the inner city center, was activated on July 1, 2009. The third stage came into effect on June 1, 2016. Only cars with a green sticker are allowed to enter the environmental zone.
The share of bicycle traffic in the total traffic volume in Augsburg after the modal split was 16.7% in 2003. In 2008 the value was 13.4%. This corresponds to the average value of the cities examined in 2008. According to the 2008 traffic survey “Mobility in Cities”, 87.5% of all Augsburgers own a bicycle. Augsburg is the seat of the district association Augsburg of the ADFC with the bicycle self-help workshop Bikekitchen Augsburg.
The entire city area is part of the Augsburger Verkehrsverbund (AVV), which extends over the whole of Central Swabia, and is served by the Augsburger and Gersthofer Verkehrsgesellschaft using five tram, 27 city bus and six night bus routes as well as various taxi collection services.
In recent years, the tram network has been expanded to 40.5 kilometers with new lines to the university (1996), to the northern city limits (2001), to the university hospital (2002) and to Friedberg (2010). Another tram line is also being planned. From 1943 to 1959, the Augsburg trolleybus supplemented urban rail transport.
In addition, all seven train stations in the city are served by six AVV regional trains operated by Deutsche Bahn and Bayerische Regiobahn at regular intervals, which are to be extended to a S-Bahn- like system in the future . An eighth stopping point was to be set up when the Hirblinger Strasse train station was put back into operation, but these plans were abandoned again.
The regional transport is handled by a large number of bus companies on behalf of the Augsburger Verkehrsverbund (AVV), whereby many bus routes run to the Augsburg main station and can thus be used in part for urban local transport.
Königsplatz ("Kö") serves as the main hub for the city's tram and bus routes . After a pavilion built in 1914 east of Konrad-Adenauer-Allee , called Pilz by the population , had reached its capacity limits, a larger triangle of stops was opened on the other side of the street in 1977 after a two-year construction period. A further renovation should expand the capacities by adding additional platforms and tram tracks by 2009. On November 25, 2007 there was initially a referendum against the planned renovation, which was met with 53.2 percent of the votes (with a turnout of 24.2 percent), so that the renovation was delayed and only in 2011 (after a now positive Vote of the citizens) could be started. The new Königsplatz was opened on December 15, 2013 as part of the Augsburg mobility hub. In 2016, after loud criticism about smokers, a self-driving robot was introduced at Königsplatz , which prompts smokers with the help of a sign that the robot lifts to keep the Kö smoke-free and to stop smoking. The robot was christened Swa * lly , a suitcase word from SWA and the fictional movie character Wall-E . The robot can be found every 7th of the month. The robot is controlled concealed by a swa employee via app. Swa * lly was developed and built by members of the Open-Lab Augsburg.
In April 2016, Stadtwerke Augsburg installed so-called bumpers in a pilot project at the Haunstetter Strasse and Von-Parsewal-Strasse tram stops to increase traffic safety at busy stations. These warn pedestrians, especially smombies , with additional LED lights embedded in the street . When a tram approaches, the light strips flash red so that pedestrians are alerted. There was already a similar project in 2010 in Frankfurt am Main , but it received hardly any attention. It was not until the project in Augsburg that there was worldwide interest. The international press, including the Washington Post and Yomiuri Shimbun (Japan's largest daily newspaper), reported on the project. The idea was also adopted, partly in the same year, in other cities such as Sydney in Australia or San Cugat del Vallès in Spain. The floor lights are still attached to the two stops, but no additional ones are planned. The project came to the sober result that traffic safety cannot be increased by pompous. Jürgen Fergg, public utility spokesman said in this regard: "People are more attentive, but they still go when red."
Since January 2020 there has been a free city zone in Augsburg, which includes 9 of 281 stops. In this way, distances of up to three stations can be covered for free in the heart of the city center by bus or tram.
The mobility hub project
The term mobility hub refers to several individual projects by the city of Augsburg, through which local transport in the city is to be made more modern and attractive. The creation of new tram lines, the expansion of the most important traffic junctions Königsplatz and the main train station as well as the establishment of an S-Bahn are planned.
Construction began on the first part of the major project on June 28, 2007 with the groundbreaking ceremony for the new tram line 6 between the main train station and Friedberg-West . This project was completed with the opening in December 2010. The expansion of Königsplatz was also a project that was completed in 2013.
Further, coordinated individual projects include:
- Conversion of the main train station into a modern hub that connects all rail traffic
- Construction of tram line 5 from the main train station to the clinic
- Extension of tram line 1 from the Neue Ostfriedhof to the Augsburg-Hochzoll regional train station
Due to the complexity and effects in different areas of interest, various departments, committees and interest groups are involved in the project work.
Freight transport center in the Augsburg region
The Güterverkehrszentrum Augsburg (GVZ) is a logistics center in the triangle between the cities of Augsburg, Gersthofen and Neusäß. There, goods are reloaded between different modes of transport, put together for loads and prepared for transport trips. At the GVZ, different modes of transport (road transport, rail transport and air freight), transport companies ( freight forwarders , warehouses ), service companies that supplement traffic ( vehicle service , advisory services) and logistics-intensive industrial and trading companies are brought together and networked. The spatial proximity promotes cooperation and the division of labor between the companies located there . The Augsburg freight transport center is centrally located on rail and road connections. It has become a freight hub in the Swabian region , a distribution center for transalpine traffic, an access corridor to southern and eastern Europe and a hinterland location for seaport traffic .
The centerpiece is a transshipment terminal for combined transport that links the transport modes rail and road. This transshipment terminal was planned by Augsburger Localbahn , Spedition Roman Mayer and Spedition Nuber as TIA - Terminalinvestitionsgesellschaft mbH in cooperation with the rail subsidiary DUSS . At the turn of the year 2011/2012 the terminal, which cost around 20 million euros, was ready.
The main train station was built from 1843 to 1846 and is Germany's oldest train station in a large city, which is still in operation in its original architectural condition . A complete modernization of the train station is currently being implemented under the project name of the Augsburg mobility hub , including the construction of an underground tram stop.
The city currently has seven railway systems with platforms and a number of other railway systems, including three on the infrastructure of the Augsburg local railway (Augsburg Ring, Augsburg West, Augsburg AL-Messe). The main station is the most important railway system. It forms one end of the high-speed line from Augsburg to Munich , which used to be the busiest railway line in Germany (now the main S-Bahn line in Munich), and is an ICE , IC , EC and TGV station on the routes from Munich to Berlin and Dortmund , Frankfurt am Main , Hamburg , Stuttgart , as well as to Zurich , Paris (to be reached twice a day with the TGV free of charge), Klagenfurt and Brussels .
