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Bunch of grapes with berries of a red grape variety
Noble grapevine
Black-blue berries with a cross section of a berry.  Red dyes are almost always only contained in the berry peel.

Black- blue berries with a cross section of a berry. Red dyes are almost always only contained in the berry peel.

Noble grapevine
Scientific name
Vitis vinifera
Grape with berries of a white grape variety
Dried grapes ( raisins )

Grapes are the fruit bunches of grapevines ( Vitis ), especially those of the noble grapevine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera ). The individual fruits of the fruit cluster are called grapes . Colloquially, a clear distinction is not always made between berries and grapes. From a botanical point of view, however, the shape of the fruit cluster with branched side axes is not a grape , but a panicle . In the technical jargon of viticulture , the inflorescences are called Gescheine .

The climbing vine is one of the oldest cultivated plants known to man. Today around 16,000  grape varieties are known. There are grapevines with green or yellow (“white”) berries and those with red to dark blue (“red”) berries. These are spherical to ovoid in shape and have a diameter of 6 to 20 millimeters.

Grapes can be eaten raw ( table grapes ), dried with raisins and with wine , brandy , grape juice, etc. Ä. processed ( wine grapes ). Pomace - the residue left over from winemaking - is used in particular to make brandies. A very well-known pomace brandy is the Italian grappa .

The peel and the kernel of the grapes contain oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). a. act as powerful antioxidants ; the seeds can be processed into grape seed oil and grape seed flour . The seeds and the skin of the berries are also a source of the antioxidant resveratrol .

Seedless grapes are created by artificially induced parthenocarpy (virgin fruitiness ).

Wine is created in the course of the production process through alcoholic fermentation . Musts or mashes are produced from the grapes by pounding or pressing ( wine press ) , which are then fermented into wine.

Average composition

The composition of grapes naturally fluctuates, both depending on the environmental conditions (soil, climate) and the cultivation technique (fertilization, plant protection).

Details per 100 g of edible portion:

water 81.1 g
protein 0.7 g
fat 0.3 g
carbohydrates 15.2 g
Fiber 1.5 g
Minerals 0.5 g
sodium 2 mg
potassium 195 mg
magnesium 8 mg
Calcium 12 mg
manganese 70 µg
iron 415 µg
copper 95 µg
zinc 50 µg
phosphorus 20 mg
selenium 2 µg
A 1 ( retinol ) 6 µg
B 1 ( thiamine ) 45 µg
B 2 ( riboflavin ) 25 µg
B 3 ( nicotinic acid ) 230 µg
B 5 ( pantothenic acid ) 65 µg
B 6 ( pyridoxine , pyridoxal and pyridoxamine ) 75 µg
B 9 ( folic acid ) 45 µg
C ( ascorbic acid ) 4 mg
E ( tocopherol ) 1400 µg
amino acids
Arginine 1 50 mg
Histidine 1 25 mg
Isoleucine 5 mg
Leucine 14 mg
Lysine 15 mg
Methionine 23 mg
Phenylalanine 14 mg
Threonine 19 mg
Tryptophan 4 mg
Tyrosine 12 mg
Valine 19 mg

The main components of the berry flesh are glucose and fructose , as well as tartaric and malic acids .

1 mg = 1000 µg
1 semi-essential

The physiological calorific value is 287 kJ (68 kcal) per 100 g of edible portion.

Economical meaning

The following table gives an overview of the 20 largest producers of grapes worldwide, who produced a total of 87.7% of the harvest.

Largest grape producers (2018)
rank country Quantity
(in t )
  rank country Quantity
(in t)
1 China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China 13,397,012 11 South AfricaSouth Africa South Africa 1,901,736
2 ItalyItaly Italy 8,513,643 12 EgyptEgypt Egypt 1,759,472
3 United StatesUnited States United States 6,890,970 13 AustraliaAustralia Australia 1,663,557
4th SpainSpain Spain 6,673,481 14th BrazilBrazil Brazil 1,591,986
5 FranceFrance France 6,198,323 15th UzbekistanUzbekistan Uzbekistan 1,589,784
6th TurkeyTurkey Turkey 3,933,000 16 GermanyGermany Germany 1,403,597
7th IndiaIndia India 2,920,000 17th RomaniaRomania Romania 1,144,305
8th ArgentinaArgentina Argentina 2,573,311 18th AfghanistanAfghanistan Afghanistan 984.081
9 ChileChile Chile 2,500,000 19th GreeceGreece Greece 933.150
10 IranIran Iran 2,032,031 20th PortugalPortugal Portugal 778,698
world 79.125.983

For comparison, the values ​​for Austria (367,131 t) and Switzerland (107,776 t).

see also:


Grapes are non-toxic to many animals. In some dogs , however, grape poisoning occurs even after ingesting 10 grams of grapes per kilogram of body mass .


  • Bernd Altmayer: Changes in the constituents of grape musts and mycotoxin formation by types of fungi colonizing grapes. Dissertation at the University of Kaiserslautern , Kaiserslautern 1982.
  • Gemmrich: Application-oriented research and development at universities of applied sciences: Development of an optisensor for automatic quality control when grapes are delivered to the press. (Short title: Optisensor for grapes; final report according to No. 3.2 BNBest-BMBF. ) Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences , Heilbronn 1999.

Web links

Ingredients of grapes Link collection on the topic (resveratrol, anthocyanins, catechins and quercetin)

Commons : Grapes  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: grape  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: wine berry  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Christoph Drösser : Isn't that right ?: Der Traube Kern. Rubric: Knowledge. In: Zeit Online . Zeitverlag Gerd Bucerius , December 4, 2003, accessed on March 15, 2015 (from: Die Zeit . No. 50/2003).
  2. German Research Institute for Food Chemistry (DFA), Garching (Hrsg.): Food table for practice . The little souci · specialist · herb. 4th edition. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-8047-2541-6 , p. 239 .
  3. ^ A b Crops> Grapes. In: Official FAO production statistics for 2018., accessed on March 13, 2020 .