|Canis lupus familiaris|
|( Linnaeus , 1758)|
The domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) is a pet and is used as home and livestock held. Its wild ancestral form is the wolf , to which it is assigned as a subspecies . When domestication took place is controversial; scientific estimates vary between 15,000 and 100,000 years BCE.
In a narrower sense, a house dog is the term used to describe the dogs that are mainly kept in the house, and thus denotes a form of keeping. Historically, a dog kept to guard the house was called a house dog. Another use of the term is the restriction to socialized (house) dogs, i.e. dogs that are used to living with people in human society and are adapted to it. This differentiates the domestic dog from wild, feral or stray dogs that are domesticated but not socialized.
The dingo is also a domestic dog, but is provisionally listed as an independent subspecies of the wolf.
There are an estimated 500 million domestic dogs worldwide, around 75 percent of which are free-ranging. In Germany alone, 9 million dogs live as pets. Dog population control is a problem in many countries. Since the free-running dogs are not neutered in most cases, they can reproduce in an almost uncontrolled manner. In order to counteract the large number of stray strays, the animals are brutally killed with traps or poison in large-scale action in some countries, or they are taken to animal shelters - often with insufficient care. If a new home is not found for the dogs in a short time, these dogs will also be killed. The street dogs are exposed to constant deficiencies and diseases as a result of inadequate food. Animal welfare organizations such as the European Animal and Nature Conservation Association , the German Animal Welfare Association and Vier Pfoten therefore advocate animal welfare control of the animal population through castration.
Dogs can be divided into different groups according to their closeness to humans and their social coexistence with them:
- wild : wild for thousands of years (e.g. dingo )
- feral : wild for several generations
- free-living without owner : abandoned or thrown by a free-living bitch
- free-living in the village (neighborly) : owned by the villagers rather than an individual household, not restricted
- kept in the wild by a family; have an owner : owned by one family but not restricted
- restricted : with owner and restricted freedom of movement
The life of dogs and their well-being depend to a large extent on their own and the living conditions of the people with whom they live.
The dog's permanent set of teeth has 42 teeth. It has 3 incisors ( incisors , I ), a canine or hook tooth ( caninus , C ) and 4 anterior molars ( premolars , P ) in each half of the upper and lower jaw . In the upper jaw , there are 2, in the lower jaw 3 molars ( molars , M ) by half.
One of the molars is particularly strong and is known as a fang ( Dens sectorius ). In the upper jaw it is the P4, in the lower jaw the M1, i.e. always the third from last tooth. Both interlock like scissors tongs and are used to tear pieces of meat.
The position of the teeth is very variable in the individual dog breeds . In the normal type (i.e. corresponding to that of the wolf, for example the German Shepherd ), the incisors of the lower jaw grip directly behind those of the upper jaw. In short-headed ( brachycephalic ) breeds, such as the German Boxer and Pekingese , the upper jaw is significantly shorter than the lower jaw ( maxillary retrognathy ), so that the lower incisors and canines are clearly in front of those of the upper (overshot). In breeds with a long and narrow skull ( dolichocephalic ), such as borzoi , whippet and collie , the situation is reversed ( mandibular retrognathy ). These breeds show an back or back bite.
Dogs are born toothless. The first milk teeth appear with the canines from the third week of life. At about six weeks, the complete deciduous set of 28 teeth is formed. The P1 and posterior molars have no primary teeth. The change of teeth to permanent teeth begins as early as the third month of life in the incisors. About a month later, P1 and M1 (which do not have any milk tooth precursors, so do not change) break through, and from the fifth month onwards, the rest of them break through. The change of teeth is completed in the seventh month.
The normal temperature is between 37.5 and 39 degrees Celsius, with the higher values mainly occurring in young dogs, representatives of small dog breeds, in female and pregnant animals. Depending on the activity, the temperature in an individual in the morning is about 1 degree below that in the afternoon.
Sense of hearing
- Human ≈ 20–20,000 Hz , maximum sensitivity in the range between 2000 and 4000 Hz
- Dog ≈ 15–50,000 Hz (according to other sources up to 100,000 Hz), maximum sensitivity at 8,000 Hz
The dog's movable ear cups also allow it to locate sound sources in three dimensions better than a human could. In addition to hearing, they are important as “signal transmitters” for optical communication.
Sense of sight
It used to be assumed that dogs could only see shades of gray - that is, only "black and white". According to current knowledge, dogs see colors, but are dichromates and cannot perceive red separately.
The eye of the dog contains two different like all mammals light receptors : While the sticks are for seeing grayscale responsible that enable pins - adequate lighting provided - that seeing colors . The rods are much more numerous and more sensitive to light than the cones. This also applies to humans: in the twilight they only see in shades of gray. In dogs (like in most other mammals, but not in humans) the fundus of the eye is "mirrored". This layer, called tapetum lucidum , reflects incident light so that it hits the rods one more time. Dogs can therefore see much better than humans at dusk.
The cones are each specialized in a specific spectral range. In humans, there are three different receptors for the colors red, green and blue, from whose three color signals the brain creates the overall color impression. The dog only has two different types of cones, which are sensitive to green and blue. This only covers part of the human color spectrum: red is a color that the dog does not recognize. The dogs' color vision is slightly shifted in the direction of ultraviolet and ends in yellow due to the lack of red receptor.
There are other major differences: the dog's eye is most sensitive in the 430 nm range - the blue range -, the human eye in the 550 nm range (green / yellow). Visual acuity is probably less than that of humans and optimized for movement; Steady things are suppressed by the brain, i.e. hardly noticed. The reason is likely to be that the wolf's prey must be optically selected because it moves.
The horizontal extent of the dog's field of vision is about 240 degrees compared to about 180 degrees in humans. The area in which the dog can see three-dimensionally is around 60 ° smaller than that of humans (120 °).
Sense of smell
The nose , the dog's olfactory organ, is much more sensitive than that of humans. Dogs belong to the nasal animals (macrosmatists) . The more pronounced sense of smell can be roughly recognized by the number of olfactory cells , although there are considerable differences between the dog breeds. Humans have five million olfactory cells, dachshunds 125 million and sheepdogs 220 million.
However, this is by no means sufficient to assess olfactory performance: Measurements have shown an olfactory ability that is around a million times better than that of humans. The dog can breathe in short breaths up to 300 times per minute, so that the olfactory cells are constantly supplied with new odor particles.
The incoming signals are processed and evaluated in the brain. Since the nose (similar to seeing) can differentiate right and left, dogs can smell spatially. In this way the dog is able to follow the direction of a trail. The olfactory brain is huge compared to that of humans, because it alone makes up ten percent of the dog's brain (in comparison: one percent in humans). Humans use this special ability of the dog by using it as a sniffer dog in many areas. Dogs can also smell sweat from people.
