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Classification according to ICD-10
N46 Sterility in Men
- Azoospermia NOS
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

Azoospermia (from ancient Greek zoon for "living beings" and σπέρμα , spérma , "germ", "seed", from the verb σπείρειν, speírein "sow") is the medical term for the complete absence of seminal maturation cells and sperm cells in the ejaculate . An effusion triggered by an orgasm consists solely of secretions from the accessory sex glands ( seminal plasma ).



Since in some boys, even before puberty, the prostate in particular can be able to form a secretion from the accessory sex glands when stimulated accordingly , it is quite possible for these adolescents to have an orgasm one or more years before puberty - albeit very little - excretion ( ejaculation ) of predominantly prostate secretion can take place. Since no sperm are formed at this point in time, such an effusion can also be referred to as azoospermia.


After puberty, during which sperm formation normally begins ( Spermarche ), azoospermia can be caused in various ways.

Genetic azoospermia

Azoospermia can arise as a result of a genetic defect in the Y-arm in the so-called azoospermia factor gene. Another cause can be combinations of certain mutations in the CFTR gene , which trigger either the hereditary disease cystic fibrosis or its mild variant CBAVD , which are mostly associated with azoospermia.

Acquired azoospermia

Clinically, the following forms of azoospermia are distinguished:

Location of the spermatic duct and ejaculatory duct

Obstructive azoospermia

In obstructive azoospermia, the cause can be a blockage ( obstruction ) in the spermatic ducts between the epididymis and the seminal vesicle . An intentional transection of the vas deferens during sterilization can also be counted as part of this form.

The bilateral closure of the ejaculatory duct is also a cause of obstructive azoospermia. In contrast to the closure of the spermatic duct , the volume of the ejaculate is significantly reduced.

Non-obstructive azoospermia

In this form of azoospermia, spermatogenesis is disturbed so that no sperm are formed. The cause may be, for example, a degeneration of the seminiferous tubules ( seminiferous tubules ) or hyperprolactinemia be.

The consequence of a genetically determined as well as an acquired azoospermia is male infertility .


  • Walter Krause, Carl-Friedrich Rothauge: Andrology. Diseases of the male genital organs. 2nd completely revised edition, Enke, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-432-91902-6 .
  • Eberhard Nieschlag, Hermann M Behre u. a .: Andrology. Basics and Clinic of Male Reproductive Health Springer, Berlin / New York a. a. 1996, ISBN 3-540-60886-9 .
  • Wolf-Hartmut Weiske: Infertility in men. Diagnostics and therapy. Thieme, Stuttgart a. a. 1994, ISBN 3-13-133101-1 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Azoospermia - Introduction (W. Weidner, Andrology Working Group of the German Society for Urology) ( Memento from October 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  2. Growing Up Sexually - The Sexual Curriculum (Oct., 2002): Chapter 16: Prespermarchic Ejaculation? On "Prostatarche". From: , last accessed on November 6, 2014.
  3. Harry Cuppens, Jean-Jacques Cassiman: CFTR mutations and polymorphism in male infertility. In: International journal of andrology. Volume 27, No. 5, 2004, review, pp. 251-256 doi : 10.1111 / j.1365-2605.2004.00485.x