Other important operating points in the city are Augsburg-Hochzoll , Augsburg-Oberhausen and Augsburg Haunstetterstraße , which have half-hourly connections to railroad lines to other southern German cities such as Nuremberg , Weilheim , Ingolstadt or Ulm . The other operating locations Augsburg Morellstraße , Augsburg Messe and Augsburg-Inningen mainly fulfill functions in local traffic and are only served by regional trains , rarely regional express trains. Passenger stations within the meaning of the EBO are now only Augsburg Hochzoll and Augsburg Hbf. The main station still has Augsburg-Oberhausen, Augsburg Haunstetterstrasse and Augsburg Morellstrasse as part of the station . The other stops are now managed as stopping points . Since the beginning of 2020, with the commissioning of the electronic signal box (ESTW) Inningen, the former stop (definition according to EBO) Augsburg-Inningen has been used as a train station again.
Worth mentioning is the former Augsburg-Hirblinger Straße train station . The station's platforms and tracks were retained even after it was decommissioned in the early 1990s and are used regularly. This fact has recently become important again, as the stop is to be put back into operation as part of the establishment of the Augsburg S-Bahn . This would primarily require renovation work on the platforms, the construction of modern access stairs and the installation of lighting and signage.
Railway infrastructure company (EIU)
Augsburg is one of the few cities to have five independent railway infrastructure companies (EIU). The largest RIU is DB Netz . This is followed by the Augsburg local railway , which also acts as a railway company (EVU). A consortium acts as a special purpose association for the freight transport center at the freight transport center, which was founded in 2017 . The DB Regio , and the meridian operate their own parking facilities and thus are not only a utility, but in the region as EIU. These are located at DB Regio to the left of the main Augsburg - Buchloe line ( KBS 987) between the Augsburg Messe stop and Augsburg Morellstraße. At the meridian to the right of the track at the same height.
Railway companies (EVU)
Augsburg is currently (as of 03/2020) served by the following railway companies in local passenger transport:
- DB Regio Bayern (for example with the E-Netz Augsburg )
- Bavarian regional train (for example with the Allgäu I diesel network )
- Augsburg local railway (regular regular service in the direction of perennials in the summer months )
- Go Ahead (expected from 12/2022)
Augsburg is currently (as of 03/2020) served by the following railway companies in long-distance passenger transport:
- DB long-distance traffic with the IC, ICE and partly the EC.
- ÖBB ( Austrian Federal Railways ) with EC and IC.
- ÖBB Nightjet , with night trains, which were originally operated by DB, but were abandoned by DB in 2016. ÖBB has been operating the night trains since then.
- SNCF ( Société nationale des chemins de fer français / German : National Society of French Railways ), with which you can take the TGV to Paris or Munich twice a day.
In addition, seven AVV regional train lines run in a star shape from the main station to Mammendorf , Aichach / Kühbach-Radersdorf , Donauwörth , Dinkelscherben , Schwabmünchen , Klosterlechfeld and Schmiechen in the direction of Ammersee . The regional train traffic in the E-Netz Augsburg has been operated at S-Bahn-like cycle times since 2008 and is to be expanded into the Augsburg S-Bahn in the long term . The regional train lines are operated by DB Regio AG and, since the end of 2008, also by Bayerische Regiobahn (BRB). It is also planned to reactivate the Staudenbahn between Langenneufnach and Gessertshausen and to tie it through to Augsburg. The operator is the BRB on behalf of the BEG through the contract ' Augsburg Diesel Network II '. The start of operations has been postponed to December 2022.
In rail freight transport, Augsburg was not a hub during the shutdown of the marshalling yard by Deutsche Bahn between April 1, 2005 and the construction of the freight transport center in the Augsburg / Gersthofen / Neusäß triangle, which was opened in 2017 . This freight center was built between 2007 and 2017 to convert road freight transport to rail. Local partners as well as Deutsche Umschlaggesellschaft Schiene-Straße mbH (DUSS) act as investors . As a result, the share of rail freight traffic has increased steadily again since 2017. Augsburg is now one of the main hubs in southern German rail freight traffic . On the north-south axis it connects the North Sea and Baltic Sea ports and to the south the Neue Eisenbahn Alpen Transversale (NEAT) towards Switzerland , Milan and Liguria . It offers access to the western ports in France and Spain via Stuttgart and Paris / Toulouse . It connects Italy via the Brenner Base Tunnel (BBT) and south-east Europe and the Adriatic ports via the Tauern route . A bimodal transshipment terminal for combined transport is already in place for access to the rail network . The terminal with a capacity of 24,000 loading units per year is located in the Augsburg district of Oberhausen. The total usable area of the railway system is 10 hectares .
A special feature of the Swabian metropolis is the Augsburg local railway , founded in 1898 , a railway running right through the city, the large industrial companies (for example: MAN , Weltbild Verlag , AVA waste recycling , MT Aerospace , PCI , BASF , BÖWE , Premium AEROTEC ) a connection to the Rail network. Part of the route runs right next to Lech and Wertach. At the northern end of the route, the route forms the border to Wolfzahnau - a landscape protection area between Lech and Wertach in the middle of the city.
Another special feature is that the local railway operates both as a railway company (EVU) and as a railway infrastructure company (EIU) within the urban area. In 2015, the local railway had a transport volume of 1,038,000 tons and is now also active on railway lines outside the city. For example, the Augsburg local railway provides personnel for ALX traffic in the Allgäu and also offers cross-regional freight transport services as well as excursion traffic on the Staudenbahn . In the summer months there is even a three-hour cycle between Augsburg and Langenneufnach on the route.
In the north-east of the city is the Augsburg airport ( IATA : AGB), which was reopened in 1968 because the other airfields in the city were used for other purposes. From 1980 onwards, it served as a regional airfield with a number of domestic German destinations, until scheduled services were discontinued in 2005 and the airfield was downgraded to a commercial airfield. The airfield has only a 1594 meter long runway (07/27) facing southwest / northeast.
Due to the strong increase in passenger numbers over the years, it was planned to expand the airfield, but this failed because of the protests of residents in the surrounding areas. Thus, since can only land passenger aircraft with up to 100 people, the civil use of the standing NATO - air base Lechfeld in the discussion. However, this project failed because of the high additional costs that the Bundeswehr wanted to charge for relocating the ammunition depots.
