Forms of masturbation
In the most common case, masturbation is sexual self- satisfaction, i.e. a form of autosexuality . However, masturbation can also be performed on and by other people. In addition to the most common form of masturbation using the hand as a stimulation tool, there are also various sex toys and masturbation aids that can be used to support masturbation.
The most common forms of sexual activity are on the one hand masturbation and on the other hand sexual intercourse . Masturbation is also popular as a sexual practice shared with a partner , as observing the masturbating partner increases sexual arousal for many people . It is often part of petting and represents a possibility of " safer sex ".
Etymology and alternative names
The origin of the word has not been clarified with certainty. The most reliable etymological sources derive masturbate with some probability from the Latin masturbari ( inf.passive with medial meaning), a contraction of manibus turbari ( irritating oneself with the hands), after others from manu turbari (ablative in the singular instead of plural). For example:
- Wolfgang Pfeifer u. a .: Etymological dictionary of German , Akademie-Verlag 1989 and 1993; German paperback publishing house 1995.
- In French, the term occurs first in Montaigne in the form manustupration , the form masturbation is derived from the Latin masturbatio with the assumption that “maybe” comes from the Greek verb μαστροπεύειν ( mastropeuein ), which means “to practice prostitution”.
- Masturbation . In: Philippe Brenot: Dictionnaire de la sexualité humaine . L'Esprit du Temps, 2004.
Other etymological attempts at interpretation tend to be in the area of folk etymology : some linguists seem plausible to the Latin origin from the prefix mas- (“male”) with the root word turbare (“disturb, violently move”); a moralizing, but unetymological interpretation results from the derivation of the Latin manustupratio or manu stuprare (from manus "hand" and stuprum " fornication ", see above), which is weakly verifiable from the Middle Latin . In this form, the term is often translated as "defilement, fornication by hand".
Other names, especially for masturbation as self- satisfaction, are:
- Onanism (derived from the biblical figure Onan ) - this however carried out a coitus interruptus in order to avoid the conception of a child he did not want ( 1 Mos 38,1-11 EU ); thereafter, people who masturbated were also called onanists .
- Ipsation (Latin from ipse "self").
- There are numerous vulgar terms such as B. "jerk off" or "jerk off" for men. Young people have u. a. through the “liberalization of youth sexuality” a broad sexual language vocabulary and, according to Claus Buddeberg, far fewer reservations than adults about vulgar language.
Masturbation is not associated with harm to health. In the past, masturbation was morally outlawed, condemned, and taboo with fear-inducing claims, for example that one would get sick through masturbation, especially towards children and adolescents . In the first half of the 19th century, however, there was a “fear of masturbation” mainly in the middle-class, but only rarely in the lower classes of the population and aristocratic circles. Medicine, especially in the 19th century, supported these ideas with misinterpretations of various physical disorders as a result of too frequent masturbation. Today it has become natural to use masturbation.
Occasionally, however, it is rated as disturbing or even pathological if it is exercised publicly or compulsively and becomes an addiction . From a psychological point of view, addictive behavior is associated with risks and possible dangers to oneself or others in every area of life, therefore also with regard to masturbation.
Some studies in men have found evidence that regular ejaculations can prevent prostate problems . However, this relationship has not been confirmed in other studies.
Men rarely suffer from symptoms of Postorgasmic Illness Syndrome after each ejaculation, whether caused by masturbation or sexual intercourse . Affected people try accordingly to avoid ejaculations in order to avoid the symptoms.
Techniques, frequency and statistics
The proportion of adult men who masturbate regularly is around 90% and that of women around 86%. However, a high number of unreported cases can be assumed; In general, it can be said that practically all men and the majority of women masturbate regularly from puberty onwards, regardless of age, with a downward trend from the age of 50.
Many discover masturbation in early puberty, some later and some as a toddler . According to several studies, men masturbate for the first time at an average of around twelve years of age; Women usually only masturbate regularly from their late teens. During puberty, the proportion of boys and men who masturbate regularly is very high and is close to 100% in 15-year-old men. Most adolescents male masturbate on average several times a week to several times a day, usually at least once a day. The average for male adolescents is around eight to nine times a week. Group masturbation , mutual masturbation, and masturbation in public places are not uncommon, especially during puberty .
