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The ejaculation or the male ejaculation ( Latin e-iaculari "eject ejection") is the physiological process of (intermittently taking place) ejection of semen from the urethra . Ejaculation is triggered by sexual stimuli, typically through masturbation or intercourse , that set in motion an involuntary chain of reflexes . Through rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the spermatic duct , the seminal vesicle , the erectile tissue and the pelvic floor , the sperm is released from the penis in bursts. The technical term for ejaculating semen while sleeping is pollution .

Women can also experience an effusion during an orgasm, which is known as female ejaculation . The fluid expelled is a glandular secretion.

Male ejaculation (see also video )

Development of the term ejaculation

Word origin

Ejaculation is a Latin neologism that was created in the 18th century . It is formed from the (post-classical) verb eiaculari = " throw out, hurl out, let shoot (e.g. blood, water)", a compound to iaculari , "hurl the javelin", later generally "hurl, throw", in turn one Derived from iaculum , throwing spear. It is based on iacere , "to throw".

Ejaculation as ejaculation

Before scientific research into the physiology of human reproduction and sexuality began, it was generally assumed for a long time that only a sexually mature adolescent or man could ejaculate during orgasm and that there would always be fertilizable sperm in his effusion in the sense of "semen". Therefore, in the classic definition, the term ejaculation initially only means “ejaculation” and the term ejaculate is equated with sperm. This original, unrestricted definition and formulations based on this concept can still be found in general and scientific publications today.

Ejaculation as an effusion even without semen

Boys can have an effusion before or at the onset of puberty; Here, however, there are no fertile sperm until the start of sperm production (around mid-puberty). Such an effusion is also called ejaculation today. In this definition framework, the idle stage (ejaculation without sperm = semenless effusion) and functional stage (ejaculation with sperm = ejaculation) are differentiated in sex science . Some scientists refer to the beginning of the idle stage as prostate tartar , since it was originally assumed that the first effusions could consist solely of secretions from the prostate and not from those of other accessory sex glands .

Therefore, from today's neurophysiological point of view, ejaculation is not necessarily linked to the presence of sperm, even in sexually mature men. For example, if there is a will vasectomies , castration or azoospermia after degeneration of the seminiferous tubules ( seminiferous tubules ) of the physiologically also referred remains undisturbed operation of an effusion of seminal achieve an orgasm by doctors as ejaculation.


As a result of sexual arousal, the bulbourethral gland releases a secretion known as pre-ejaculate before the actual ejaculation . Ejaculation itself from the sexual center in the midbrain triggered. Its nerve impulses act on sympathetic nerve cells in the lumbar part of the spinal cord (ejaculation center) , the nerve fibers of which trigger the contractions of the smooth muscles of the epididymis , vas deferens and the accessory sex glands via the hypogastric nerve and inferior hypogastric plexus . This moves sperm towards the urethra, which is known as emission , and mixes it with the secretions from the gland. With the increase in pressure in the prostate and urethra, there are three to ten involuntary reflex contractions of the urethralis muscle , the bulbospongiosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus muscle, and thus the sperm is released in spurts (expulsion) . These are mediated by parasympathetic fibers from the lower lumbar and upper cross sections of the spinal cord, which pull over the pudendal nerve to the pelvic floor muscles . At the same time is α1-adrenergic receptors , the muscles of the bladder neck thereby encouraged bladder is closed. This prevents sperm from flowing back into the bladder and preventing urine from being mixed up with it.

During ejaculation, from puberty , when the testes have started to produce sperm ( Spermarche ), about two to six milliliters of sperm (ejaculate) are expelled in men at very different rates, individually or from ejaculation to ejaculation. Decisive for the amount of ejaculate are both the degree of arousal of the man and the time that has passed since the last ejaculation. For example, after a week of sexual abstinence in men, the amount of ejaculate is considerably larger as long as there has been no pollution in between .

The refractory period is the period of time that must elapse from one ejaculation to the next possible one.

Relationship between ejaculation and orgasm

Under normal physiological conditions, male orgasm is associated with ejaculation. Under various circumstances such as B. Diseases, however, an orgasm can also occur without ejaculation, as can ejaculation without orgasm.

It should be possible through special techniques to bring about an orgasm without ejaculation; this is known as injection . These techniques go back to Daoist sexual practices and are an essential part of the Karezza . From a medical point of view, the practice is of questionable use.

Health effects

Some studies show that regular ejaculations can prevent certain prostate problems. However, this relationship has not been confirmed in other studies. Some men experience symptoms of Postorgasmic Illness Syndrome after ejaculation . The most common symptoms include flu-like symptoms such as increased body temperature, sweating and chills, as well as unspecific symptoms such as poor concentration, extreme tiredness, exhaustion and irritability.

Ejaculation disorders

The premature ejaculation ( premature ejaculation ) is now considered a form of erectile dysfunction seen. "Premature" is the individual feeling that "too early" is. In extreme cases, this can be an ejaculation when kissing, when the sexual partner touches the penis for the first time or immediately after penetration. This problem can be perceived as a pronounced burden that leads to restrictions in sex life.

