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Schondorf a A - Seestr - Ammersee - Steg Ri SO - sailing boat, Andechs monastery.jpg
View over the Ammersee near Schondorf to Andechs Monastery
Geographical location bayer. Alpine foothills
Tributaries Ammer , Dießener Mühlbach , Fischbach , Kienbach , Kittenbach , Kreutbach , Mühlbach , Fahrmannsbach , Weißer Bach
Drain Amperes
Islands Sweden Island
Places on the shore Herrsching , Dießen , Utting , Schondorf
Location close to the shore Munich (~ 35 km), Augsburg (~ 50 km)
Coordinates 48 ° 0 ′  N , 11 ° 7 ′  E Coordinates: 48 ° 0 ′  N , 11 ° 7 ′  E
Ammersee (Bavaria)
Altitude above sea level 532.9  m above sea level NN
surface 46.6 km²
length 15.175 km
width 5.35 km
volume 1,750.01 million m³dep1
scope 43 km
Maximum depth 81.1 m
Middle deep 37.5 m
PH value 8.3
Catchment area 993.02 km²


theoretical renewal time. 2.7 years
circulation : dimictic

Map of Ammersee.png
The Ammersee and the surrounding area
Template: Infobox See / Maintenance / PH VALUE

The Ammersee is the third largest lake in Bavaria after the Chiemsee and the Starnberger See (among the lakes that are exclusively located in Bavaria) and the farthest north-facing lake in the foothills of the Alps. It is often referred to as the rural “Bauernsee” in contrast to the more elegant “Fürstensee” (Starnberger See). He belongs to the same community-free area Ammersee with the communities on the west bank of the district Landsberg am Lech . The east bank belongs to various communities in the Starnberg district , as well as a small part in the south around the mouth of the Ammer to the Weilheim-Schongau district . The lake is owned by the Free State of Bavaria, for whose administration the Bavarian Administration of State Palaces, Gardens and Lakes is responsible. The lake has an area of ​​around 47 square kilometers and a maximum depth of around 80 meters. The Sweden Island, located at the southern end of the lake, has already become a peninsula due to the progressive siltation and will eventually merge completely with the shore.


Like other lakes in the Bavarian Alpine foothills , the Ammersee was created when the Ice Age glaciers melted . The lake basin was pushed out as a typical tongue basin in the Saale / Riss and Würme Ice Age from the Loisach glacier , which as part of the Isar-Loisach glacier stretched from the “Garmischer Pforte” far into the country.

About 16,000 years ago the ice slowly began to melt, and about 14,000 years ago the remaining lateral and terminal moraines enclosed a body of water. At that time, the lake extended in a north-south direction for about 37 km and covered an area from today's Weilheim in the south to Grafrath in the north. The branch basin branching off to the northeast near Herrsching with today's Pilsensee was still part of the entire lake, the level of which was roughly the same as it is today. Since then, the lake has shrunk to 47 square kilometers today.

The reason for this was on the one hand deposits of the tributaries, especially the Ammer in the south and the Windach in the north, which continuously dumped rock debris into the lake, while on the other hand biogenic deposits led to silting up. The silting up continues, the expected "lifespan" of the Ammersee is estimated at around 20,000 years.

Contrary to widespread representation in the older literature, the water level of the Ammersee was never significantly higher than it is today. The Grafrath-Wildenroth breakthrough valley was formed when the glacier ice melted, as evidenced by the gravelly ice-edge terraces formed by meltwater on both sides of the Ammersee and Ampermooses.