Dogs also “taste” smells through the Jacobson's organ (vomeronasal organ), which is located in the palate . This immediately transports the recorded information to the limbic system . It is responsible for the development of feelings, the instinctual behavior and for the formation of hormones .
The nasal surface of dogs is significantly cooler than that of cloven-hoofed and odd-toed ungulates . A study published in Nature suggests that this enables dogs to perceive and localize weak or distant thermal radiation. Besides the vampire bat , the dog is the only species of mammal in which this is known.
Sense of taste
Dogs have taste buds on the papillae of the tongue , but also on the roof of the mouth and at the entrance of the throat. In total, the domestic dog has 1700 such taste buds (humans have 9000). In order to be able to perceive taste, molecules must be dissolved in the saliva, which is why dogs have four pairs of salivary glands. There are two different types of saliva - a more watery one, which is responsible for the vegetable food, and a rather slimy one, which dissolves the molecules of the meat food. The different regions of taste perception on the tongue are arranged somewhat differently than in humans. The side part of the tongue reacts to sweet, salty and sour food, while the back part of the tongue reacts to bitter foods. The receptors, which indicate meaty food, are distributed all over the tongue, but are concentrated in the first third.
sense of touch
The sense of touch is very important for dogs because they build social and emotional bonds with other dogs and people through contact. Dogs can be calmed down measurably by touch - the pulse slows down and breathing becomes more regular.
Dogs perceive contact primarily through their skin and with the help of their vibrissae . They have two different types of receptors in the skin. On the one hand there are receptors for surface contact, which are located directly under the skin and transfer the movements of the hair to the receptors on the hair follicle, and on the other hand there are receptors for stronger pressure, which are located deeper under the skin. The dog's nose and lips react particularly strongly to pressure, as many sensory nerves end there. Vibrations can be perceived through the paws. The dog has vibrissae on the face, which are more rigid than normal body hair and also extend deeper into the skin. There are numerous tactile receptors at the base of the vibrissae. It is believed that the vibrissae are very important for the dog, as 40% of the brain section responsible for the sense of touch is responsible for the face. The vibrissae serve the dog as an early warning system to protect himself from a collision or eye injuries. The vibrissae are so sensitive that they don't even have to touch an object to perceive it - the vortices of air that arise as they pass are sufficient for perception. Austria forbids the removal of vibrissae; this is checked even at exhibitions.
Dogs only have cold sensors. The exception is the nose, which has heat sensors. These are especially useful for the puppies to find their mother after birth. When dogs come into contact with hot objects, they react with their pain receptors, not with heat sensors. Dogs, like humans, can feel pain . It has been proven that dogs recover faster after surgery if pain medication is used - they start eating and drinking earlier after surgery, getting up faster and being able to go home earlier. Due to their evolution, dogs often hide pain in order not to be thrown out of the pack. Indications of pain can be whining, yapping, heavy panting, rapid breathing, tremors, restlessness, withdrawal or aggression when touched, licking / gnawing the painful parts of the body, rapid pulse, dilated pupils or an increased body temperature.
Domestic dogs have the ability to sense the earth's magnetic field . This was shown in a study by the fact that the dogs preferred to defecate and urinate in a position in which the longitudinal axis of the body was aligned with the earth's magnetic field. The animals only showed this behavior at times of the day when the orientation ( declination ) of the earth's magnetic field did not change. Domestic dogs are the first mammals in which it has been proven that they are sensitive not only to the earth's magnetic field as such, but also to its fluctuations.
Karyotype and genome
The genetic information of the domestic dog is in the cell nucleus in 76 autosomes (38 pairs ), two sex chromosomes (X and Y) and in the mitochondria . The genome of a female boxer was completely sequenced for the first time in 2005 ; it consists of 2,528,446,953 base pairs and an initially estimated 19,300 genes .
The onset of sexual maturity in the female dog is marked by the first heat , which occurs at the age of 7 to 14 months. Males reach fertility around the same age. Smaller dogs generally become sexually mature earlier than large breed dogs.
Bitches are subject to a pronounced half to three-quarter heat period that is not tied to the seasons. With an average heat interval of five to nine months, they belong to the seasonally diostric animals. Male domestic dogs are - unlike wolves - always ready to mate from sexual maturity.
The sexual cycle is divided into four phases. With the onset of pre-estrus ( Proestrus ), the vulva swells and bloody to flesh-colored secretions emerge , which makes the bitch attractive for males. However, they are not yet ready to cover. The duration of the pre-heat is - individually different - 4 to 21 days. It is followed by the heat ( estrus at), which is characterized by deck readiness of the female and fertility. The vaginal discharge becomes lighter and the bitch “presents” herself to the males, i. that is, it "stands" and invites you to lay the rod on one side ( standing heat ). The heat phase lasts two to twelve days. Together with the heat , it is called heat . This is followed by metestrus , during which the uterus undergoes regression and regeneration over a period of nine to twelve weeks . In the fourth phase ( anestrus ) there is no sign of sexual activity. This section lasts two to six months.
When mating the dog it comes to the remarkable performance of "hanging". Upon penetration of the bitch, the so-called "nodule" (anatomically, glandular bulb ) of the male, which is the thickened base of the glans with a corpus cavernosum, swells. This has the effect that the penis is "wedged" and the two animals cannot separate from each other and, because of the risk of injury, must not be separated by force. As a result, the male animal rises from its partner after ejaculation and usually turns 180 ° so that both animals remain connected with their buttocks facing each other for a period of up to 30 minutes. The hanging gives the sperm a head start over those of subsequent males.
The average gestation period of the bitch is 63 to 65 days, the number of puppies per litter varies between three and twelve animals, depending on the breed. The ratio between the total weight of the litter and the body weight of the dam is usually 10-15%; the number of puppies littered at one time varies greatly.
The term socialization is also used in dogs to denote the process by which the dog deals with its environment, gets to know its rules and forms bonds . Socialization takes place particularly intensively during the first few months of life. The following processes already take place with the puppy - provided that the conditions are appropriate:
- Socialization with conspecifics (learning to communicate between dogs)
- Socialization with other animals ( cats , guinea pigs , birds , horses )
- Socialization with (strangers) people
- Getting used to environmental stimuli such as siren , bicycle bells, airplanes, popping noises (New Year's Eve bangs) as well as getting used to crowds or the turmoil of traffic
The most important socialization phase of the dog extends roughly from the 3rd to the 12th week of life. The basis is the maturation of the sensory organs and the development of motor skills. Socialization with conspecifics takes place at three to eight weeks a little earlier than with humans (5th – 12th week). During this time, dogs learn new behaviors and develop movements that are typical of adult dogs, as well as eating, defecating and urinating behavior. They learn the species-specific body language, show playful barking and biting, learn how to inhibit biting and how to read human body language. The development of every dog is largely determined by its socialization and upbringing. Specially made dog toys are sometimes seen as useful. Socialization processes that do not take place in the first 14 weeks of life cannot be fully made up for. A dog without socialization up to 14 weeks old is practically neither educable nor trainable. However, the socialization phase does not end the acquisition of social skills, and they are only sustained through lifelong social interactions.
