Azoospermia (from ancient Greek zoon for "living beings" and σπέρμα , spérma , "germ", "seed", from the verb σπείρειν, speírein "sow") is the medical term for the complete absence of seminal maturation cells and sperm cells in the ejaculate . An effusion triggered by an orgasm consists solely of secretions from the accessory sex glands ( seminal plasma ).
Since in some boys, even before puberty, the prostate in particular can be able to form a secretion from the accessory sex glands when stimulated accordingly , it is quite possible for these adolescents to have an orgasm one or more years before puberty - albeit very little - excretion ( ejaculation ) of predominantly prostate secretion can take place. Since no sperm are formed at this point in time, such an effusion can also be referred to as azoospermia.
After puberty, during which sperm formation normally begins ( Spermarche ), azoospermia can be caused in various ways.
Azoospermia can arise as a result of a genetic defect in the Y-arm in the so-called azoospermia factor gene. Another cause can be combinations of certain mutations in the CFTR gene , which trigger either the hereditary disease cystic fibrosis or its mild variant CBAVD , which are mostly associated with azoospermia.
Clinically, the following forms of azoospermia are distinguished:
In obstructive azoospermia, the cause can be a blockage ( obstruction ) in the spermatic ducts between the epididymis and the seminal vesicle . An intentional transection of the vas deferens during sterilization can also be counted as part of this form.
In this form of azoospermia, spermatogenesis is disturbed so that no sperm are formed. The cause may be, for example, a degeneration of the seminiferous tubules ( seminiferous tubules ) or hyperprolactinemia be.
The consequence of a genetically determined as well as an acquired azoospermia is male infertility .
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