Wolf and jackal species
|Wolf and jackal species|
|Linnaeus , 1758|
The animals of this genus are characterized by comparatively long legs and a cylindrical, bushy tail. These animals reach a head body length of 45 to 160 centimeters, a tail length of 20 to 55 centimeters and a shoulder height of 30 to 80 centimeters, the weight varies between 6 and 80 kilograms.
The natural range of the genus Canis includes Eurasia , Africa as well as North and Central America . Through humans, they are also distributed in the form of the dingo in Australia and New Guinea and as domestic dogs today worldwide.
The system of the genus Canis has not yet been finally clarified. Three species are called " jackals ", but this is not a systematic name. The species status of the red wolf is controversial ; the house dog is no longer listed as a separate species, contrary to earlier systems. Possibly the genus Canis is paraphyletic with respect to the red dog and the African wild dog .
A distinction is made between the following types:
- Wolf ( Canis lupus ) including domestic dog and dingo
- Red wolf ( Canis rufus ) with an unclear systematic status
- Coyote ( Canis latrans )
- Golden jackal ( Canis aureus )
- Black-backed jackal ( Canis mesomelas )
- Striped Jackal ( Canis adustus )
- Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis )
- African gold wolf ( Canis anthus )
- Canis dirus (1 Ma † )
- Canis arnensis (3.4 Ma, † )
- Canis (Eucyon) cipio (8.2 Ma † ), probably the first species from the genus Canis
- Canis etruscus (3.4 Ma † )
- Canis falconeri (2.6 Ma † )
- Canis mosbachensis (0.787 Ma † )
- Canis lepophagus (4–5 Ma † )
- Canis donnezani (4.0–3.1 Ma † ), presumed ancestor of wolves
- Canis edwardii (1.8 Ma † ), first wolf species in North America
- Canis gezi †
- Canis nehringi †
- Canis ameghinoi †
- Canis michauxi †
- Canis adoxus †
- Canis cautleyi †
- Canis ambrusteri (0.8 Ma † )
|Phylogenetic system of today's wolf-like representatives of the Canina from the subfamily Caninae|
|Relationships between recent (today's) representatives in the clade of the wolf-like canids , the tribe Canina , subfamily Caninae . Basis: The sequence of the nuclear DNA ( nuclear DNA ), except for the Himalayan wolf, as well as the sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Times in millions of years.|
As part of the presentation of the genome sequence of the domestic dog , Lindblad-Toh et al. 2005 published a phylogenetic analysis of dogs (Canidae). In the context of this presentation, the monophyly of the genus Canis was questioned on the basis of molecular biological data . Accordingly, the strip and the Schakal jackal provide sister species , which fall as basalste types of all other members of the genus, and in addition the Rothund ( Cuon alpinus ) and the African wild dog ( Lycaon pictus ) are compared. If these results are not contradicted, either these two species would have to be included in the genus Canis so that it can survive as a monophyletic genus, or striped and black-backed jackal, as cautious systematists have been doing for a long time, called “ Thos Oken , 1816 “To be placed in a separate common genus Thos . Zrzavý and Řičánková also came to the above result in 2004 and proposed the separation of these two jackals from the genus Canis ; Following their suggestion, however, the striped and black-backed jackal should be placed in their own monotypical genera (as Schaeffia adusta and Lupulella mesomelas ).
The genus Canis seems to have appeared for the first time from around the late Miocene around 6 million years ago. The oldest finds come from the southern USA and Mexico. The jackal-sized genus Eucyon , which occurred in the Miocene of North America , is assumed to be the ancestor .
- Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, CM Wade, TS Mikkelsen, EK Karlsson, DB Jaffe, M. Kamal, M. Clamp, JL Chang, EJ Kulbokas, MC Zody, E. Mauceli, X. Xie, M. Breen, RK Wayne, EA Ostrander, CP Ponting, F. Galibert, DR Smith, PJ Dejong, E. Kirkness, P. Alvarez, T. Biagi, W. Brockman, J. Butler, CW Chin, A. Cook, J. Cuff, MJ Daly, D. Decaprio, S. Gnerre: Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog . In: Nature . 438, No. 7069, December 2005, pp. 803-819. bibcode : 2005Natur.438..803L . doi : 10.1038 / nature04338 . PMID 6341006 . ( Abstract ).
- Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John Pollinger, Raquel Godinho, Jacqueline Robinson, Amanda Lea, Sarah Hendricks, Rena M. Schweizer, Olaf Thalmann, Pedro Silva, Zhenxin Fan, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Pavel. Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, James A. Cahill, Beth Shapiro, Francisco. Álvares, José C. Brito, Eli Geffen, Jennifer A. Leonard, Kristofer M. Helgen, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Robert K. Wayne: Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species . In: Current Biology . 25, No. 16, August 17, 2015, pp. 2158-2165. doi : 10.1016 / j.cub.2015.06.060 . PMID 26234211 .
- Geraldine Werhahn, Helen Senn, Jennifer Kaden, Jyoti Joshi, Susmita Bhattarai, Naresh Kusi, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, David W. MacDonald: Phylogenetic evidence for the ancient Himalayan wolf: Towards a clarification of its taxonomic status based on genetic sampling from western Nepal . In: Royal Society Open Science . 4, No. 6, 2017, p. 170186. bibcode : 2017RSOS .... 470186W . doi : 10.1098 / rsos.170186 . PMID 28680672 . PMC 5493914 (free full text).
- Eberhard Trumler : My wild friends. The wild dog species in the world. Munich, Piper Verlag, 1981. ISBN 3-492-02483-1 . P. 68 f. - For an overview of the Thos / Canis debate see: Holger Homann: Thos vs. Canis. 2004 (English). ( Memento from November 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Originally in: holgerhomann.us .
- Jan Zrzavý, Věra Řičánková: Phylogeny of Recent Canidae (Mammalia, Carnivora): Relative Reliability and Utility of Morphological and Molecular Datasets. In: Zoologica Scripta Volume 33, No. 4, July 2004, pp. 311-333, doi : 10.1111 / j.0300-3256.2004.00152.x .
- Xiaoming Wang, Richard H. Tedford, Mauricio Antón: Dogs, their fossil relative & evolutionary history. Columbia University Press, New York, 2008. ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3
- Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World . 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1999, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9 (English).