Based on a recommendation by Scott and Fuller from 1965, the opinion has developed that it is good to separate puppies from mother and siblings by the age of eight weeks at the latest. Ádám Miklósi objects that there is no reason to separate the dog so early, especially if the puppy has better conditions for socialization with the breeder than with the later owner, since socialization at this age of the dogs is not yet specific for certain people and Dogs that have good experiences with people are usually easy to socialize with other people later.
Large dogs age faster than small dogs, which is why small dogs generally have a longer life expectancy than large dogs. Breeds such as the dachshund can reach an age of up to 15 years, in exceptional cases even 20 years. Larger, heavier breeds such as the Great Dane hardly get older than 9 years. The cause of the faster aging of large dog breeds is still largely unclear. For example, the influence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is discussed . Smaller dogs express less IGF-1. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the IGF1 gene causes small dogs to grow less and possibly also to delay their aging. Presumably, the greater accumulation of damage from oxidative stress during the growth phase compared to small breeds also plays a role.
Dogs and wolves
Dogs and wolves are capable of crossbreeding . The degree to which such a mixed breed is a dog or a wolf cannot necessarily be determined by its appearance, since many mixed breeds look very similar to dogs or wolves and often only a genetic test can provide clarity.
In his dissertation Wolves and King Poodles and the books based on them, the behavioral researcher Erik Zimen describes in detail his long-term comparative observations on King Poodles and wolves as well as their mixed breeds (the so-called Puwos ).
In the practice of dog breeding, attempts have been made again and again to "improve" dog breeds by crossing wolves, such as with the Saarloos Wolfdog , the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog and in Italy with the Lupo Italiano . The expectations could not be met in all of these attempts.
Until now, it was assumed that the behavioral differences between wolf and dog were too great for mixed mating to occur in the wild. An additional obstacle arises from the fertility cycles: male and female wolves are only fertile once a year. This mainly distinguishes the wolf from the domestic dog.
Nevertheless, in 2004 female wolfs who immigrated to Germany (probably due to the lack of male wolves) were mated with a dog from which six mixed breeds were born. In 2000, mating between a male wolf and a shepherd dog was observed, but no offspring were produced.
It was assumed that interbreeding only occurs where there are few wolves but very many domestic dogs. However, in the Italian Abruzzo and the USSR there is evidence that wolves mixed with domestic dogs, as confirmed by Erik Zimen. According to Dmitrij Iwanowitsch Bibikow, mixed breeds sometimes appeared very frequently in the territory of the USSR, even in populations that were not thinned. The Arab subspecies of the wolf ( Canis lupus arabs ) is also assumed to be mixed with feral domestic dogs, since brown eyes are often found among these wolves.
In general, it can be assumed that dogs living in the wild pose a great danger to wolf populations. In Europe, the hybridization of dogs with wolves poses a significant threat to the protection of wolves - especially where there are many dogs living in the wild, such as in southern and eastern Europe. In addition to the dangers of hybridization, dogs living in the wild also pose a threat to wolves; directly because they bring diseases and parasites into wolf populations and indirectly because they kill livestock, which is blamed on the wolf, and because they reduce its prey.
The first comparative studies on the mitochondrial DNA of wolves and dogs in the 1990s came to the conclusion that their domestication began more than 100,000 years ago and has taken place several times independently of one another. This time span is being questioned in more recent studies, since it is based on pure extrapolations of the molecular clock . The oldest known bone finds of wolves with characteristics of domestication are no more than 40,000 years old. Since the phenotypic similarity to the wolf was great at the beginning of domestication , the assessment of fossil finds based on anatomical features is difficult.
In 2013 the DNA of the fossil wolf skull with dog-typical features from the Razboinichya Cave in the Altai Mountains , which was found in 1975, was published, the age of which was determined to be 33,000 BP by means of radiocarbon dating . This is the oldest DNA of a wolf skull with domestication features. This shows a greater genetic match with today's dogs than with wolves.
According to the DNA, all dog breeds can be assigned to four different domestication events in a study published in 2004 . For East Asia, a molecular genetic study suggests that domestic dogs were around 15,000 years ago. A study of mitochondrial DNA from 2009 showed that all dog breeds worldwide have a common gene pool, which can be divided into 10 haplotypes . However, the entire genetic range is only found in dogs in China, south of the Yangtze River , from which this region is concluded as the starting point for domestication. Using the molecular clock, domestication in this region has been dated to a maximum of 16,300 years ago, with the gene pool going back to at least 51 female wolves.
By examining the Y chromosomes of 151 male dogs from all over the world, the Southeast Asian origin could be confirmed, as only the genetic makeup of dogs from Southeast Asia shows the full range of possible variants. The authors conclude that all dogs today are descended from 13 to 24 wolf fathers. In later times there were backcrosses of dogs with wolves in other regions.
A study published in 2013 of the mitochondrial DNA of 18 prehistoric canids from Eurasia and America, however, allows the conclusion that the origin of domestication is to be found in Pleistocene Europe, in a time window between 32,000 and 18,000 years ago.
Fossil finds of small dog breeds were first recorded in the Middle East 12,000 years ago . The growth factor IGF-1 in today's small breeds suggests the descent from this region, which is interpreted as a consequence of the domestication of the Eastern wolf from a genetic point of view.
The hypothesis put forward by Theophil Studer and still supported by Konrad Lorenz , that the dog is at least partially descended from the golden jackal ( Canis aureus ), has been refuted on the basis of DNA analyzes.
The oldest fossil evidence for the adaptation of the wolf to humans comes from the Upper Paleolithic . The changes to the dentition (inclination of individual teeth, backdrop-like positioning of several premolars one behind the other) and the associated shortening of the facial skull were found in wolf skulls from various Paleolithic settlement areas. Studied DNA adjacent to the 33,000-year-old wolf skull from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai), there is another skull find from the Goyet Cave in a side valley of the Meuse (in Andenne , Belgium) with changes in the muzzle, which at 31,700 BP was dated . Both finds are associated with the early Cro-Magnon man and his archaeological cultures (early Upper Palaeolithic , Aurignacia ). The up to 30,000 year old canid remains from Krems-Wachtberg in Lower Austria , a place where Gravettia was found, offer a somewhat more recent example . In the cases mentioned, the shorter and wider snout is the result of a change in eating behavior, which is interpreted as a result of the wolves adapting to the hunting resources of humans. However, such a monocausal interpretation is not without controversy, since a changed eating behavior does not necessarily have to do with humans.
