Adult hedgehog tick ( Ixodes hexagonus )
|Leach , 1815|
The ticks (Ixodida) are an order of the mites (Acari), which are assigned to the parent Parasitiformes . The largest types of mites are found among ticks. All species are blood-sucking ectoparasites on vertebrates , including humans. Many types of ticks are important carriers of disease . In 2004 around 900 species of ticks were known worldwide.
As with most species of mite, the body of the tick consists of two movable sections separated from each other. The front section, generally called Gnathosoma for mites , has the different name of capitulum for ticks (for historical reasons). This section corresponds to what is commonly referred to as the tick's head . The rest of the trunk is called an idiosoma. The anterior section, the podosoma, which supports the legs, merges without a sharp border into the posterior section, the opisthosoma. On the back section of the capitulum, many ticks have two conspicuous pore fields that, according to various views, serve either as glands or as sensory organs. The four pairs of legs sit on the side of the idiosoma. The legs consist of six clearly separated segments (named Coxa- Trochanter-Femur-Patella or Genu-Tibia-Tarsus). At the tip of the tarsus there are two claws and the ticks (and the larvae of the leather ticks) have an adhesive pad (pulvillus) to hold onto smooth surfaces. On the side of the idiosoma there are two openings in the trachea, which are called stigmas and are air-filled channels that enlarge the body surface for breathing. Especially in shield ticks, they usually sit within a sclerotized and conspicuously sculptured field of stigmas. Many types of ticks have small, inconspicuous eyes that sit in pairs on the upper side of the body (dorsal) in the case of the tick, but z. B. absent in the genus Ixodes . There may be a higher number of leather ticks that sit on the edge of the underside of the body (ventral). In at least one type of tick, the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii , optical host finding ( scototaxis ) is proven by perceiving the silhouette of the host.
The two families of Schildzecken and Lederzecken differ in that the shield ticks have the name-giving shield ( scutum ) that sits on top (dorsal) of the idiosoma. In many species of ticks, such as the common wood tick, it covers the entire trunk of the male, but only about half of the female. A shield is missing from the leather ticks. In addition, in leather ticks, the capitulum with the mouthparts sits slightly on the abdomen (ventral) on the body, so that it is not visible when viewed from above.
Mouthparts and suction process
The main characteristic of the ticks are the mouthparts on the front of the capitulum. These are peculiarly redesigned for the blood-sucking way of life. On the outside there are two four-part buttons (palps), which are sensory organs and do not take part in the suction process. In the rest position, they often envelop the actual mouthparts. In the center sits a proboscis called a hypostome , which often has teeth that act as barbs. The two chelicerae sit on the upper side (dorsal) and usually not visible from below . These consist of a two-part shaft, which is stretched forward parallel to the hypostome and which is immovable with a broad base on the basal part of the capitulum. At the top they have several movable tooth-shaped protrusions, called chelicerene fingers. During the sucking process, the tick scratches the skin with its chelicerae and then pushes the hypostome into the wound. Contrary to popular belief, the hypostome is not a hollow proboscis: the mouth opening is basal to it on the broader base of the capitulum. The hypostome can carry a sunken food channel. This process is commonly referred to as a tick bite, but is correct tick bite .
During the sucking process, the animal creates a wound with its mouth parts by tearing open tissue with small blood capillaries. The blood that collects here is then sucked up (so-called pool feeder ). Long-nosed animals (prostriata) such as the common wood tick anchor themselves during the sucking process mainly with the mouthparts, short-nosed animals (metastriata) like the Dermacentor species excrete a glue-like or putty-like substance for this purpose. The sucking process is relatively short with the leather ticks, about 30 to 60 minutes, except for the larvae. In the case of the ticks, it can last for many days to weeks. The body of the female tick can swell to twenty times its original volume and one hundred times its weight; in addition to the stretching of the cuticle, real growth processes are also involved. With the leather ticks, less blood, usually about five times the body volume and ten times the weight, is absorbed during a sucking process.
During the suction process, the tick releases saliva into the wound. In the species investigated so far, this contains many hundreds of different proteins , most of which were not found in any other group of animals. The most important function of saliva is to prevent blood platelets from clumping together , which would otherwise lead to wound closure. A number of enzymes intervene at various points in the signal cascade. Further blood clotting is also suppressed in this way. In addition, inflammatory reactions are suppressed (e.g. by prostaglandins ) and the sensation of pain is inhibited in order to avoid defensive reactions on the part of the host. Inhibitors effective against hormones and signal substances such as histamine , serotonin and bradykinin can sometimes achieve several of these purposes in parallel. The saliva released can contain bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that make the tick bite particularly at risk. Although tick saliva generally avoids the function of the body's own immune system at the puncture site, in rare cases immediate allergic reactions can occur in humans. The immunomodulatory relationships between parasite and host are extremely complex. After repeated contact with ticks, the immune defense can increase sharply, but this is species-specific because tick species have developed host-specific immunomodulators . This can lead to unexpected interrelationships. For example, mice were immune to tick borreliosis if they had previously been stung by uninfected ticks several times. Tick paralysis , in which a substance acting as a neurotoxin can inhibit the motor nerves, which continues from the puncture site, is rare, but life-threatening .