In adulthood, the frequency depends, among other things, on the relationship status, the frequency of sexual intercourse, age and sexuality. The average adult masturbates anywhere from a few times a month to a few times a week, with men masturbating significantly more often than women.
Basically, 67% of women and 61% of men prefer to masturbate in the evening, followed by the middle of the day and night. A lying position is preferred by both sexes. The most common place for both sexes is in the bed, although other places such as the desk chair, workplace, changing room or toilet are becoming more popular as pornography consumption increases.
There are very different ways of masturbating. The own erogenous zones of the body are stimulated with the hands and fingers or with aids . Lubricants can improve irritation. Since the invention of the vibrator in the late 19th century, there has been a large market for masturbation aids such as vibrators and dildos , masturbators and sex dolls .
Optical and acoustic stimuli, such as looking at erotic or pornographic photos or films, can increase the feelings of pleasure experienced during masturbation. The consumption of pornography is increasing, but more so among men than women. With the increased frequency of masturbation during puberty, the consumption of pornography in this age group is also above average; here, too, the consumption of pornography is significantly more widespread among boys than among girls: a 2005 study found that 60% of 15-year-old boys and 9 % of girls consume pornography, a 2009 survey found that 85% of 15-year-old boys and 71% of 15-year-old girls had at least one contact with pornography. On average, first contact with pornography begins at the age of 14, with a downward trend: 14- and 15-year-old boys stated that they were on average 12.7 years old when they first came into contact, while the age for 16-17-year-olds was for 14.1 years, for 18-20 year olds at 14.9 years. In 2008, a survey found that 20.6 percent of all male adolescents consume pornography every day, compared with 1.4 percent of girls of the same age.
Men usually masturbate by stimulating the penis by moving the foreskin over the penis, particularly the glans, or by sliding their hand over the limb. Much less common is masturbation by rubbing the penis against a soft object such as a mattress or pillow. Also anal and urethral masturbation are rare. Oral masturbation - called autofellatio - is also possible for agile men . The Kinsey report cites a percentage of 0.2 to 0.3% of the male population who are able to do so. On the other hand, the number of men who have at least tried this is much higher; this is also a not uncommon part of masturbatory dream fantasies. Kinsey suspected an animal background here, because autofellatio is a normal form of sexual activity in primates.
Male masturbation almost always ends with ejaculation. Most men reach it after less than two minutes - in some cases even after ten to twenty seconds - some delay ejaculation significantly to increase pleasure, in extreme cases up to an hour.
In men, masturbation is usually done with a great deal of imagination . Increasing consumption of pornography can be observed at the same time.
On average, men masturbate more frequently and start earlier than women, and men also consume more pornography ( see section above ). Especially during puberty, young men mostly masturbate on average every day.
The most common form of masturbation in women is clitoris and vulva stimulation with the hand ( fingers ), with most women lying on their backs. A vibrator is also often used to stimulate the clitoris. Only a relatively small number of women insert their fingers or objects such as dildos into the vagina while masturbating; the figures for this are less than 20 percent in various studies. According to Hite, about twelve percent of women practice vaginal masturbation at least sometimes in combination with clitorial stimulation, and about two percent sometimes practice purely vaginal masturbation.
A Swedish study from 2006 found that 69 percent of Swedish women prefer clitoral satisfaction, 28 percent prefer a combination of clitoral and vaginal masturbation and less than three percent prefer vaginal masturbation only. Other less common forms of masturbation in women include rubbing the vulva against soft objects, rhythmically compressing the thighs, and stimulating the clitoris and vulva with the help of water. Anal stimulation is used by some women in addition to clitoral or vaginal masturbation. Oral masturbation - called autocunnilingus - is impossible in women with extremely few exceptions.
While erotic fantasies are very common in men, according to Kinsey, only half of women regularly have sexual fantasies when masturbating, for more than a third of those surveyed masturbation is purely physical, according to Hite, even most women mostly enjoy masturbation physically, but not however psychologically. The fantasies of women are more limited than those of men to the types of sexual acts they have already experienced. In contrast to sexual intercourse, a great many women achieve orgasm with masturbation. In Kinsey's studies, 45 percent of women said they typically achieved orgasm in three minutes from masturbation, and another 25 percent in four to five minutes, with many women deliberately delaying it. Many women also state that they use masturbation to orgasm in order to reduce the distracting sexual arousal as quickly as possible. Since masturbation is the easiest and most reliable way to achieve a female orgasm, it is of great importance in researching female orgasms.