Dog bones are known from the late Paleolithic site of Eliseevichi 1 in the western Russian Oblast of Bryansk , which date back to 17,000–13,000 BC. To be dated. The site is on the south-east , a tributary of the Desna . The fauna is dominated by the woolly mammoth and dates to the last stage of the Waldaje Ice Age (corresponds to the Vistula Ice Age in Central Europe). Culturally it is assigned to the Epi- Gravettian . The settlement was excavated by KM Polikarpovitch between 1930 and 1940, and two complete dog skulls were found. The first was on a hearth, another in a mammoth bone dwelling. The dogs had short snouts and were about 70 cm high. The skulls from Eliseevichi and from the similarly old Ukrainian site of Meschyritsch (near Kaniw ) are generally accepted as the oldest domesticated specimens. Domestication can, however, have taken place several times and regionally at different times. At the French Magdalenian discovery site in Saint-Germain-de-la-Rivière , stable isotopes in the bones of humans and wolves demonstrated a diet that was dominated by large herbivores for both . Since the bones of one of the wolves show isotopic traces mainly of marine food ( salmon ), this could indicate domestication of the animals by around 14,000 BP . A 14 C dating published in 2010 of a dog from the Swiss Kesslerloch with a significant shortening of the snout resulted in 12,225 ± 45 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated calendar age of 12,327 ± 239 BC. At the latest at this time - in the upper Magdalenian around 14,000 years ago - the domestication of dogs in Central Europe can be considered certain.
The cynologist Erik Zimen speaks of house wolves when, in the history of the domestication of dogs, he describes wolves that are not yet domesticated, but already live with humans and enter into a social relationship with them.
Dogs that were buried with the deceased offer clear indications of domestication. The 14,000 year old double grave of Oberkassel is one of the oldest evidence of this . Around the same time, the first human burial with a dog was found in the Natufia of the Near East , at a site on the Hayonim Terrace in northern Israel . Somewhat more recent evidence is provided by the 10,000 year old grave of Ushki-1 ( Kamchatka ), Ust'-Belaia ( Siberia ) and the Vlasac and Lepenski Vir sites at the Iron Gate ( Serbia , early Mesolithic ). In the late Mesolithic, dog burials were also widespread in Northern Europe, for example in the Scandinavian Ertebølle culture ( Skateholm , Sweden).
The oldest dog in the Americas was in Texas found with the 14 C method dated to 9,400 BP. The piece of bone was found in a prehistoric trash pit in Hinds Cave on the lower Pecos River in the 1970s , but was not scientifically investigated until 25 years later. The study's conclusion that the dog from Hinds Cave must have been eaten by humans is based on the fragmentation of the bone and its location in human excrement. The DNA also proves the ancestry of Eurasian populations with no evidence of American wolves crossing. Regardless of the evidence from the Hinds Cave fragment, it is assumed that dogs came from eastern Siberia to North America together with the first human colonization in America about 14,000 years ago , since they were already companions of humans in Siberia due to the grave finds mentioned above are occupied.
Domestic dogs were widespread in Neolithic cultures , where they were sometimes buried separately . Already from the first rural culture of Central Europe , the band ceramics (since 5500 BC), there are dogs in graves and settlements, for example in the Swabian Vaihingen an der Enz . These are not wolf-like dogs, but rather medium-sized breeds. In 2003, a separately buried peat dog ( Canis palustris ) was found in the flat ceramic settlement of Zschernitz in Saxony . The almost completely preserved peat dog von Burlage was also initially thought to be prehistoric . However , according to new radiocarbon dating , this dog did not die until modern times, between 1477 and 1611.
The oldest known dog bowl, which can certainly be addressed as such due to the bite marks, dates from the time of the birth of Christ and was found in a dog burial in Mayen .
Under working dogs are understood dogs that help people in their work, as it were "working" dogs. The best known today are probably the police dogs commonly known as police dogs. Here they are used to search for clues, to find drugs , explosives and people (missing children, helpless people, escaped suspects or convicts) (see also: differentiation dog ) and corpses, but also on the patrol as weapons and for guarding.
Some dog breeds are suitable as guide dogs , probably one of the most difficult tasks among the "canine professions", and as assistance dogs for people with other physical or mental limitations, some can also be trained as rescue dogs or therapy dogs . A signal dog often makes everyday life easier for the deaf and hard of hearing .
The use as a working dog, today only a marginal phenomenon in numbers, is probably the most original form of dog keeping. In the beginning there was help with the hunt, both in tracking down and chasing up as well as killing the animals. In the case of Aborigines, some of whom were also accompanied by dogs, the focus was on people and dogs warming each other in the cold desert nights. There is often no special hunting cooperation. The dogs only received a few leftovers.
The hunt was probably the first and most important use of dogs for a long time. The animals had inherited the skills and abilities necessary for this from their ancestors, the wolves, so that no special breeding efforts were necessary. It was not until much later that special breeds of hunting dogs were bred. For the hunt , for example, needed dogs that could run fast, while small dogs ( dachshunds or Dachshund , Terrier could easily penetrate fox or Dachsbaue).
As people settled down and did more agriculture and cattle breeding, dogs were also increasingly used to guard the yard, house and herds. For the selection of suitable animals as shepherd dogs , their natural drive, which goes back to the wolf, was used to hold the pack together.
An important task of dogs, which is becoming increasingly less important, is the guarding of objects or livestock. In the cities, it was naturally more the small breeds of dogs such as the Spitz , while in the countryside large breeds of dogs were also used because of their higher deterrent effect. Often two dogs were kept at a time: small dogs that had a low stimulus threshold and reported the approach of a stranger, as well as large dogs that were ready to defend the house and yard, the farm dogs . The herd guard dogs also belong to the watchdogs and are now sometimes used to guard objects, such as the Kangal in Turkey.
Draft animals and transports
The use of dogs as “ the poor man's draft animal ” is guaranteed at least from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. In Niemegk , then in the Zauch-Belzig district in the Mark Brandenburg region, dog carts were used by small farmers for haymaking, for example, after the war in 1870/71 until the GDR nationalized agriculture. In northern countries, dogs like the husky or the Samoyed are still used today as sled dogs .
Since ancient times, dogs have been used in wars, especially the First World War , for reporting services, delivering ammunition in trenches and other things. There is also a report of a dog who came here via parachute jump .
Because of its social adaptability, the domestic dog is the most diverse pet related to humans . Many people today spend their free time with their dog and also do dog sports . It is not uncommon for the animals to even function as their owner's sole social relationship. The humanization of the dogs, which often occurs here, often leads to serious posture errors, whereby the natural needs of the animals are ignored.
Model organism in research
Dogs are used as experimental animals in medical research . On the one hand, veterinary drugs are tested on them, on the other hand, they are also used for pharmacological and toxicological tests and in physiological research, with beagles specially bred for this purpose being used.
In recent years the pet dog has also become a popular model organism for epidemiological and genetic research. The advantages of the dog as a model for these questions are its close coexistence with humans, which leads to environmental conditions similar to these, the good availability of medical and genetic information, the great variability in body size and build, the availability of many largely pure-bred inbred lines in the form of Dog breeds and the very good data on hereditary diseases and molecular genetic information.