After an extensive meal of blood, female ticks in particular can grow to a size of up to 3 cm.
Ticks are widespread worldwide and can be found wherever their host species live. The distribution of the individual species depends on the distribution of their respective hosts and also on environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Most tick species have one or more preferred hosts, but can also suck blood from other hosts if there is a lack of food. About twenty types of ticks occur in Germany, some of them very rarely or possibly only temporarily introduced. The ixodidae Ixodes Ricinus ( Ixodes ricinus ) is the German tick species that affects most people. Other common species of tortoiseshell tick are here e.g. B. the hedgehog tick ( Ixodes hexagonus ), the sheep tick ( Dermacentor marginatus ), in southern Germany also the alluvial forest tick ( Dermacentor reticulatus ). A number of other species live almost exclusively on birds or are very rare and almost never pass to humans. The most common species worldwide that parasitizes on humans is the brown dog tick ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ), which cannot live permanently in Germany due to insufficient heat.
Most species of the leather tick family are restricted to the tropics and subtropics . In Central Europe, the species Argas vespertilionis lives on bats . The most common species, however, is the pigeon tick Argas reflexus , which lives on city pigeons and , more rarely, on other bird species, in Central Europe only in houses and other buildings.
In principle, there are two strategies for finding a host among the tick species:
- Lurkers climb onto a plant (e.g. a blade of grass or a bush) and hold on with their back legs. They stretch the front pair of legs in a characteristic pose far outwards so that a T-shape results. As soon as a potential host touches them, they hold onto it. One of the lurkers is z. B. the common wooden trestle.
- Hunters actively move forward in search of host organisms. At 5–8 meters per hour, they are faster than Roman snails (4.2 meters per hour).
Various chemical senses are used to find the host, especially carbon dioxide sensors, which are located in a special organ on the last leg ( Haller's organ ). The brown dog tick is an example of a hunter.
In males, a blood meal usually lasts only a few days, as they only need blood for their own nutrition. You can suck blood multiple times while waiting for a female. The females are not only dependent on blood for their own nutrition, but also for egg formation and therefore need a much larger amount of blood. Your blood meal can go on for weeks undisturbed.
The ticks use their Haller organ to find the food victim. This pit-shaped chemoreceptor , which is equipped with sensory bristles, is located on the last leg element (the tarsus ) of the first pair of legs and can detect substances such as ammonia , carbon dioxide , lactic acid and, above all, butyric acid , which are given off by the respective host animals through breath and sweat . In the lurking position (the front pair of legs is stretched forward with a slight swing, with the three back pairs of legs they clasp their hide), this organ is stretched out so that the ticks can better receive the sensory stimuli. The waiting ticks immediately switch from the waiting position (the folded forelegs are close to the body) to the lurking position when they notice from olfactory stimuli, changes in light - especially from light to dark - or vibrations that a host may be approaching. They then cling to everything that touches their respective whereabouts and then often crawl around the body of animals and humans for up to several hours until they have found a suitable puncture site. Ticks are very picky and prefer slightly moist, warm and well-perfused, thin skin. In humans , the hollows of the knees , the hairline, the groin and the fine skin behind the ears are particularly popular targets.
After the blood meal is finished, they let themselves fall off their host and the females then look for a protected spot on the ground in order to lay eggs straight away. Egg-laying can take several days, with an egg being laid about every ten minutes. After one has emerged from the abdominal opening, it is guided past a gland with the mouth parts and provided with a protective layer that protects the fresh egg from drying out. When the ticks lay eggs, thousands of eggs are produced (up to 20,000 in the genera Hyalomma and Amblyomma ), after which the female dies.
Leather tick species, which have to suckle on their hosts much more often than shield ticks, can therefore be found almost exclusively in their hosts' nests, buildings or hiding places (few tropical species are active hunters). In contrast to the ticks, the female eats blood meals several times in a row and then lays eggs each time (up to seven times). The number of eggs is smaller every time. They withdraw into crevices and corners after each blood meal and then wait until a host comes within range again. Species of the large genus Ornithodoros that infest migratory birds can wait for the time in the nest while their host is absent. It is reported that leather ticks can survive waiting for many years without eating. Ornithodoros papillipes holds the record at the age of eleven. In the case of building-dwelling species such as the pigeon tick, this can also lead to major problems for humans.
After hatching, like all mites, ticks always go through three stages of development and two molting processes: larva (with six legs), nymph (with eight legs) and adults (the adult males and females). The sexual characteristics only develop in the adult phase.