The popular belief that sexuality does not arise until puberty is wrong. According to Kinsey, around 19% of girls have masturbated before puberty, some as early as the first year of life. They reach orgasm more often than boys of that age. Older women masturbate more often than young women, and masturbation is most common in women in their mid-40s. A decrease in prevalence can only be observed among those over 50. The mean frequency of masturbation is almost constant across all ages from 20 to 55 years. Kinsey gives the median for masturbating single women as once every two to three weeks. The scattering is - in women significantly greater than in men, so that - as with most sexual sizes average frequency probably is about once a week.
Even in ancient Greece, with its moral freedom of movement, sexuality was by no means a taboo subject. Nevertheless, there were representatives of cynicism who had the goal of returning to the natural state "which they saw in animal and childlike behavior towards culture, the educated (Paidéia)". One of their representatives, Diogenes von Sinope , was considered a master of provocation and said when he publicly satisfied himself in the marketplace: "You could also rub your stomach as well to get rid of hunger". However, many other Greek philosophers were more critical of masturbation than Diogenes.
From the late Middle Ages onwards , like all other forms of sexuality that were not exclusively for procreation, it was viewed by the Roman Catholic Church as a sin and sometimes as unnatural fornication . In the Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana , which was introduced in 1768 and valid until 1787 , it is dealt with in the same paragraph as the other “unchastities against nature” and at least an appropriate corporal punishment was provided. About the later French King Louis XIII. (1601–1643), however, is known that his personal physician wrote that nannies should instruct boys to “tickle the penis” for “evening calming”.
During the Enlightenment she was branded as “social danger” and “unnatural behavior” beyond purely religious condemnation.
In 1712 the pamphlet Onania, probably written by the enterprising quack and writer John Marten and published anonymously, appeared in England : or, the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution ("Onanism or the hideous sin of self-pollution "), which gradually spread to everyone has been translated and widely used in European languages. It claimed that excessive masturbation could cause a variety of diseases such as smallpox and tuberculosis . It is significant that John Marten simultaneously published numerous smaller soft pornographic writings and in Onania he offered a "medicine" he had invented against the diseases allegedly resulting from masturbation. Even the great enlighteners of the time believed the anonymously published work. Denis Diderot even included the questionable theses in his encyclopédie under the article title Manstupration ou Manustupration .
In the 18th and 19th centuries a “campaign against masturbation” took place all over Europe. Numerous scientific and popular scientific publications appeared denouncing the alleged dangers of masturbation and offered methods to prevent it. The font L'Onanisme. Dissertation sur les maladies produits par la masturbation (The Onanism. Treatise on Diseases through Masturbation) by the Lausanne doctor Samuel Auguste Tissot apply.
Wrong ideas have circulated for centuries that "self-defilement" hinders the healthy sexual development of a boy and leads to brain softening and spinal cord atrophy. Also, cancer , leprosy and madness and other psychiatric disorders should be the result of masturbation allegedly. It was only after Robert Koch discovered the tubercle bacillus in 1882 that medical professionals no longer claim that masturbation causes tuberculosis.
In addition to health hazards, moral arguments were put forward against masturbation: it was selfish , tempted to indiscipline , represented “useless pleasure” and was sometimes referred to as “sexual abuse”. Masturbation promotes the isolation of the masturbator from society, since it does not require a partner for sexual satisfaction.
Sigmund Freud dealt in detail with masturbation as a cause of neurotic diseases, especially neurasthenia as a so-called actual neurosis . Depending on the level of his theoretical development, he viewed childish masturbation as an expression of a previous seduction of the child or, within the framework of the theory of infantile sexuality, as a spontaneous, developmental event. He occasionally referred to masturbation as the primordial addiction, which would later be replaced by other adult addictions such as smoking. As addictive behavior, however, it also plays a tremendous role in the understanding of hysteria ( judged as a psychoneurosis ) . The question of the harmfulness of masturbation was the subject of a debate in the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association around 1912 ; In summary, Freud turned against a fundamental trivialization: In neurasthenia, as a direct consequence, but also through a reduction in potency, softening of character through fixation on fantasized satisfaction instead of real exertion and stagnation of general psychosexual development, self-satisfaction predisposes to neurosis .