View over the Ammersee towards the Alps
Location of the lake in the greater Munich area, inflows and outflows in the catchment area of ​​the Isar

The Ammersee is one of the best-studied lakes in Bavaria. Its water quality is mainly determined by the main tributary Ammer, which comes from the Limestone Alps. The Ammer drains around three quarters of the almost 1,000 km² catchment area. Their mean discharge is estimated at 16.6 m³ / s (Fischen gauge, annual series 1941/1989). In special weather conditions, such as when the snowmelt is accompanied by persistent heavy rain, the runoff can rise to up to 600 m³ / s and be heavily clouded by suspended matter. At the end of a long dry period, the inflow from the Ammer sometimes sinks to less than 3 m³ / s. The Amper as an outflow from the lake discharges an average of 21.1 m³ of water per second at an average water level of 140 cm at the Stegen gauge (annual series 1975/1994). The weakly pronounced low water levels of the Amper - the lowest measured water level was 119 cm on August 14, 1994 - prove the strong retention effect (retention and storage function) of the Ammersee. The mean high water level of 195 cm (Stegen gauge, annual series 1975/1994) can, however, be exceeded significantly in extreme weather events, the highest water level ever measured was 337 cm on May 27, 1999. During floods, the silting zones adjacent to the north and south serve as spacious areas Flood area and thus form an effective protection against flooding. Above all, the places down the Amper gain security through this protective function, as the sometimes extreme flood peaks of the Ammer leave the lake in a much softened and temporally stretched manner.

Biology and Conservation

The water quality, which was endangered in the 1960s, could be significantly improved by extensive wastewater rehabilitation measures such as the construction of a ring main, the commissioning of the sewage treatment plant in Eching in 1971 and the rehabilitation of the sewage treatment plants in the Ammer catchment area. The AWA-Ammersee, which manages the drinking water and wastewater in the region, offers further information about the origins and development of the Eching sewage treatment plant. Since the mid-1980s, the nutrient load in the water has shifted from the eutrophic to the mesotrophic area, which means that the nutrient load is low to moderate, the production of algae is moderate and the average depth of view is over 2 m. The use of the Ammersee as bathing water is thus secured in the long term.

Of the surviving fish in the lake is above all an endemic whitefish ( Coregonus bavaricus ) announced a mainly encountered in the subalpine lakes whitefish species , whose presence has led to a long tradition quite intense each fishery use of the lake. The only real deep char in Central Europe ( Salvelinus evasus ) lives in the lake . In 2010 a new species of fish, the Ammersee ruff ( Gymnocephalus ambriaelacus ), which also only occurs in the Ammersee, was described.

Bird sanctuary and nature reserve at the southern end of the lake

With the nature reserves Vogelfreistätte Ammersee-Südufer (which also includes the Sweden Island ), Seeholz and Seewiese as well as Ampermoos , the Ammersee is one of the seven internationally significant wetlands in Bavaria according to the so-called Ramsar Convention . On the west bank access to the bank is closed to the general public except for short stretches, but almost the entire east bank is open to the public. Large areas of the bank are still in a near-natural state, but the formerly dense reeds have declined significantly since the late 1960s. On the other hand, pollution from microplastics has increased .


Paddle Wheel Ship Diessen (YOC 1908)
Breitbrunn landing stage

The Ammersee in the Fünfseenland , whose other four eponymous lakes in the region are the Starnberger See , the Wörthsee , the Pilsensee and the Weßlinger See , is not only one of the most popular tourist destinations in Bavaria with a supraregional appeal, but also one of the preferred local recreation areas for Augsburg and Munich residents Population. Especially in summer, the Ammersee is therefore influenced by massive tourism. From the two metropolitan areas, each only around 50 km away, there is a real mass rush to beach baths, beer gardens and the cycling and hiking trails around the lake on nice weekends. Since most of the visitors arrive with cars or motorbikes, there are major traffic and parking problems for the neighboring communities. The Ammersee can be reached by train via the Herrsching terminus of the Munich S-Bahn ( Munich-Pasing – Herrsching line ) and the Ammersee railway from Augsburg to Weilheim, which runs along the entire west bank .