The Argasidae ( leather ticks ) have several, from two to eight nymph stages. Every larva and nymph is dependent on the blood of a host . The same host species is often attacked in all stages. In the case of leather ticks, fertilization of the female takes place away from the host in the environment (usually in the host's burrow or nest). The animals find each other through signal substances ( pheromones ). These often have an effect on older nymphs. A substance that acts as a pheromone is the guanine contained in the feces .
Adult (male or female)
fully soaked adult
|0.5mm x 0.4mm||1.2mm x 0.85mm||3.8 mm x 2.6 mm||13.2 mm x 10.2 mm|
The Ixodidae ( tick ticks ) only have one nymph stage. In many species, the animals change host species between the various stages, often with increasing size. However, there are species in which the moulting from larva to nymph takes place on the host, sometimes even both moults, so that only the mature female leaves the host (two- and one-host species, e.g. genus Rhipicephalus ). In many species, larvae and nymphs remain in the host's burrow or camp. All three stages are less common in the wild. In the case of the common ram , z. B. from the egg the six-legged larva. This looks for a suitable intermediate host (rodent) after just a few days , sucks in there and takes in blood within two to three days. After suckling, it can fall off and after a few months it sheds its skin into the first eight-legged nymph, around 1.5 to 2 mm in size. This now again looks for a larger host (second intermediate host - cat) and also sucks blood there. Under Central European climatic conditions, most nymphs that have molted in summer or autumn do not immediately look for a new host for a blood meal, but instead enter a dormant stage at temperatures below 7 ° to 8 ° until next spring (can in particular mild winters also fail). Only after this break do they look for a host and then another molt to the adult takes place. The adult animal then attacks the ultimate host (humans, cattle). Mating takes place on the host, after which the male dies. If mating does not occur immediately, the female remains on the host half-sucked and waits for a male. The female drops after this last blood meal and lays her eggs shortly afterwards.
Ticks as a disease carrier
When tick bites, ticks often transmit pathogens between hosts due to their way of life , but without becoming sick themselves. There are more types of pathogens in question than any other group of parasitic animals. People are also affected by diseases such as Lyme disease , early summer meningoencephalitis ( TBE ), babesiosis , ehrlichiosis , rickettsioses or neoehrlichiosis .
The most important vectors in Central Europe are the species of the genus Ixodes with the most common native species, the common wood tick ( Ixodes ricinus ), as well as the genera Rhipicephalus , Dermacentor , Haemaphysalis , Amblyomma and from the family of leather ticks the genera Argas and Ornithodorus . While ticks in the past only posed a danger in the summer half of the year, as they hibernated in the winter months , they are now - due to global warming - active all year round in mild winters.
For more detailed information on this, see tick bite .
Wandering redness as a result of a tick bite with borreliosis infection
Natural enemies and habitat restrictions
The following have been identified as natural enemies of ticks:
- Some types of fungi (for example Metarhizium anisopliae )
- Roundworms (nematodes) that can attack them. Such an infestation is fatal for the tick.
- Birds that love to eat ticks.
- parasitic wasps like Ixodiphagus hookeri and other members of the genus Ixodiphagus . They lay their eggs in the ticks' larvae or nymphs and the hatched wasp larvae eat the ticks from the inside, killing them.
The ecological demands of the various tick species and, accordingly, their habitat are very different. Many types, e.g. B. the common ram, are very humid and dry up quickly in direct sunlight. Although ticks can survive even severe frosts unscathed, long periods of cold weather in particular are lethal for many species and limit the range to the north. Individual years with different weather conditions, e.g. Mild winters, for example, can have a major impact on population size.
At the moment there is a discussion about how the current climate change will affect the spread of ticks in Central Europe or North America. Some tick species have been shown to be able to expand their range to the north (e.g. Ixodes ricinus in Scandinavia), while the effects of others are controversial. There are always extensive interrelationships, e.g. B. between temperature and humidity to be charged.
Sister group of ticks are probably mites of the order Holothyrida . These suck out dead animals (especially arthropods).
The ticks themselves are divided into three families and there are more than 850 species worldwide.
- Leather ticks (Argasidae)
Black ticks (Ixodidae) (about 80 percent of species)
- Ixodes , 243 species
Rhipicephalus , about 75 species
- Brown dog tick ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus )
- Colored ticks (Dermacentor), 35 species
Haemaphysalis , 166 species
- Relic tick ( Haemaphysalis concinna )
- Hyalomma , 27 species
Amblyomma , 105 species
- Amblyomma americanum (English Lone Star Tick )
- Margaropus , 3 species
Fossil evidence is extremely rare. Almost all fossil ticks were found in Cretaceous and Tertiary amber . The oldest finds are around 100 million years old ( Birmite and New Jersey amber ). The Cretaceous fossils are larvae; all adult ticks found so far come from amber of tertiary deposits (Eocene Baltic amber, Miocene Dominican amber ). In research on the evolution of ticks, there is consensus that their development began much earlier than the oldest fossils suggest. However, there is disagreement over the question of whether this was already the case in the Devonian or in the Triassic and whether the first hosts were amphibians or reptiles.
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