Until well into the 20th century, it was widely believed that acne was caused by masturbation. The hypothesis could therefore probably last as long as young people in puberty almost always suffer from acne, while in adolescence often masturbate (see Cum hoc ergo propter hoc ). Until the 1980s, masturbation was occasionally seen in medical circles as an immature form of sexuality, and in adulthood as a pathological form of sexuality.
The educators of the Enlightenment picked up the medical arguments in the 18th century and processed them methodically in their teaching stories. Numerous monographs came from the ranks of the philanthropists (Villaume, Salzmann et al.), Which, in addition to the supposed physical damage, also depicted the spiritual devastation caused by the "self-desecration". The educators saw the causes in what they considered to be a pampering upbringing and especially in poor hygiene, beds that were too soft, poor nutrition, lack of exercise and clothes that were too tight and too warm.
In addition to the mistakes in home education, there would be the wrong teaching content in schools. A major evil is literature and the so-called "fine arts". The permanent longing, the constant being in love and longing for happiness set false accents. The literature of "Sturm und Drang" was particularly outlawed. But the ancient Greeks were not spared either.
The philanthropists, of course, saw the greatest danger in the social interaction of children. The wet nurses who looked after the little ones in the early days often laid the foundation for permanent seduction. Child carers, governesses, servants, servants, maids, hairdressers, tailors and dance teachers systematically continued the misdirection of the children and young people. The teachers in the house and in the school were also mentioned. The philanthropists recommended indirect and direct measures as a means of counteraction. The general correction of upbringing was one of the indirect ones. This included self-discipline and asceticism as guiding principles, and moderation in eating, drinking and sleeping. Hardening and hygienic measures as well as a general education for modesty and the generation of disgust in sexual matters.
Regardless of the nature of the pedagogical field: the supreme principle of the educators must be to constantly monitor and control the pupil. “Do not leave him alone day or night; at least sleep in his room, ”Rousseau had recommended in his Emile . The direct measures included the so-called “true stories” from life, in which the educators vividly illustrated the innumerable physical and mental ailments in the lives of unhappy boys and girls who had succumbed to masturbation. Long infirmity and death were not infrequently the outcome of the horror reports that were supposed to lead young people back on the path of virtue.
If these remedies were ineffective, the educators recommended putting on fetlocks, belts and camisoles. Infibulation must be described as the most drastic measure in education . This was understood to be a wire that was put through the foreskin over the glans. Joachim Heinrich Campe , an important educator and publisher of the German Enlightenment, propagated this method sustainably and could only regret that the infibulation was applicable "only to one half of our youth".
In addition, there have been considerations to manipulate the female sexual organs surgically. The measures range from sewing up the vagina to circumcising the clitoris. However, such recommendations were not included in pedagogy. There was consensus among the educators that “recognizing the masturbant” was of great importance. For this purpose, they designed a systematic observation plan that listed criteria that should convict the sinner.
In Muelos: A Stone Age Superstition about Sexuality , the US anthropologist Weston La Barre reconstructs the causes of the worldwide superstition that male masturbation leads to a reduction in nerve substance, and discovers it in a primitive misjudgment of the nature of human brain matter, which is not a substrate for information processing, but fuel is presented.
The Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant saw masturbation as a moral error. For him the natural purpose of the sex drive, which cannot be neglected, is procreation. In his Metaphysics of Morals , he explains that “pleasurable self-desecration” (ie masturbation) is a violation of man's duty to himself because he gives up his own personality by using himself as a pure means of gratifying his urges . This self-surrender does not even require courage, but only giving in to the drive and is therefore rated by Kant as an even worse moral offense than suicide .
The Jewish scriptures do not make a clear statement on masturbation. Basically, it should be noted that God gives the people of Israel detailed regulations on sexual behavior in the Bible ( Lev 18.6–23 EU and Lev 20.10–21 EU ), but does not explicitly mention masturbation. There is ritual impurity that excludes people from encountering God (e.g. in worship). Ejaculation according to Lev 15,16 LUT applies in Judaism (as well as pus flow, pathological bleeding or female menstruation) as a loss of vital germs or vitality and thus contaminates the body. This impurity differs from sin in that sin can only be removed through sacrifice, whereas impurity requires ritual ablutions ( mikveh ) and a waiting period (usually until the next evening).
