The neurophysiology is primarily concerned with the workings of the human nervous system , but also with the animals . It is therefore both a sub-area of physiology and animal physiology and a sub-area of the younger discipline of neurosciences .
Neurophysiology, in turn, can be subdivided into further specialties:
- The electrophysiology deals with the electrochemical signal transmission in the nervous system, the signal transduction .
- The sensory physiology is concerned with how the mechanisms of (defined differently) five human senses external stimuli (stimulus) as light waves , sound waves or chemical signals in electric signals to convert.
The subject of research in neurophysiology, the understanding of which was shaped by speculative ideas from antiquity and the Middle Ages until the early modern era , is, among other things, neuronal activity and plasticity. The focus is on the dynamic processes in the individual nerve cells as well as in entire networks of neurons, the so-called neural networks , but also the integrative activity of various neural networks.
Lately also have imaging (also known as (digital) Imaging ( Engl. )) Such as the confocal microscopy , the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the two-photon microscopy - primarily as fluorescence microscopy methods - important contributions to the knowledge gained in the Neurophysiology done.
Although the (animal) physiology, a sub-discipline of biology is, you follow in neuroscience not this system, but is a separate sub-discipline neurophysiology next to the neurobiology . The reason for this is the clearly different focus of the two disciplines. Neurobiology, for example, explores the molecular and cell biological foundations of neuroscience , not neuronal activities (at least not primarily); Cell biology, like electrophysiology, also deals to a lesser extent with communication (signal transduction) between cells.
- Harold L. Atwood , William A. MacKay : Neurophysiology . Text / image manual. Schattauer , Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 978-3-7945-1416-8 (English: Essentials of Neurophysiology . Translated by J. Walden and OW Witte , paperback , 403 pages (further OCLC numbers: 257182047 and 715866807) ).
- MA Brazier: The historical development of neurophysiology. In: J. Field (Ed.): Handbook of Physiology. Neurophysiology, I. Washington 1959, pp. 1-58.
- Karl Eduard Rothschuh (Ed.): From Boerhaave to Berger. The development of continental physiology in the 18th and 19th centuries with a special focus on neurophysiology. Stuttgart 1964 (= Medicine in History and Culture. Volume 5).
- Gerhard Klier: The three spirits of man. The so-called Spiritus Doctrine in early modern physiology. Steiner, Stuttgart 2002 (= Sudhoffs Archiv , supplement 50), ISBN 3-515-08196-8 .
- Axel Karenberg : Neurophysiology. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1045 f.