As retrograde ejaculation one ejaculation is called, in which the semen is not as usual on the urethra is discharged to the outside, but backwards into the bladder.

Spermatorrhea is the drainage of seminal fluid, e.g. B. in the case of insufficiency of the ejaculatory duct (the end section of the vas deferens), in which there is a discharge of semen without sensation of pleasure , for example when defecating or urinating .

The unilateral or bilateral closure of the ejaculatory duct can be the cause of a very low ejaculate volume, pelvic pain or a dry orgasm .

The inability to ejaculate due to various diseases , removal of the testicles (castration), psychological problems or a side effect of some drugs is called anejaculation .

In aging men, the coordination of the contractions worsened by epididymal duct , vas deferens, seminal vesicles , prostate , urethra and pelvic floor muscles . The causes are varied, an untrained pelvic floor muscles (an indication of this can be a so-called " beer belly ") plays an essential role. The loss of coordination can develop even if erectile function continues unimpaired .

With ejaculatio retarda there is a delayed initiation to ejaculation. There may be psychological or neurological problems.

Numerous drugs can affect ejaculation, such as: B. cause retrograde or absent ejaculation.

The popular term “ sperm congestion ” is based on the erroneous assumption that sexual abstinence and lack of emptying lead to a backlog of sperm and thus to an increase in libido or even swelling of the testicles.


  • Klaus M. Beier, Hartmut AG Bosinski, Kurt Loewit (Hrsg.): Sexualmedizin. 2nd Edition. Elsevier / Urban & Fischer, Munich / Jena 2005, ISBN 3-437-22850-1 .
  • Carsten Dieme: Premature Ejaculation - Background, Tips, Solutions and Success Reports from Affected. Stillwasser , Bielefeld 2003, ISBN 3-9808696-0-1 .
  • Michael Hanel: Therapy manual Ejaculatio praecox: Therapy manual. 2nd Edition. Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 2003, ISBN 3-13-136712-1 .
  • William Hartman, Marilyn Fithian: Every man can: the fulfillment of male sexuality. Ullstein, Berlin / Frankfurt am Main / Vienna 1985, ISBN 3-550-07735-1 .
  • Michael Vinzenz Münkel: Ejaculation frequency and adnexitis in men. Dissertation University Erlangen-Nuremberg 1981, DNB 810914972 .
  • Volkmar Sigusch (ed.): Sexual disorders and their treatment. 4th edition. Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-13-103944-6 .

Web links

Commons : Male Ejaculation  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Ejaculation  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Sabine Zur Nieden: Female ejaculation. Variations on an ancient dispute between the sexes (= contributions to sexual research , volume 91), 2nd new edition, Psychosozial-Verlag, Gießen 2009 (first edition 2004), ISBN 978-3-8379-2004-8 (dissertation University of Frankfurt am Main 1991, 148 pages, under the title: Theoretical and empirical studies on female ejaculation ). P. 54 f.
  2. Etymological dictionary of the German language
  3. ^ Ejaculatio (in: Roche Lexikon Medizin. 5th, revised and expanded edition. Urban & Fischer, Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3-437-15180-4 .) On: tk.de ; Retrieved June 7, 2014.
  4. ^ Duden : The German orthography. 22nd edition. Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 2000, p. 333.
  5. Duden: Foreign dictionary. 3. Edition. Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 1974, p. 199.
  6. ^ Pschyrembel : Clinical Dictionary. 256th edition, de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1990, p. 413.
  7. EJ Haeberle: The sexuality of man. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1983, pp. 38-39.
  8. a b Humboldt University Berlin, Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Growing Up Sexually, The Sexual Curriculum. ( Memento of May 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Chapter 16: Prespermarchic Ejaculation? On “Prostatarche”, Oct. 2002.
  9. Eberhard Nieschlag, H. Behre: Andrology: Fundamentals and clinics of reproductive health in men . 2nd Edition. Springer, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-662-05739-1 , pp. 70-71 .
  10. Walter Krause et al. a .: Andrology: diseases of the male genital organs . 4th edition. Thieme, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-13-165204-1 , p. 56 .
  11. ^ AC Kinsey et al .: Sexual Behavior in the human female. Saunders, 1953, Part III: Comparisons of female and male. P. 634 (result of the observation of "some hundreds of males": ejaculation is "trickling" in ¾ of the men examined).
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  19. Marcel D. Waldinger, Marcus MHM Meinardi, Aeilko H. Zwinderman, Dave H. Schweitzer: Postorgasmic Illness Syndrome (POIS) in 45 Dutch Caucasian Males: Clinical Characteristics and Evidence for an Immunogenic Pathogenesis (Part 1). In: The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2011, Volume 8, No. 4, pp. 1164-1170, doi: 10.1111 / j.1743-6109.2010.02166.x .