upper jaw

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Side view of the skull:
1. Frontal bone (Os frontale)
2. Parietal bone (Os parietale)
3. Nasal bone (Os nasale)
4. Lacrimal bone (Os lacrimale)
5. Ethmoid bone (Os ethmoidale)
6. Sphenoid bone (Os sphenoidale)
7. Occipital bone ( Os occipitale)
8. Temporal bone (Os temporale)
9. Zygomatic bone (Os zygomaticum)
10. Upper jaw (maxilla) (yellow-green)
11. Lower jaw ( mandible )
Rotating skull with upper jaw marked in red from the
Anatomography project

The upper jaw ( lat. Maxilla ) is a pair of bones of the facial skull . It forms the floor of the eye socket ( orbit ), the floor and the side wall of the nasal cavity ( cavum nasi ) and part of the palate and thus the roof of the oral cavity ( cavum oris proprium ). The upper jaw also contains the maxillary sinus (maxillary sinus).


Four surfaces can be distinguished on the upper jaw body : The face surface ( Facies anterior ) is located at the front of the upper jaw body. The surface of the lower temple ( Facies infratemporalis ) adjoins the surface of the face towards the rear and is separated from the lower jaw ridge towards the surface of the face. The orbital surface ( facies orbitalis ) forms the largest part of the floor of the eye socket. The nasal surface ( Facies nasalis ) forms the side wall of the nasal cavities.

The upper jaw from the lateral side.

Appendages and openings

The front extension ( frontal process ), the connection between the nasal bone , lacrimal bone and the frontal bone . The yoke process ( processus zygomaticus ) has a triangular shape and is located under the surface of the eye socket. The alveolar process ( processus alveolaris ) carries the teeth and is accordingly arched. The palatal process ( processus palatinus ) is a horizontal plate and is located between the nasal surface and the alveolar process.

In animals, the body of the upper jaw has a more or less pronounced bone ridge, the crista facialis . It is particularly striking in horses and can be felt through the skin. The crista facialis is the upper edge of the origin of the masseter muscle .

Through the upper jaw pulls the infraorbital nerve (branch of the maxillary nerve of the trigeminal nerve ) and innervated these bones including all upper teeth. It emerges from the upper jaw at the infraorbital foramen below the eye socket to the surface. In addition, other branches of the maxillary nerve are involved in the innervation of the palate .

The upper jaw from a frontal view.

Blood supply

The blood supply is provided by the maxillary artery .

Bony palate

The bony palate ( palatum osseum ) consists of the alveolar process of the upper jaw and the palatine bone . Three bone seams form the boundaries of the individual parts:

The middle palatal suture ( sutura palatina mediana ) runs from the incisor hole to the posterior nasal spine. The transverse palatal suture ( sutura palatina transversa ) crosses the middle palatal suture at the back between the first and second molar teeth. The intermaxillary suture ( sutura incisiva ) connects the intermaxillary bone ( os incisivum ) with the maxillary bone.

View of the upper jaw in cranial direction .

The holes in the bony palate serve nerves and blood vessels to supply the palatal mucosa to pass through.

See also


  • Franz-Viktor Salomon: Bony skeleton . In: Franz-Viktor Salomon et al. (Hrsg.): Anatomie für die Tiermedizin . 3. Edition. Enke, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-8304-1288-5 , pp. 100-102 .

Web links

Commons : Upper jaw  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Upper jaw  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica . Stuttgart: Thieme