Due to the discontinuation of scheduled air traffic in 2005, the future of the deficit airfield was uncertain for a long time, as the city of Augsburg, as a co-partner, had to subsidize Flughafen Augsburg GmbH with one million euros annually, which was in no relation to the benefits now provided.
In April 2006, it was decided the airfield rebuild into a modern city airport, which is mainly served by General Aviation. Augsburg Airport is a permanent customs airport and is therefore also suitable for international aircraft. In addition, an 80,000 square meter industrial area is being developed, which will mainly be developed for companies related to aviation.
There is a flight school on the premises. Private, professional and helicopter pilots as well as glider pilots can be trained there.
The local aviation company 'Ballonfahrten Augsburg', which was founded to transport guests in hot air balloons , is unique in Augsburg . The company was approved in December 2013 by the Luftamt Südbayern and the government of Upper Bavaria on the basis of Section 20 of the Aviation Act.
The Swabian university town forms one of the three metropolises of the Free State of Bavaria and is located within the Munich metropolitan region . It is one of the most important industrial locations in southern Germany .
In 2016, Augsburg achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 14.060 billion within the city limits, placing it 24th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 48,824 (Bavaria: € 44,215 / Germany € 38,180) and thus well above the regional and national average. There were around 195,100 employed people in the city in 2017. The unemployment rate was 4.6% in December 2018.
In the Future Atlas 2016, the city of Augsburg was ranked 68th out of 402 rural districts and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "high future opportunities". In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 49th out of 401.
Due to its good location, Augsburg is historically an important industrial location and used to be the world capital of the textile industry, although the companies in this sector have now almost completely disappeared from the cityscape.
The city is mainly shaped by the large factories of industrial companies. On the edge of the old town are the Augsburg-Nürnberg (MAN) machine factory , the printing machine manufacturer manroland , the gear manufacturer Renk , MT Aerospace as a company in the aerospace industry, the lighting manufacturer Ledvance (formerly Osram ) belonging to the Chinese lighting company MLS , its However, production in Augsburg will cease at the end of 2018 and will also give up the logistics areas and the UPM-Kymmene paper mill (formerly Haindl) by the end of 2019 . The Walter Bau AG, once Germany's third largest construction management and Bautechnologiekonzern had before it filed for bankruptcy in 2005 in the textile district headquarters.
The second large industrial location is Haunstetten in the south of Augsburg, where Premium Aerotec , a subsidiary of the Airbus Group (formerly Messerschmitt AG ) and Fujitsu Technology Solutions GmbH in the field of computer development and production, will be relocating the Augsburg location in 2020 to Asia will close completely, as soon as Siemens has established its own Technopark. The BMK Group , manufacturer of electronic assemblies and devices, and PCI Augsburg GmbH, a manufacturer of dispersion and powder products for the construction chemistry, are also based in Haunstetten, as is the Weltbild company , which until 2014 was the largest Catholic publisher and mail order company in the world.
The industrial robot and welding system manufacturer KUKA and NCR , which manufactures self-service devices for the financial sector , cash register and database systems, can be found in Lechhausen in the east of Augsburg .
In addition, there are other large companies Böwe Systec , which develops inserting systems and complete solutions for mailrooms, Faurecia (formerly Zeuna Starker ), which produces exhaust systems for cars, motorcycles and commercial vehicles as a vehicle supplier, Kontron , which produces embedded computer technology, and WashTec (formerly Kleindienst) that produces car washes.
In accordance with the old age and the once outstanding importance of the city, there are numerous businesses in Augsburg, some with centuries of tradition.
With the Augusta Brewery (since 1488), the Golden Gans Brewery (since 1346), Hasen-Bräu (since 1463), Thorbräu (since 1582) and the Riegele Brewery (since 1884), there are five long-established breweries that to a large extent still produce for the local market today. The well-known cola mixed drink Spezi also comes from the house of Riegele .
The resulting primarily by the Fugger and Welser importance in finance is reflected in the still active banks resist the city: the Fürst Fugger Privatbank arose from the trading house Fugger, which was the first time in 1468 called a "bank". The Stadtsparkasse was founded in 1822, the Kreissparkasse in 1855. In 1914, Anton Hafner founded the Hafner bank in Maximilianstrasse, and the Augsburger Aktienbank was not another major bank until the second half of the 20th century.
In the book and publishing industry there are also traditional companies with Schlosser'schen J. A. Buch- und Kunsthandlung (since 1719), Rieger & Kranzfelder (since 1731) and Anton Böhm & Sohn (since 1803).
Other traditional companies include Dierig (since 1805), Parfümerie Naegele (since 1835), J. N. Eberle & Cie. GmbH (since 1836), the iron shop Siller und Laar (since 1836), the furniture transport company H. Weissenhorn & Cie. (since 1839), the Augsburger Turngerätefabrik Wallenreiter (since 1858 - now Wallenreiter Sportgeräte ), the hat factory Lembert (since 1861), the gear manufacturer Renk AG (since 1873), Pfister Waagen (since 1894), the furniture forwarding and travel company Domberger (since 1897), the August Riedinger balloon factory (since 1897 - now Augsburger balloon factory ) and the Hosokawa Alpine AG (since 1898). One of the oldest traditional companies, the Stadtfischer Schöppler (since 1650), ended its business activity in 2014.
Other important companies
In addition to large and traditional companies, the following companies are of great importance:
- Amann sewing threads , one of the few textile companies still in existence that produces industrial threads and has remained at the site after taking over the former Ackermann-Göggingen AG
- VR Bank Augsburg-Ostallgäu eG, one of the hundred largest cooperative banks in Germany with a strong presence in the regional market
- Betapharm , a major generics manufacturer
- the Freudenberg Group , which manufactures Vileda household products in its Augsburg plant
- the Patrizia AG , a service company in the field of housing management and of related activities
- Grandel, a major cosmetics manufacturer whose founding location and headquarters are in Augsburg.
- PCI Augsburg GmbH, a leading manufacturer of building materials and system solutions, which has been part of the BASF Group since 2007 .
Augsburg is an attractive destination for tourists from home and abroad , especially due to the Fuggerei , the town hall and the doll's chest . A total of 12,500 people were employed in this sector in the city in 2010 and generated a turnover of 820 million euros - this corresponds to around five percent of the city's national income.
In 2010, 610,000 overnight stays were registered, which means an increase of almost 20 percent compared to the previous year - Augsburg thus showed the largest increase of all major cities in Germany this year. On average, a guest stayed in the region for 1.9 days and had 3800 hotel beds available in the urban area - 400 beds more than in 2009. Around 400,000 overnight stays were made by Germans, while Italians are most strongly represented among foreigners. Between 1998 and 2010 the largest increase was recorded by the Dutch with 154 percent and the Austrians with 81 percent.