For interdisciplinary research on dogs, in addition to the older term cynology , the English term canine science has established itself in scientific terminology .
In northern Asia in particular, the dog's fur was made into fur clothing; in addition, dog leather was still used at the beginning of the 20th century , for example for gloves. In Brazil, dog fur, especially that of the dachshund, is used to string a grating drum ( Cuíca ). Dog fur was also traded in Europe, often under fancy names such as " Gaewolf ", or the product was only declared as "real fur". Since December 31, 2008, the trade and import of cat and dog fur has been banned in the EU .
Before sheep was introduced to North America, dog hair was the main textile fiber there ; its use in textiles is also documented in prehistoric finds from Scandinavia . The use today is limited to the hobby area.
Meat and drug supplier
Dog meat is eaten and offered in restaurants in some countries, for example in Korea , Vietnam and some southern provinces of China such as Guangdong, as well as in parts of Africa. However, a food taboo has developed in many cultures that prohibits consumption. In Germany and many other countries, dog meat is no longer considered food by law and may not be traded or brought into circulation.
From the Middle Ages to modern times, dog fat ( pinguedo canis or axungia canis ) was believed to be helpful in the treatment of joint and respiratory diseases, and it was used accordingly.
In the course of the human-dog relationship, different dog breeds have emerged, regionally and according to the environmental and living conditions. The range of body sizes is greater than any other terrestrial vertebrate . Man has understood how to use the dog for different tasks through breeding and appropriate dog training . The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) is the largest international umbrella organization , which coordinates and publishes the specifications of its national member organizations on breed standards and defines rules for breeding. The breed- specific design of the breeding approval test is the responsibility of the pedigree dog breeding associations at the VDH . It includes a breeding suitability test .
In many countries there are dog breeds that are phenotypically similar to the first domesticated dogs. According to a subdivision of the Society for Pet Research, these include the pariah or Schensi dogs , as can be found in the equatorial region of Africa, for example. They are dogs that have loosely attached themselves to humans and are tolerated as garbage eaters. The behavior of such dogs is considered the first step in domestication , historically the conscious breeding followed according to the desired behavior and much later also according to aesthetics.
Classification of breeding dog breeds
A system of breeding dog breeds must be considered in connection with the development of natural science on the one hand and breeding itself on the other. For a long time the external appearance was decisive for the classification of races. Depending on this, outwardly similar animals were distinguished from others and referred to as races. At the same time, domestic dog breeding developed. Here the main focus was on purposeful breeding. Dogs had jobs for which they were bred. The animals that were most suitable for the particular use were used for breeding. So the breeding was primarily aimed at a purpose, behind which the appearance took a back seat. This also resulted in a division of races - animals that were bred for the same purpose were grouped together into races. In addition, the aspect of the regional origin of the dogs played a role in their allocation to breeds. All these aspects are reflected in today's classifications of races.
The following types of dogs are distinguished mainly according to their intended use:
- Shepherd dogs (like the Mountain Dogs ), which the shepherd helped with the work, including specialized Sheepdogs (eg Old German Sheepdogs , Collie , Border Collie ), cattle dogs (such as Appenzeller ) and guard dogs (eg Kuvasz )
- Farm dogs ( e.g. Hovawart ) and guard dogs (e.g. German Spitz )
- Stable dogs ( e.g. pinschers and schnauzers ) (see also: Rattler - rat-hunting dogs)
- Society dogs ( e.g. Havanese , Papillon ) and companion dogs
- Highly specialized hunting dogs for different aspects of the hunt: Pointing dogs , rummaging dogs , sweat dogs , retrievers , earth dogs , Saupackers , bracken and hounds that hunt in packs, such as the beagle
- Greyhounds like the Azawakh
The modern breeding of domestic dogs as pedigree dog breeding is extremely young compared to the period of domestication of domestic dogs. It did not begin until the middle of the 19th century with increasing industrialization, has its starting point in the most highly developed industrial countries and is related to the knowledge about the laws of inheritance. It was only there that systematic breeding began with the aim of achieving certain external characteristics, and uniform breeds were bred. The breeding was documented in stud books and pedigrees . The starting point for this breed were, however, purpose-bred dogs. This is how races are classified today according to different aspects. The problem with this system is that in the course of breeding, both the original purpose of a breed and its external appearance change. A regional allocation of breeding dogs is usually no longer possible.
A cynological system of dog breeds is maintained by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). It currently recognizes 344 breeds. This system is a historically grown one and does not take into account the degree of genetic relationship between the individual races. In the FCI system , all recognized dog breeds are divided into 10 groups, which in turn are divided into different sections:
- Group 01: Herding dogs and cattle dogs (except Swiss mountain dogs)
- Group 02: Pinschers and Schnauzers - Molossoids - Swiss Mountain Dogs and other breeds
- Group 03: Terriers
- Group 04: Dachshunds
- Group 05: Spitz and primitive dogs
- Group 06: hounds, bloodhounds and allied breeds
- Group 07: Pointing dogs
- Group 08: Retriever Dogs - Browsing Dogs - Water Dogs
- Group 09: Society and Companion Dogs
- Group 10: Greyhounds
In addition, there are a number of so-called provisionally accepted breeds in the FCI system .
Outside of this classification there are numerous breeds not recognized by the FCI as well as a number of breeds that are considered to be extinct, such as Basset d'Artois , Braque Belge and Harlequin Pinscher , which have been deleted from the FCI classification.
Some breeds of dogs
The Chihuahua (FCI No. 218) with a weight of 0.5 to 3.0 kg and a height at the withers of less than 20 cm is one of the smallest recognized dog breeds ; The largest dog breeds include the Great Dane (FCI No. 235) with a height at the withers of at least 80 cm in males and the Irish Wolfhound (FCI No. 160) with up to 95 cm. One of the rare breeds is the Curly Coated Retriever or the Shar Pei, which has a Chinese descent and has been documented for more than 2000 years .
In some breeds, breeding goes so far that the dogs experience health problems such as shortness of breath or eye problems, or the birth process can no longer proceed naturally, as with the English Bulldog . In others, the natural features were grossly exaggerated, such as wrinkling in the Chinese Shar Pei or adaptation of the fur structure. Such breeding goals are known today as torture breeding . In 2008 the BBC published its documentary Pedigree Dogs Exposed , in which questionable breeding methods were first made known to a wider public. This also led to reactions in German-speaking countries that expressed themselves in political efforts to turn away from torture breeding.