The Bayerische Seenschifffahrt operates the lake with a fleet of four passenger ships. The Ammerseeflotte includes the wheel motor ship Herrsching , built in 2002 , the historic former paddle steamer Diessen (converted to a wheel motor ship) and the motor ships Utting and Augsburg . The lake is also used by the former sailing yacht of the last King of Württemberg, Albatros . Striking structures in the vicinity of the Ammersee are the large parabolic mirrors of the Raisting earth station .

water sports

Sailboats on the Ammersee
View of the Ammersee from Schondorf
Herrsching steam pier

Favorable wind conditions also ensure strong sailing and surfing activity in summer. In theory, sailing is possible without a license, but most boat rental companies and sailing clubs require at least an A-license or an inland sports boat license . Sailboats shorter than 9.20 m and without a propulsion engine can be used for public use without a permit, whereby the local rules must be observed (e.g. distance to the bank, protected areas, right of way for passenger ships). There are public entry ramps. Berths on buoys or jetties require approval. The waiting time on a buoy reservation list is currently seven to nine years. The approval is granted by the Bavarian Palace and Lake Administration for a period of seven years. A new entry can be made no earlier than six months before the buoy permit expires. A license agreement must also be concluded with the Bavarian Palace Administration for the berth.

The use of motor boats is subject to strict regulations and therefore hardly ever takes place. The water rescue service , the water police as well as the fishermen , some boat rental companies and sailing clubs have special permits . However, there are also some private motor boats on the lake.

Motor and electric boats as well as sailing boats with a length of more than 9.20 m or with an auxiliary engine over 4 kW or with living, cooking or sanitary facilities require approval from the Landsberg am Lech district office and a license plate as well as a license agreement under private law with Bayerische Lock management. There is a motorboat pre-registration list with a waiting period of around three years for applications for approval of a motorboat. Permits can be given for motor boats up to max. 9 m length and max. 191 kW (260 hp) can be granted for a period of five years. A new entry in the reservation list can be made no earlier than three months before the expiry of the motorboat permit.

Holidaymakers can get a holiday permit for sailing boats and electric boats for a maximum of four weeks.

Water skiing is possible in a certain area in the eastern part of the lake at certain times of the day.

Diving is permitted in the Ammersee within the framework of the general decree of the Landsberg am Lech district office.

Important places on the lake shore

Herrsching am Ammersee

Landsberg am Lech district (west bank), including Ammersee:

Starnberg district (east bank):

District Weilheim-Schongau (south bank):

Well-known places near the Ammersee

Starnberg district (east bank):

Water rescue

At the Ammersee there are six local groups of the water rescue service of the Bavarian Red Cross. The guard stations are manned between May and September. In addition, water rescue is ensured 24 hours a day around the clock by rapid response groups (SEG). There are guard stations, for example, in Eching, Utting, Riederau, Schondorf, Dießen, Herrsching, Buch and Stegen. A fire brigade boat is stationed in Dießen and Herrsching, and a police boat is also stationed in Dießen.

Architectural monuments

List of architectural monuments on Lake Ammersee (unincorporated area)

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h Documentation of the condition and development of the most important lakes in Germany: Part 11 Bavaria (PDF; 1.7 MB)
  2. ^ Homepage of Manfred Hummel
  3. Ammersee ( Memento from June 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) on the Bay's website. Lock management
  4. see Roland Kunz: Explanations of the geological map ... Türkenfeld dissertation 1998
  5. M. Kottelat and J. Freyhof: Handbook of European freshwater fishes . Publications Kottelat, Cornol 2007
  6. ^ Matthias F. Geiger and Ulrich K. Schliewen: Gymnocephalus ambriaelacus , a new species of ruffe from Lake Ammersee, southern Germany (Teleostei, Perciformes, Percidae). Spixiana, 33, pp. 119-137, 2010
  7. Martin Müller: Researchers find a lot of microplastics in Bavarian lakes. In: October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019 .
  8. Ammersee (PDF; 184 kB) Flyer of the Bay. Water police
  9. Application buoy reservation list ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  10. ^ Bay. Shipping Regulations (PDF; 172 kB) Flyer of the Bay. Water police
  11. ^ Application for a motorboat reservation list ( Memento from April 1, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Vacation permit ( memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  13. Ammersee (PDF; 184 kB) Flyer of the Bay. Water police
  14. General decree for diving ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )


  • Roland Kunz: Explanations of the geological map 1: 25,000 sheet 7832 Türkenfeld with remarks on the geology and landscape history of the former Loisach Glacier, Upper Bavaria. Dissertation at the Technical University of Munich, Munich 1998.

Web links

Commons : Ammersee  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Ammersee  - travel guide