The surrounding region also saw growth in 2010: the Augsburg district had 392,000 overnight stays (an increase of 3.6 percent), the Aichach-Friedberg district 171,000 overnight stays (an increase of 5.9 percent).
Trade fairs and congresses
Today the fair is the third largest in Bavaria after Munich and Nuremberg . The exhibition grounds include twelve halls with a total of 48,000 m² of exhibition space, 10,000 m² of open space and a congress and conference center with 3500 m². The Schwabenhalle offers space for up to 8,200 visitors and is regularly used as a venue for large concerts and performances.
The most important Augsburg trade fairs are the Augsburg spring exhibition (afa) , the Americana (international exhibition for equestrian sport and western culture ), GrindTec (international trade fair for grinding technology), interlift (international trade fair for elevator technology), Intersana (international health fair ), the hunt and fishing (international exhibition for hunters, fishermen and nature lovers), the RENEXPO (international trade fair for renewable energies and renewable building and renovation) and the GLORIA church fair. The conference Mobile Commerce Technologies and Applications (MCTA) is one of the most important congresses .
|The tallest buildings in Augsburg|
|Hotel tower (with antenna)||107 m (167 m)|
|St. Ulrich and Afra Basilica||93 m|
|Gas boiler (Augsburg gas works)||84 m|
|Sacred Heart Church||79 m|
|Don Bosco Church||72 m|
|Perlach Tower||70 m|
|Schwabencenter (residential high-rise)||70 m|
The Augsburg congress hall is located in the Antonsviertel district below the hotel tower and is used for concerts, cultural and congress events and all kinds of sales exhibitions. The exposed concrete building, which was opened in 1972, together with the hotel tower forms the Augsburg congress center and offers four halls and three foyers. As the largest room, the congress hall can accommodate up to 1400 visitors. The Erhard Wunderlich sports hall , not far from the congress center on the edge of the Wittelsbacher Park, is used for events with slightly larger numbers of visitors . It can accommodate up to 4,000 guests with full seating, which is why concerts and performances by famous artists take place here.
The only local daily newspaper is the Augsburger Allgemeine , which is published by Presse Druck- und Verlags-GmbH . Together with its home editions (which have the same newspaper cover and differ only in their own local section), it has a daily circulation of around 217,892 copies (IVW 2015), making it the third largest regional newspaper in Germany. It is mainly read in the city of Augsburg and in parts of Bavarian Swabia and Upper Bavaria . The newspaper was decisively shaped by the deceased editors Curt Frenzel and Günter Holland and, as publisher, his wife Ellinor Holland , née Frenzel.
The Augsburger Zeitung (DAZ) has also been offering daily news online since 2008 , primarily from the areas of politics and culture.
In addition, the Augsburger Sonntagspresse appears every Sunday , which is devoted to both local and Germany-wide news and is available at many bus and tram stops, train stations and petrol stations in the city. Because the topics are mainly reduced to pictures and only short texts, it can be counted among the tabloid media .
The most-read free weekly newspaper with editorial local coverage is the StadtZeitung , founded in 1978 , which has divided the Augsburg agglomeration (the urban area with the surrounding districts of Augsburg, district of Dillingen and the district of Aichach-Friedberg) into fifteen local editions (five of them in the urban area alone) and of the Mediengruppe Mayer & Sons is published.
The city magazine Augsburg Journal , which is mainly devoted to typical topics of tabloid journalism and is published once a month, also belongs to the same publisher . In contrast to the StadtZeitung, however, it is chargeable.
The Neue Szene Augsburg is published monthly, especially for young people, with a focus on lifestyle , music , nightlife and event information. Each issue reaches around 25,500 readers in the actual city area and the surrounding districts. This makes it one of the largest Bavarian city magazines .
The free culture newspaper a3kultur appears monthly . The features section for Augsburg Stadt / Land and Wittelsbacher Land offers news, dates and positions. The entire cultural spectrum of the region is covered. a3kultur is the successor to the magazine a-guide , which until 2011 was one of the largest magazines in Augsburg with an annual circulation of 120,000 copies (spread over six issues).
The monthly color magazine Augsburger Süd-Anzeiger has existed since 1977 and is mainly dedicated to local topics in the districts of Göggingen, Bergheim, Inningen and Haunstetten, which were incorporated in 1972.
Further publications appear at the universities: UniPress published by the university management, the Universe for which the student body is responsible and the press published formerly by the Catholic university community, now by its own association, appear at the university .
The Augsburg local station with the most listeners is hitradio.rt1 , which belongs to the Presse & Druck media group, which also publishes the Augsburger Allgemeine.
hitradio.rt1 is the official broadcast partner of the Augsburger Panther and FC Augsburg .
Both hitradio.rt1 and Radio Fantasy can be received via VHF (hitradio.rt1 over 96.7 MHz and Radio Fantasy over 93.4 MHz), DAB +, Internet radio and smartphone apps.
In addition, every Monday from 10 p.m. to 1 a.m. (the following Tuesday), university students run their own program for their fellow students, Kanal C, on a voluntary basis .
Both local stations can be received via their own terrestrial frequencies as well as other cable frequencies and together make up a large proportion of the listeners in the city area; the Bavaria or Germany-wide radio stations tend to have fewer listeners accordingly.
The Sankt-Ulrich-Verlag, the publishing house of the Diocese of Augsburg, offers another radio program with Radio Augsburg . It is only transmitted via DAB +, cable radio and a smartphone app.
Since the end of 2008 , the egoFM station in Augsburg , which can only be received in the largest Bavarian cities, has been aimed at teenagers and young adults between the ages of 14–30.
The station Smart Radio mainly plays songs from the genre of jazz on DAB +, whose program is not accompanied by a radio presenter , but is limited to the music. With Frozen-Radio and Radio Cisaria International (RCI) there are three other local radio stations.
Until a few years ago, the American Forces Network (AFN) in Augsburg broadcast on the medium wave frequency 1485 kHz, among other things. With the withdrawal of the last American troops from the city in 1998, the radio station was also given up, the system used for this was completely dismantled.
The Augsburg entrepreneur Ulrich RJ Kubak acquired the majority stake in Klassik Radio and went public in 2004. Klassik Radio is a private radio program for classical music . The Klassik Radio GmbH & Co. KG is a subsidiary of Klassik Radio AG based in Augsburg hotel tower . The broadcast center is currently in Hamburg . In September 2018, however, it became known that Klassik Radio would also like to relocate its entire broadcasting center to Augsburg in early 2020.