There is a risk of genetic defects in all dog breeds and mixed breeds . These are particularly favored by the constant crossing of the same genetic material, as is the case with breeding in isolated areas such as islands ( genetic bottleneck ). But genetic defects were and are sometimes deliberately exploited or accepted in order to achieve breeding goals. Are known here, for example, hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED) brachycephaly , Brachyury , dachshund paralysis or Merle and other lethal factors . The joint changes are mainly due to the arbitrarily defined ideal of beauty in relation to the physique (for example the sloping back of the German Shepherd or the extra-long back of the Dachshund ). The consequences of such genetic defects can range from pain when moving to complete paralysis. Another defect in the skeleton caused by breeding is the wobbler syndrome . This occurs primarily in long-necked breeds such as the Doberman and Great Dane and denotes at least one deformed cervical vertebra (mostly C7). The deformed vortex is unstable. In the worst case, this can lead to a narrowing of the spinal canal and thus to paralysis of the front legs.
A widespread genetic defect that was specifically discovered in long-haired Collies, but also occurs in breeds related to Collies such as the Australian Cattle Dog and numerous other British herding dog breeds, is the MDR1 defect . This prevents the synthesis of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 protein), which, as a membrane-based ATPase , is important for maintaining the blood-brain barrier , which ensures that certain medicinal substances cannot enter the brain. If the MDR1 protein is missing, the dose of certain drugs must be greatly reduced, as these can otherwise have fatal side effects.
In 2016 there were around 8.6 million dogs in Germany (around 69% pedigree dogs and 31% mixed breeds). After the house cat (13.4 million in 2016), the dog is the most frequently kept pet.
Around 522,000 dogs lived in Switzerland in 2016.
Dogs are counted among the small animals in Germany . They are usually kept as individual individuals or in small groups in the immediate vicinity of their owners' habitat. On the one hand, this can be the living space of the owner himself; In addition, however, keeping them outdoors (in a kennel or tethered) is quite common. All three forms of keeping carry the risk of housing the animals in a manner that is not appropriate to animal welfare.
Feral dogs (which include street dogs belong or stray dogs) are hardly to be found in Germany, Austria and Switzerland today, in Southern and Eastern Europe, parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America but spread still. In the past, urban dog catchers were also used to combat them. Abandoned dogs are mostly housed in animal shelters . According to Heinz Lienhard, President of Swiss Animal Welfare, this costs CHF 20 per day for a healthy dog in Switzerland.
Like wolves, dogs are able to adapt their diet to the food supply within limits. Even wolves do not only feed on prey (which, when largely eaten in full, already contain plant-based nutrients), but also eat plant-based food such as roots, leaves, grass or fruit, depending on the food available. In the course of its coexistence with humans, dogs have increasingly adapted to their diet and have become omnivores. Meat as the sole feed for dogs is therefore inappropriate.
The easiest way to fully feed the dogs is with high quality (industrially manufactured) dog food . This feeding provides the animals with all essential nutritional components. Some dog owners practice dog nutrition with special fresh food ( barf ). Diet with leftover food is nutritionally questionable , as it can cause deficiencies .
Many human foods and beverages are more or less toxic for dogs, for example chocolate due to the theobromine it contains (→ theobromine poisoning ) , but also onions , grapes and raisins (→ grape poisoning ) .
The spectrum of known canine diseases is extremely broad and its diversity is comparable to human diseases. Common canine diseases are:
- Sensory organs : inflammation of the ear canal ( otitis externa ), cataracts , conjunctivitis , PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy, retinal degeneration)
- Digestive organs : tartar , periodontitis , stomach torsion (in large breeds), food intolerance, acute absorption disorders ( diarrhea ), parasite infestation ( tapeworms , roundworms , giardiosis )
- Respiratory organs : rhinitis , secondary tumor diseases of the lungs
- Cardiovascular system : heart dilation ( dilated cardiomyopathy , especially in large breeds), heart valve disease (especially smaller breeds)
- Urinary and genital organs : renal insufficiency , uterine suppuration ( pyometra ), enlarged prostate , preputial catarrh
- hormonal disorders : diabetes , disorders of the thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ) and adrenal glands ( hyperadrenocorticism )
- Nervous system : epilepsy , disorders of nerve function due to herniated disc (especially in breeds with relatively long backs, for example dachshunds ( dachshunds ))
- Skin : Atopic dermatitis , food allergy , demodicosis , mange , Malassezia dermatitis , mammary gland tumors
- Musculoskeletal system : hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), cruciate ligament tear
- Infections : Most dogs are protected by vaccinations against a large number of diseases that previously appeared epidemic, such as parvovirus , distemper or rabies . In recent years, the proportion of infections caused by motion sickness ( leishmaniasis , babesiosis , dirofilariasis ) or tick- borne borreliosis has increased significantly.
See also : Category: Dog Disease
Attitude in the city
In order to guarantee species-appropriate housing structures for city dogs as well, to comply with animal welfare laws and to avoid conflicts caused by dogs running freely or playing, more and more cities are making open-air areas available, summarizing them in an overview map and describing them. These include, for example, Cologne , Nuremberg , Paderborn and Zwickau .
The aim of offering species-appropriate housing structures is, in particular, to avoid a predominant leash in order to prevent the development of behavioral problems. In addition to movement, free exercise is primarily about the possibility of species-appropriate social contact with other dogs, olfactory communication and exploratory behavior .
The keeping of domestic dogs is taxable in the Federal Republic of Germany , Austria and Switzerland (in contrast to that of cats). The dog tax is levied in Germany and Switzerland by the municipality , in Austria by the federal states in different amounts and partly evidenced by a tax sticker ( dog tag ). Some municipalities or federal states require that the badge be attached to the dog in a clearly visible manner.
Identification and registration
For some years now, domestic dogs have had the option of implanting a chip that enables the animal to be identified . To read out the animal's transponder number , a reader is required, which veterinarians, animal shelters and police stations usually have. Some non-commercial organizations such as Tasso and the German Pet Register operate central registration offices for lost and found dogs; The chip number of your own animal can also be registered here. This number is unique worldwide and, unlike a tattoo, allows the dog to be reliably identified. Statutory or official regulations ( dog laws ) sometimes provide for an obligation to be labeled in this way, even when crossing the border, dogs must acc. EU Pet Ordinance.
The Animal Welfare Dog Ordinance (TierSchHuV) applies. The minimum conditions for rooms, kennels and keeping on the leash are specified here. The regulation also stipulates a minimum age of 8 weeks for the separation of the puppies from their mother.
The starting point of the critical media coverage and the negative attitude towards "fighting dogs" are documented - sometimes fatal - accidents with dogs of these breeds. According to absolute figures from the statistics of the federal states, most biting accidents in Germany are caused by German shepherds that are not on the breed list in any federal state . In Switzerland, German Shepherds and Rottweilers cause significantly more bite injuries than would be expected based on their share of the dog population. A study by the Free University of Berlin comes to the same conclusion for the German federal states of Berlin and Brandenburg.
Breeding and setting time
In the states of Lower Saxony and Bremen, dogs are not allowed to be leashed during the breeding and setting time in the "open countryside". This period begins in Bremen on March 15th, in Lower Saxony on April 1st and ends in both federal states on July 15th.
