The maxillary nerve ( "maxillary nerve", of Latin maxilla , upper jaw ') is the second of the three main branches of the V. Hirnnervens , the trigeminal nerve and V 2 abbreviated. It is responsible for the sensitive innervation of the anterior upper skull. It leaves the cranial cavity through the foramen rotundum , in cloven-hoofed animals through the foramen orbitorotundum , and thus enters the pterygopalatine fossa behind the eye .
The zygomatic nerve ( Os zygomaticum " cheekbone ") sensitively supplies the skin of the temporal region , the zygomatic arch and the eyelids . It gives off a branch to the lacrimal nerve , which in this way receives postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion for the lacrimal gland . In ruminants , the zygomatic nerve gives off a branch ( ramus cornualis ) to the horn . This sensitively supplies the skin of the horn cone and must be anesthetized for dehorning.
The nasal branches ( rami nasales , known in animals as the caudal nasal nerve ) pass through the sphenopalatine foramen into the nasal cavity and supply it sensitively. Parasympathetic fibers also run in the nerve from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the nasal glands. A particularly strong branch runs as the nasopalatine nerve between the mucous membrane of the nasal septum and the underlying periosteum to the incisive canal and supplies the anterior palatal mucosa and the gums of the upper incisors .
In many mammals, the palatine nerves and nasal rami arise from a common trunk of the maxillary nerve, which in animal anatomy is called the pterygopalatine nerve . The interpretation of the sneezing reflex in connection with the discovery of the “nasopalatal nerve” was first achieved by the Italian anatomist Domenico Cotugno (1736–1822).
The infraorbital nerve (sub-ocular nerve ) is the direct continuation of the maxillary nerve after the branches described above have left. It extends from the pterygopalatine fossa through the inferior orbital fissure into the orbit, where it leaves the orbit below the eyeball through the infraorbital canal . The infraorbital nerve then gives off the superior dental plexus , which consists of the terminal branches Rami alveolares superiores anteriores to the incisors, the Rami alveolares superiores medii to the premolars and the Rami alveolares superiores posteriores to the molars.
At the infraorbital foramen , the nerve emerges from the maxilla and branches into the skin of the entire front and upper face .
- Franz-Viktor Salomon: nervous system, systema nervosum . In: Franz-Viktor Salomon, Hans Geyer, Uwe Gille (Ed.): Anatomy for veterinary medicine. 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Enke, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8304-1075-1 , pp. 464-577.