However, some music programs are also broadcast via laut.fm and other portals that can only be heard over the Internet.
Augsburg.tv (short: a.tv) is the only local television broadcaster to broadcast for the city of Augsburg and for the districts of Aichach-Friedberg, Donau-Ries, Dillingen and Günzburg (from March 16, 1994 to December 31, 2006 as TV Augsburg , afterwards for a short time as augsburg.tv ) a daily 24-hour program with mainly local and regional topics that are important for the residents of the Augsburg conurbation.
a.tv can be received unencrypted and around the clock via the Astra 1M satellite (19.2 ° East, transponder 21, 11523 MHz horizontal) throughout Europe as well as parts of North Africa and the Middle East. Further distribution channels are digital and analogue cable television on its own channel S18, also in the regional window of RTL (working days Monday to Friday from 6:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m.), as well as via IPTV in the T-Entertain package from Telekom and as a continuous live stream on the Internet.
The broadcaster also offers a media library on its homepage that is currently (as of February 2015) accessed up to 150,000 times a month and contains all programs from previous years.
Augsburg also served as a playground and location for the ZDF series Samt und Silk , which was about a family active in the textile industry and featured typical elements of the soap opera . The last broadcast for the time being was broadcast on February 10, 2005. The film Harte Jungs with Axel Stein is also set in Augsburg and was also shot there.
Augsburg is, on the one hand, because of its historical importance, and on the other hand because of its political position in Bavarian Swabia, the seat of numerous authorities, associations and other corporations under public law . A special situation also arises from the fact that two districts, the city and the district, have their offices in Augsburg.
In the south of Augsburg, the Bavarian State Office for the Environment, is a state authority that also operates the Bavarian flood intelligence service and shares its tasks with a smaller headquarters in Hof in northern Bavaria . The Josef-Vogl-Technikum in the Lechhausen district is affiliated with the State Office . In addition, an office of the State Office for Finance is located in Augsburg .
The government of Swabia as general supervision of the state authorities in the Bavarian administrative district of Swabia and the district of Swabia as the third municipal level of the Free State of Bavaria have their headquarters here, as well as the tax offices of Augsburg city and state, the administrative center of the city of Augsburg and the Augsburg district office .
The Deutsche Bundesbank and Deutsche Rentenversicherung Schwaben have set up their information and advice centers in the banking and insurance sector . There is also a location for the social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG). With the municipal loan office , the city of Augsburg has the oldest municipal loan office in Germany. Since 1603, this facility has been temporarily helping citizens in need of money by pledging valuable possessions with cash. On December 31, 2018, the office closes after 415 years, it is the penultimate one in municipal hands in Germany.
The Chamber of Crafts (HWK) and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Swabia (IHK) as well as the police headquarters responsible for the city of Augsburg, the districts of Augsburg , Aichach-Friedberg , Dillingen and Donau-Ries have their seat here as well as representatives for the district of Swabia Furthermore, the responsible tax and main customs office , a correctional facility and the city youth council are located in Augsburg .
Various associations and associations such as the Bavarian Red Cross , the Bavarian Football Association or the service union ver.di have their headquarters for all of Swabia, in some cases even for southern Germany, in Augsburg.
After extensive restructuring, Augsburg has had two maximum care hospitals (third level of care) as well as several smaller, partly specialized clinics since 2006 . There are also two emergency practices of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians in Bavaria and a district hospital for psychiatric care.
The largest hospital and the central emergency department for the metropolitan area is the Augsburg University Hospital , which has been in municipal hands since 1982, initially as the Central Hospital and after the above-mentioned restructuring as the Hospital. On January 1, 2019, after years of prior planning, it was elevated to a university hospital and transferred to the sponsorship of the Free State of Bavaria. At the same time, it was affiliated to the medical faculty of Augsburg University, which had been newly founded in advance. The university clinic is located in the Kriegshaber district in the west of the city and can be reached quickly via federal highways 17 and 300.
Right next door is the Augsburg children's clinic , which was already closely linked to the clinic in the Augsburg hospital administration association and is now part of the university clinic. Thanks to close cooperation, it was already possible, for example, that almost all pediatric emergencies were transferred to the children's hospital that was better suited to care after the initial treatment.
The second maximum care hospital is the Augsburg South Hospital, previously known as the “Haunstetten Hospital” , which has now also become part of the University Hospital. Through extensive restructuring and the relocation of entire departments from the previous central clinic to Haunstetten, it now fulfills all the requirements of the fourth care level set in the hospital requirement plan . In addition to the already existing areas of specialization in surgery and internal medicine, the dermatological and ENT clinic are clinical specialties .
The Augsburg District Hospital is supported by the Swabian District and, as a clinic for psychiatry , psychotherapy and psychosomatics, ensures psychiatric care for all citizens living in the city and the Augsburg district. It is located in the Kriegshaber district not far from the University Hospital and takes on the psychiatric training of medical students at the University of Augsburg.
There are also the Deaconess Hospital , the Hessing Clinic , the Josefinum and Vincentinum four other hospitals, which all fall on branches of medical care (eg gynecology or orthopedics are specialized) and some with attending physicians work. Further emergency care is provided by the emergency practices of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians in Bavaria, which are located directly at the Vincentinum and the Augsburg University Hospital.
Augsburg comprises a total of fourteen cemeteries, nine of which are maintained by the city: The north cemetery, the Old and the New Eastern Cemetery, the Old and the New Haunstetter cemetery Westfriedhof , the Gögginger cemetery , the Inninger cemetery and the Bergheimer cemetery. There are also three church cemeteries: the Warshaber Catholic Cemetery, the Catholic Cemetery on Hermanstrasse and the Protestant Cemetery . There are two Jewish cemeteries: the Jewish cemetery in Kriegshaber and the Jewish cemetery in the Hochfeld district.
Education and Research
Despite the city's age and historical importance, there has only been a university in Augsburg since 1970. In addition, the University of Applied Sciences, the Leopold Mozart Center and the FOM University of Economics and Management ensure a wide range of courses. Over 25,000 students are currently enrolled at the three universities and the music center.
University of Augsburg
The University of Augsburg was founded in 1970. The Philosophical-Theological University of Dillingen , which was dissolved in 1971 and affiliated to the university as the Catholic-Theological Faculty, has a certain connection to the University of Dillingen , which was founded in 1549 or 1551 and dissolved in 1802. In addition, the Augsburg University of Education, which emerged from the Institute for Teacher Training in 1958, was integrated into the university as an educational science department in 1972. In 2008 it took up some areas of the now closed Nuremberg-Augsburg Music Academy as the Leopold Mozart Center (LMZ). It is the only university in the Bavarian Swabia administrative region.