In most federal states there is no obligation to have certain vaccinations ( rabies ), but it is necessary if you pass within the EU national borders (→ EU pet passport ). Detailed legal regulations, for example on the leash or the keeping of so-called fighting dogs, are country-specific and are sometimes regulated differently in the communities.
In Germany there is no officially recognized national dog driving license , even if this is suggested by some dog schools. Training to become a companion dog is neither mandatory nor regulated by law. Different institutions and associations offer different training courses, which are completed with companion dog tests, which in turn are usually not mutually recognized. Rescue dog tests can only be taken in an approved rescue dog relay.
The legal requirements for keeping dogs are set out in the Ordinance on the keeping of vertebrates. The associated Appendix 1 defines the minimum requirements for keeping dogs. They have to have at least one run a day and social contact with people twice a day. They also have to be given the opportunity to defecate and urinate outdoors several times a day. Puppies may be separated from their mother after eight weeks at the earliest.
In many countries and municipalities, regulations require that dogs - possibly only in residential areas, on streets - must be kept on a leash, must wear a muzzle on public transport and that their droppings must be removed from the street. (Vienna: cleanliness campaign 2012, penalties for organ mandate 36 €, 110,000 Wiesensteckers “Are you 36 euros?” Graz: 10 €.) Various, often red or brown PE bags are offered free of charge in self -delivery boxes. In Vienna and Graz, for example, fenced-in areas are publicly offered as dog zones .
The Animal Disease Act also stipulates that dogs must be identified and registered in a database. The identification of the dog with microchips, the issue of a dog ID and the registration of the dog in a central database (AMICUS) are mandatory . The Animal Welfare Ordinance also stipulated that before buying their first dog, dog owners had to attend a theory course in which they were informed about the basic needs of dogs, the time required and the costs of keeping a dog. Within a year of purchase, the dog and owner had to complete practical training in which various everyday situations were practiced. These mandatory exchange rates were abolished on December 31, 2016.
In addition, the rules for keeping dogs are regulated by cantonal law and are therefore not uniform. Attempts to introduce national regulations have repeatedly failed in parliament. In some cantons there is no cantonal dog legislation because measures relating to dogs are the responsibility of the police or municipal authorities (e.g. Uri and Zug ). Other cantons have special dog laws that regulate identification and registration as well as other animal health and animal protection regulations. The procedure for foundlings is also regulated by the cantons and, in many cases, the general obligation to keep the dog under control. Further cantonal regulations concern the training of dogs and owners, the conclusion of liability insurance and the specific procedure after incidents of biting.
So far, 13 cantons (as of 2014) have introduced a breed list with potentially dangerous dog breeds (AG, BL, BS, FR, GE, GL, SH, SO, TG, TI, VD, VS, ZH). The breed lists contain between three (VD) and thirty (TI) dog breeds and also extend to crossbreeds. They mostly define potentially dangerous dog breeds, the keeping of which is subject to a permit requirement; four cantons have bans on keeping certain breeds (FR, GE, VS, ZH).
Border crossing in the EU
When crossing the border in EU Europe, an EU pet passport with proof of a valid rabies vaccination has to be carried for identification since 2004 ; Furthermore, the dog must have a passive read-only RFID chip ( transponder ) that complies with ISO standard 11784 (HDX or FDX-B transmission) and can be read with a reader that complies with ISO standard 11785 Number is entered in the pet passport. The purpose of this regulation is the fight against rabies .
In communist China, keeping dogs was considered capitalist and banned in cities until 1992. In Iran, a ban on keeping dogs with the exception of working dogs is currently being discussed, as they are religiously unclean. The penalty should be 74 lashes or a fine.
In the various cultural areas , dogs were and are perceived or valued in very different ways.
- In Europe and especially in the Germanic culture, dogs were traditionally regarded as loyal companions of humans and highly valued as guard, herding or hunting dogs (compare the dog Argos in Homer's Odyssey ).
- In the German redensartlichen Say vocabulary they will be more appreciated low ( " On came the dog , like a dog, dog's life , dog years , dogs weather , dog mean , crooked dog , cur , dog miserable , hot dog , sleeping dogs wake up, bitch , inner bastard ").
- In Judaism and the Christianity based on it , the dog was originally not particularly respected in general. Mostly it is spoken of in a contemptuous way and it has to be used as an image for a low, despicable creature or as an insult (for example Proverbs 26:11 : "As a dog eats what it has spit ..."; 2nd Book Samuel 3 , 8 : “Am I then a dog's head from Judah?”; Mt 7,6 : “You shall not give the holy things to the dogs”).
- In Islam there are different doctrines about the impurity of dogs, according to which either the dog is completely pure or impure or - this is the most widespread position - only the dog's saliva is impure. However, prey retrieved by hunting dogs is considered pure, even though the dog has brought it back in the snout. In the Koran itself, the dog found in three places mentioned, as an example of hunting animals in Sura 5 , verse 4, in a comparison of an unbeliever with a dog in Sura 7 , verse 176 and the name Raqim as the name of the dog of the Seven Sleepers in Sura 18 , Verses 18 and 22.
- In China , dogs are largely pragmatic. It is neither worshiped nor despised, and in some southern provinces it is even used as food. In terms of symbolism , it stands for the west, autumn and sometimes also for wealth. It also has a certain role in the area of exorcism : According to popular belief, demons that are splashed with dog blood must reveal their true form. The dog is the 11th animal in the Chinese zodiac .
- Even among the North American Indian tribes of the northeast , dogs were sacrificed to represent higher powers ( Manitu of the Algonquin) or as a symbol of meat food ( Iroquois ).
- The dog became a favorite animal for art during the time of humanism , as the Swedish art historian Patrik Reuterswärd (1922–2000) can show. The hunting dog z. B. was not only a loyal companion of his mostly noble master, but also served, often carved in stone, to represent his class. Women who had distinguished themselves through special loyalty and devotion were honored by a fashionable little dog on the tomb. Even famous humanists were often accompanied by a dog next to the lion. Differences in the animal's size, posture, and even facial expressions commented on the scholar's status. Francesco Petrarca e.g. B., who, according to his own statements, owned a large dog, is shown in later depictions mostly accompanied by a curled up dog. Lucas Cranach the Elder, on the other hand, left the dog out when he copied Albrecht Dürer's famous picture Saint Jerome in his study (1514). Through the resting posture, the dogs testify to their ability to suppress desires. This makes them a symbol of permanence. As early as the fourth century, the bishop Eusebius of Caesarea certified dogs a natural intelligence and brought this evidence through an observation of the hunting behavior. The dog owes its prey to its ability to eliminate wrong alternatives step by step.