At the moment the university is divided into a philological-historical, philosophical-social-scientific, economic, legal, mathematical-natural-scientific and catholic-theological faculty as well as the recently established faculty for applied computer science. The University of Augsburg, with around 20,100 students, is not a traditional full university, but rather focuses mainly on the cultural, social and economic sciences.
Since 1974 a spacious campus has been built in the south of the city on the site of the old airfield, which has grown into a separate district (the university district) to this day. In the meantime, only smaller parts of the university are located together with the business administration department of the Augsburg University of Applied Sciences in the building of the former University of Education in Lechhausen and at the "Old University" location.
Augsburg University of Applied Sciences
The Augsburg University of Applied Sciences was only founded in 1971, but can look back on a far-reaching history of its predecessor institutions. A private art academy already existed around 1660, which developed first into a Protestant and then in 1710 into a public imperial city art academy , from which the Werkkunstschule Augsburg emerged over several levels . The technical branch comes from the Rudolf-Diesel-Polytechnikum, established in the 19th century . In 1971 the Augsburg University of Applied Sciences was finally founded by merging. It is therefore one of the oldest universities of applied sciences in Germany, and in 2008 it was renamed University of Applied Sciences Augsburg, or University of Applied Sciences Augsburg for short.
The university has two locations, the Campus am Brunnenlech and the Campus am Roten Tor, which are only about 500 m apart.
Numerous courses in technology, design and economics are offered. Social work has also been offered since winter semester 2018/19. In the 2017/18 winter semester, around 6,200 students were enrolled at the Augsburg University of Applied Sciences.
Leopold Mozart Center
The Nuremberg-Augsburg University of Music was created in 1998 by merging the Nuremberg Mastersinger Conservatory with the Augsburg Leopold Mozart Conservatory. Despite violent protests from the ranks of the students and lecturers, the Bavarian State Ministry for Education and Culture decided to close the Augsburg part of the university in 2006 for cost reasons, which has since been attached to the university as the Leopold Mozart Center and thus as a "music college within the university" to be led.
The offer includes music education and artistic courses (singing, orchestral instruments, keyboard instruments). Guitar and music therapy can also be studied. The training for wind orchestra conducting is unique in all of Germany.
FOM University of Economics and Management
The FOM University of Economics and Management operates a location in Augsburg where part-time Bachelor and Master courses with a focus on economics are offered. For example, business administration, international management and commercial law as well as some master’s degrees can be studied at the FOM. The face-to-face lectures are held at the study location in downtown Augsburg during the week evenings and on weekends.
General education schools
The basic general education for all Augsburg students is currently provided by ten grammar schools , nine secondary schools , 42 elementary and secondary schools , 13 special schools and one free Waldorf school .
Elementary, special and comprehensive schools
The initial training of the students take a total of 42 basic - and secondary schools throughout the city. In addition, there are a total of 13 special needs schools that take care of children who require special education and therefore cannot or only insufficiently receive support at general or vocational schools. If it can be combined with the given specialization priorities, these schools provide the same qualifications as the comparable general education schools.
Nine secondary schools in the urban area and six in the metropolitan area provide an educational opportunity between the offerings of the grammar school and secondary school, both in general education and in specific vocational preparation.
All three girls -only schools mentioned under grammar schools each have an attached secondary school; The Free Waldorf School also offers the secondary school leaving certificate (Fachoberschulreife / Realschulabschluss). Thus there are five "pure" secondary schools in the city area. Because secondary schools are seldom found, especially in rural areas, they have an enormous attraction even for students from more distant districts in Bavarian Swabia.
|The secondary schools in Augsburg|
|Evening secondary school for working people (S)||Agnes Bernauer School (M, W, S)||Bertolt-Brecht-Realschule (M, W, S)|
|Heinrich-von-Buz Secondary School (M, W)||Girls secondary school St. Ursula (W, S)||Maria Ward Secondary School Augsburg (W, S)|
|Stetten Institute (W, S)||Maria Stern secondary school (W, S)||Rudolf Diesel Secondary School (M)|
- M = mathematical-technical branch
- W = economic branch
- S = social, artistic, manual, foreign language branch
Augsburg has a total of ten grammar schools , some of which have centuries of tradition. In addition, the Bayernkolleg Augsburg and the Free Waldorf School Augsburg make it possible to graduate with the Abitur .
Since all of the larger cities in the metropolitan area (Friedberg, Gersthofen, Königsbrunn and Neusäß) have their own grammar schools, the pupils in these places mainly attend the grammar school there, so that the Augsburg grammar schools mainly include pupils from the urban area. Because of their sometimes special educational paths (for example musical or humanistic branches) they still have catchment areas as far as all of Bavarian Swabia. With the A. B. von Stetten Institute, the Maria-Stern-Gymnasium and the Maria-Ward Gymnasium, there are three gymnasiums only for girls; the high school near St. Stephan was reserved only for boys until autumn 1995, and since then has enjoyed increasing interest, especially from musically oriented girls.
Almost all schools have celebrities who graduated from high school in their facility. So here were among others Napoleon III. , Werner Egk , Bertolt Brecht , Rudolf Diesel , Gerhard Höllerich (alias Roy Black), Andreas Bourani or the Nobel Prize winner Johann Deisenhofer Schüler.
Vocational high schools
The Staatliche Fachoberschule and Berufsoberschule and the Städtische Berufsoberschule in Augsburg lead students who have completed secondary school leaving certificate or completed vocational training within the framework of the Bavarian Vocational High School either to the technical college entrance qualification or to the subject-related or general university entrance qualification . For the latter degree, proof of knowledge of a second foreign language (in addition to English ) is required.
Vocational schools and academies
Because of its central importance for the district of Bavarian Swabia, Augsburg has almost all branches of vocational schools : There is one private, state-recognized vocational school, seven municipal vocational schools, 18 vocational schools , four technical academies and technical schools each, and three business schools . While most of these schools teach a profession either in cooperation with the training company or on a full-time basis, the technical schools require an already completed training for admission, as they train advanced professional degrees ( master craftsman , technician ).
In addition to the schools and academies mentioned, there are a number of other educational opportunities in Augsburg, ranging from the adult education center and the Kolping educational institution to various singing and music schools and language schools . For many, no special prior degree is required; rather, they are committed to the general education of the citizens. In the north-eastern part of the city there is also the Free Waldorf School Augsburg with a kindergarten and crèche. It is located on a large campus.
The university and the college have their own institutes , which are mostly assigned to a faculty and conduct research in its field. For larger or interdisciplinary projects, however, these also come together in order to be able to deal with a broader range of topics. For example, the Institute for Materials Resource Management deals with the technical development of regenerative technologies.
Augsburg has significant institutions , especially in the field of research on the environment and environmental protection : This is where the KUMAS - Competence Center Environment , created by the Free State of Bavaria as part of its high-tech offensive , a network of almost all research institutions and companies active in this sector, is located. that coordinates their communication and cooperation. The headquarters of the Bavarian Environment Cluster was also set up in Augsburg.
The Bavarian State Office for the Environment was located near the university in order to be able to work closely on its projects with the students and scientists of the planned research center “ Augsburg Innovationspark ” there. In the Lechhausen district is the Josef Vogl Technical Center , which is affiliated to the State Office and primarily collects ecological data for expert opinions.
Augsburg is the seat of the Fraunhofer facility for foundry, composite and processing technology . As of July 1, 2016, this came from the Function-Integrated Lightweight Construction branch of the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology , the Resource-Efficient Mechatronic Processing Machines project group of the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, and the Foundry Working Group of the Department of Forming Technology and Foundry at the Technical University Munich (based in Garching). There is also a project group of the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology in Augsburg . There is also a location for the German Aerospace Center on the university campus .
In the field of Eastern European Studies is true Bukovina Institute as one of the leading institutions. It is dedicated to the documentation and research of culture, history and regional studies in Eastern Europe in international and interdisciplinary cooperation. It is named after the Bukovina region ("Buchenland"), with which the institute is particularly concerned. The Swabian Research Association , founded in 1949, is also active in the field of regional studies and history.
The Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA) is an internationally used research platform of the Helmholtz Research Center for Health and Environment , on which studies on population-related health research are carried out. Augsburg is also a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society .
Augsburg already has an important library tradition from the time of the imperial city, which is still reflected today in a large number of institutions.
The State and City Library is located on Schaezlerstrasse. This facility is open to the public, but books cannot usually be borrowed. There is the city library with its district libraries in Göggingen , Haunstetten , Kriegshaber and Lechhausen , which gives all citizens of Augsburg access to books, magazines and other media. The Neue Stadtbücherei Augsburg is very modern in dealing with print media and multimedia, for which a good 14,000 signatures were collected in a referendum and which was then opened in June 2009 after long planning. The new building on Ernst-Reuter-Platz in the city center, which cost 15 million euros, covers an area of 5000 m² and offers not only books, audio books, CDs and DVDs to borrow, but also plenty of space for cultural exchange. The Augsburg State and City Library is also the office of the Historisches Verein für Schwaben, founded in 1834, which can set accents in science, urban and regional cultural life, especially with the annual journals of the Historisches Verein für Schwaben (ZHVS).
The university library is located on the university campus and is divided into a central library and several sub-libraries. Although it was only founded in 1970, it has a rich old inventory, including from the Oettingen-Wallersteinische Bibliothek , which was donated to the university in 1980.
The Bucovina Institute for Eastern European Research is located near the university and offers interested professionals a large library with a focus on Eastern German and Eastern European literature, history and culture.
In the age of e-texts , the Bibliotheca Augustana , a project by a professor at the University of Applied Sciences, has achieved a high reputation throughout Germany as a digital library for texts from world literature .
There are also many other small and private libraries that are only partially accessible to the public (e.g. monastery or school libraries).
In Augsburg there are several state, municipal and church-sponsored archives. The best-known archives include the Augsburg State Archive as the Bavarian State Archive responsible for the Swabian administrative region , the Augsburg City Archive as the municipal archive of the city of Augsburg and the Augsburg University Archive . The archive of the Diocese of Augsburg in Augsburg-Oberhausen is the ecclesiastical archive responsible for the official transmission of the written and documentation material of the offices and institutions of the Episcopal Ordinariate Augsburg and also looks after the parish and deanery archives of the Diocese of Augsburg .
House of Bavarian History
The House of Bavarian History in Zeuggasse was founded in 1983 as an authority of the Free State of Bavaria and has been based in Augsburg since September 1993. It is intended to make the historical and cultural diversity of Bavaria accessible to all strata of the population, especially the younger generation, in all parts of the state and currently has a picture archive comprising 270,000 materials.
Only people who are clearly associated with Augsburg are listed here. For more detailed information about the names and persons listed here, who can be connected with the city in a broader sense, the main article List of personalities of the city of Augsburg exists .
- St. Afra († 304 in Friedberg ) was an early Christian martyr who was canonized in 1064.
- St. Tozzo († January 16, 778 in Augsburg) was Bishop of Augsburg
- St. Simpert (* around 750; † probably October 13, 807 in Augsburg) was Bishop of Augsburg and is the third patron saint for the city and diocese of Augsburg (next to St. Ulrich and St. Afra).
- St. Ulrich (* 890 in Wittislingen or Augsburg, † July 4, 973 in Augsburg) was bishop in Augsburg from 923 until his death and played a decisive role in the victory over the Hungarians in the battle of the Lechfeld . He was personally canonized by the Pope in 993 as the first person ever .
- St. Wolfhard or St. Gualfardus (* around 1070 in Augsburg, † April 30, 1127 in Curte-Regia near Verona )
- The bones of Saint Wolfhard are kept in the Church of St. Sebastian .
- Johann I von Langenmantel (* around 1275 in Augsburg; † November 8, 1337, in Augsburg) was a patrician and Augsburg city clerk (mayor).
- Agnes Bernauer (* around 1410 probably in Augsburg; † October 12, 1435 near Straubing) was the lover and perhaps also the first wife of the Bavarian Duke Albrecht III.
- Anna Rüger , a printer, the first woman to appear in the colophon of a book in 1484 .
- Lorenz Helmschmied (* between 1450 and 1455 in Augsburg; † 1515 in Augsburg) was an important armorer .
- Hans Holbein the Elder (* around 1465 in Augsburg; † around 1524 in Augsburg) was a German painter whose work marks the transition from the late Gothic to the Renaissance . He created a number of altar and devotional pictures, portraits and glass paintings .
- Jakob Fugger the Rich (born March 6, 1459 in Augsburg, † December 30, 1525 in Augsburg) was Europe's richest and most important merchant and banker at the time . He came from a trading family, which he expanded into one of the first early capitalist companies within a few years, thus laying the foundation for the Fugger family's international reputation and wealth .