The "house dog" in fiction
The dog is often represented in fiction. Even with Homer it is a dog who is the only creature who instantly recognizes Odysseus, who has returned to Ithaca from the battle for Troy ; The magical little dog Peticreiu appears in Gottfried's Middle High German verse novel Tristan und Isolde ; the poodle in Goethe's Faust , whose “core” is the devil, has become a proverb. Further examples from fiction:
- István Bekeffy, screenplay for Un angelo è sceso Brooklyn , German title Der Hund, whose name was Mr Bozzi , feature film 1957.
- Mikhail Bulgakov , Dog Heart , 1925/1987.
- Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach , Krambambuli , 1883.
- Brothers Grimm , Grimm's Fairy Tales , The Old Sultan , KHM 48, 1812.
- Heinrich von Kleist , Mother's Love , in Anecdotes , 1810/11.
- Thomas Mann , Lord and Dog , 1918.
- Morraha , a Celtic fairy tale, London 1894.
- Hermann Mostar , animal cheerful. History and stories of the dog, in: Liebe, Klatsch und Weltgeschichte , 1966.
- Clifford Simak , City , German title When there were humans ( science fiction stories about dogs as evolutionary successors to humans), 1944
- Virginia Woolf , Flush: A Biography , 1933.
Basic specialist literature
- Wilhelm Wegner: Small cynology . 4th expanded edition. Terra-Verlag, Konstanz 1995, ISBN 3-920942-12-4 .
- Konrad Lorenz : This is how humans came across dogs . DTV, 1998, ISBN 978-3-423-20113-1 .
- Erik Zimen : The dog: descent - behavior - man and dog . Goldmann, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-442-15627-6 .
- Peter Suter et al .: Internship at the dog clinic . 11th edition. Enke, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8304-1125-3 .
- Helmut Brackert and Cora van Kleffens: About dogs and people: history of a community. Munich 1989.
- Eberhard Trumler : With the dog on you: To understand its nature and behavior . 14th edition. Piper, 1995, ISBN 978-3-492-21135-2 .
- Dorit Feddersen-Petersen : Dog psychology: social behavior and nature. Emotions and individuality . Franckh-Kosmos, 2004, ISBN 978-3-440-09780-9 .
- Alexandra Horowitz and Jorun Wissmann: What does the dog think? Spectrum academic publisher 2010, ISBN 978-3-8274-2969-8 .
Races and breeding
- Hans Räber : Breviary of modern dog breeding . 5th edition, Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern 1995, ISBN 978-3-258-04974-8 .
- Hans Räber: Encyclopedia of pedigree dogs . Franckh-Kosmos, 2001, ISBN 978-3-440-08235-5 (2 volumes).
- Hellmuth Wachtel : Hundezucht 2000: Population genetics for dog breeders and other cynologists. Kynos Verlag , 2007, ISBN 978-3-938071-32-8 .
- Desmond Morris : Dogs: The Ultimate Dictionary of Over 1,000 Dog Breeds . 2nd edition, Trafalgar Square Books, London 2008, ISBN 978-1-57076-410-3 (English).
- Dominique de Vito: World Atlas of Dog Breeds . 6th edition, TFH Publications 2009, ISBN 978-0-7938-0656-0 (English).
Historically significant works
- Toplin: The Sportsman's Cabinet, or, a Correct Delineation of the Canine Race . J. Cundee, London 1803 ( online ).
- HD Richardson: Dogs: Their Origin and Varieties . J. McGlashan, Dublin 1847 ( online ).
- J. Henry Walsh (Stonehenge): The Dog in Health and Disease . Longman, Green, Longman & Roberts, London 1859 ( online ).
- Ludwig Beckmann : History and description of the breeds of the dog . Bieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1894 ( online ).
- Henri Comte de Bylandt: Dog Breeds - Their Description, Points, Type, Characteristics and Faults . Kluwer, Deventer 1904 (2 volumes; Dutch, English, French and German).
- Edward C. Ash: Dogs: Their History and Development . Ernest Benn, London 1927 (2 volumes).
- Walter Hutchinson: The Dog Encyclopedia . Anchor Press, Tiptee, Essex 1935 (3 volumes).
- Dog newspaper Oldest and most extensive advertising-free online newspaper on the subject of dogs; over 1,500 specialist articles
- Peter Lehmann, Elisabeth Marti-Grädel: Dog. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Johann Christoph Adelung : Grammatical-Critical Dictionary of High German Dialect, Volume 2. Leipzig 1796, p. 1030 ( online ).
- Ádám Miklósi : Dogs. Evolution, cognition and behavior . Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-440-12462-8 , pp. 143 .
- W. Christopher Wozencraft: Order Carnivora . In: Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder (Eds.): Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference . 3. Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2005, ISBN 0-8018-8221-4 , pp. 532-628 ( Canis lupus ).
- The dictionary of origin (= Der Duden in twelve volumes . Volume 7 ). 5th edition. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2014 ( p. 394 ). See also DWDS ( "dog" ) and Friedrich Kluge : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 7th edition. Trübner, Strasbourg 1910 ( p. 215 f. ).
- Hans. C. Matter, Thomas J. Daniels: Dog Ecology and Population Biology . In: Calum NL Macpherson, Francis X. Meslin, Alexander I. Wandeler (eds.): Dogs, Zoonoses and Public Health . CABI, 2001, ISBN 978-0-85199-436-9 , pp. 17th ff .
- Kevin Stafford: The Welfare of Dogs . In: Animal Welfare . tape 4 . Springer, Dordrecht 2006, ISBN 1-4020-4361-9 , pp. 32 , doi : 10.1007 / 1-4020-4362-7 .
- Urs Willmann: Pets: Companions, made to fit . In: The time . November 9, 2017, ISSN 0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed June 20, 2019]).
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- Anatomy of the Dog. In: FCI model standard. (Appendix to FCI Circular 11/2012) p. 7
- Nobody: Internship at the dog clinic. 10th edition 2006, p. 58.
- HE Heffener: Hearing in Large and Small Dogs: Absolute Thresholds and size of the Tympanic Membrane . In: Behav Neurosci. 97 (2): 310-318, 1983 ( full text as PDF ).
- Wolfgang von Engelhardt, Gerhard Breves: Physiology of domestic animals. Georg Thieme Verlag, 2009, ISBN 3-8304-1078-6 , p. 96
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- zeit.de: Can dogs smell it when a person is afraid?
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- Stanley Coren: How Dogs Think and Feel. The world from a dog's perspective - this is how dogs learn and communicate . Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-440-10331-5 , pp. 95-103.
- Stanley Coren: How Dogs Think and Feel. The world from a dog's perspective - this is how dogs learn and communicate . Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-440-10331-5 , pp. 107-125.
- Expert opinion on the cutting off of vibrissae in dogs
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- KA Greer, LM Hughes, MM Masternak: Connecting serum IGF-1, body size, and age in the domestic dog. In: Age. Volume 33, number 3, September 2011, pp. 475-483, doi: 10.1007 / s11357-010-9182-4 , PMID 20865338 , PMC 3168604 (free full text).
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