- Hans Burgkmair the Elder (* 1473 in Augsburg, † 1531 in Augsburg) was an important painter, draftsman and wood cutter at the beginning of the 16th century. Alongside Hans Holbein the Elder in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, Burgkmair is considered the most important Augsburg artist between the late Gothic and Renaissance periods.
- Bartholomäus V. Welser (born June 25, 1484 in Memmingen ; † March 28, 1561 in Amberg in Swabia ) was from 1519 to 1551 head of the Welser- Gesellschaft, one of the largest trading, banking, shipping and mining companies of the 16th century. Century. As the banker of Emperor Charles V and the French King Franz I , he had a decisive influence on the powerful of his time.
- Agidius Rehm (1486–1535), Bishop of Chiemsee
- Pilgram Marbeck (* around 1495 in Rattenberg (Tyrol) ; † December 16, 1556 in Augsburg) was an important leader of the Reformation Anabaptist movement and spiritual director of the Marbeck district named after him . From 1544 he worked as a hydraulic engineer for the city of Augsburg and created, among other things, a timber rafting company that was important for the expansion of the city .
- Susanna Daucher (* 1495), Augsburg Baptist
- Hieronymus Meitting (1496–1557), Bishop of Chiemsee
- Hans Holbein the Younger (* 1497 or 1498 in Augsburg; † November 29, 1543 in London ) was a German painter. In a self-portrait that he painted shortly before his death, he describes himself as a Basler. He is one of the most important artists of the Renaissance.
- Adriaen de Vries (* around 1545 or around 1560 in The Hague ; † before December 15, 1626 in Prague ) was a Dutch sculptor whose main work is two of the magnificent Augsburg fountains: the Mercury and Hercules fountain, both of which are elegant in construction and distinguished by the delicacy of the individual formations.
- Elias Holl (born February 28, 1573 in Augsburg, † January 6, 1646 in Augsburg) was the most important master builder of the German early baroque . His main work is the Augsburg Town Hall (built from 1615 to 1620) with the Golden Hall in the baroque style.
- Leopold Mozart (born November 14, 1719 in Augsburg, † May 28, 1787 in Salzburg ) was the composer and father of the much better known Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart . He mainly created church music and occasional compositions in which he liked to use "real sound effects" (bells, barking dogs, post horn, etc.). In addition, he wrote a considerable number of works of instrumental music .
- Jakob Wilhelm Benedikt Langenmantel von Westheim (born March 16, 1720 in Augsburg; † April 17, 1790, in Augsburg) was a patrician and long-time town clerk (mayor); Childhood friend of Leopold Mozart
- Johann Heinrich Edler von Schüle (born December 13, 1720 in Künzelsau , † April 17, 1811 in Augsburg) was a German businessman, inventor, technician, chemist and calico manufacturer with European significance. He was the first entrepreneur in Germany to print copper plates in his Kattunstoff factory and is considered the founder of industrial textile production in this field.
- Johann Friedrich von Tröltsch (March 8, 1728 in Nördlingen ; September 1, 1793 in Augsburg), lawyer
- Johann Gottlieb Freiherr von Süsskind (born March 11, 1767 in Nürtingen ; † December 21, 1849 in Augsburg) founded his own bank in Augsburg and increased his fortune through speculation in securities to such an extent that he is still the richest man in Swabia after the end of the Thirty Years' War applies.
- Rudolf Diesel (born March 18, 1858 in Paris , † September 29, 1913 in the English Channel ) was a German engineer and inventor. From 1893 he developed the diesel engine in the Augsburg machine factory, which became MAN in 1906 , with the financial participation of Friedrich Krupp AG, and in 1897 presented the first functional model of this engine to the world.
- Bertolt Brecht (born February 10, 1898 in Augsburg, † August 14, 1956 in Berlin) is known as the most influential German playwright and poet of the 20th century. He has also received international recognition and awards for his works. Brecht is considered the founder of the epic or "dialectical theater".
- Anna Lang (born May 5, 1911 Lechhausen; † September 27, 2019), a weaver, member of the AWO, was the second oldest woman from Augsburg at the age of 108
- Günther Strupp (born March 6, 1912 in Johannisburg; † November 14, 1996 in Augsburg), German painter and graphic artist
- Werner Haas (born May 30, 1927 in Augsburg; † November 13, 1956 near Neuburg an der Donau due to a plane crash) was a German motorcycle racer and three-time motorcycle world champion on NSU .
- Helmut Haller (born July 21, 1939 in Augsburg; † October 11, 2012 in Augsburg), national soccer player. He scored the first goal in the 1966 World Cup final
- Tilo Prückner (born October 26, 1940 in Augsburg; † July 2, 2020 in Berlin) German actor and author.
- Roy Black (born January 25, 1943 in Straßberg near Augsburg; † October 9, 1991 in Heldenstein ), real name Gerhard Höllerich , German pop singer
- Hans Henning Atrott (born January 12, 1944 in Klaipėda , Lithuania ), initiator of euthanasia
- Reinhard Kammler (born December 17, 1954 in Augsburg), cathedral music director and founder of the Augsburg Cathedral Boys' Choir
- Erhard Wunderlich (born December 14, 1956 in Augsburg, † October 4, 2012 in Cologne), handball player
- Bernd Schuster (born December 22, 1959 in Augsburg), former soccer player and soccer coach, 1980 European champion and 1982 European cup winner.
- Armin Veh (born February 1, 1961 in Augsburg), former soccer player and soccer coach
- Andreas Bourani (born November 2, 1983 in Augsburg), singer
The city of Augsburg has given 39 people honorary citizenship since 1820 . This right was revoked from five of these people, as they were given to dignitaries of the Third Reich.
In the course of the incorporation of the city of Göggingen, the city of Haunstetten des Markt Oberhausen and the municipality of Bergheim, the honorary citizenship rights granted there were taken over by a total of nine other people to the city of Augsburg.
Currently, the former Lord Mayors Hans Breuer , Peter Menacher , the former FCA President Walther Seinsch as well as the municipal rabbi Henry G. Brandt and the former Bavarian Prime Minister (now Federal Minister of the Interior) Horst Seehofer are still living holders of honorary citizenship.
More detailed information about the honorary citizens of the city can be found in the main article List of Honorary Citizens of Augsburg .
- Peter Dempf : Fabulous Augsburg. 3. Edition. Wißner, Augsburg 2005, ISBN 3-89639-498-3 .
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