The Kizzur Schulchan Aruch (a popular halachic compendium from 1834, which is characterized, among other things, by the exclusive treatment of frequently occurring legal questions of daily life) says:
- “It is forbidden to waste seeds uselessly. This is a crime more serious than any other violation of the Torah. Those who masturbate and so uselessly waste semen are not only breaking a strict commandment, but someone who does so must be banned. It is written about such a person: 'Your hands are full of blood' (Isaiah 1:15). He is thus like a murderer. "(Kizzur Schulchan Aruch 151, 1)
Formally, the Jewish scriptures (the Old Testament , i.e. without the interpretation by the Talmud) continue to apply unchanged for Christians, because Jesus (and later Paul) himself declare that the Old Testament is not replaced or dissolved by the teaching of Christ, but only has been fulfilled through the love of God and neighbor ( Mt 5,17-20 EU ). Many Jewish teachings were given a different status as a result. For example, ritual ablutions are largely unknown in Christianity.
In numerous situations, Jesus speaks out against the rigid observance of laws and, in return, strengthens the individual's conscientious decision-making. The churches classify masturbation differently. There are passages in the Bible that are associated with masturbation. The interpretation is controversial.
Mostly the biblical passage Gen 38,8-10 LUT is cited as a doctrine against masturbation. However, God punished Onan (hence the term onanism not) because of masturbation, not because of coitus interruptus , but because of non-execution of the Judaism prescribed Levirate to provide for their offspring (marriage to the widow of his deceased brother who care for the elderly and let the brother's name persist).
Other biblical passages deal with excessive basic needs and criticize addiction and addiction-like habits , for example in Gal 5 : 19-26 LUT . This also involves the question of the extent to which the person concerned still rules over their own feelings. There is also some opinion that sexuality in general belongs in marriage.
- “But if they cannot abstain, let them marry; for it is better to marry than to consume oneself in lust. ”( 1 Cor 7 : 9 ESV )
According to the rabbinical interpretation, the marriageable age was 12 (girls) or 13 (boys) years, which, according to Fritz Rienecker, was due to the earlier puberty in southern countries. Therefore, the Bible does not deal with premarital intercourse and only describes unfaithfulness or adultery as a sin. Furthermore, in Mt 5: 27-28 LUT , the Bible warns against sexual fantasies with someone other than your own spouse. On the other hand, the Bible does not make a clear statement about internal marital masturbation, but according to 1 Cor 7 : 4–5 LUT , the married couple are asked not to withdraw from one another.
In the opinion of the Roman Catholic Church , masturbation as "deliberate arousal of the sexual organs with the aim of evoking sexual pleasure" ( KKK No. 2352), as well as any voluntary, extra-marital "use of sexual power", constitutes a "serious disorderly act" Along with pornography and homosexual practices, it is one of the sins that seriously offend against chastity (KKK 2396). However, factors such as “affective immaturity, the power of ingrained habits, states of fear and other psychological or social factors” are taken into account in pastoral care, “which can reduce moral guilt or even keep it to a minimum”.
The following can be found in the Koran :
- “ 1 Success surely crowns the believers […] 5 who keep their sensuality in check - 6 unless with their wives or with those who have their rights, for then they are not to be blamed; 7 But those who desire beyond that are the transgressors ”( Sura 23 , verses 1 and 5–7)
Sunni legal scholars do not refer this passage from the Koran to masturbation, but to the temporary pleasure marriage , the so-called Mutʿa marriage , which is permissible for twelve Shiite Muslims . In sura 24 verse 33 reads:
- " 33 And those who find no (opportunity) to marry should keep themselves chaste until Allah makes them rich of His abundance. [...] "
Chastity ( chaste from the Latin conscius 'conscious' ) is understood in the literal sense as “ moderation in dealing with sexuality ”, but in other passages of the Koran ( Sura 17:32 on adultery; 24:30 and 33:35 on chastity) it always refers to ethical action applied between the sexes. Traditional exegesis includes every other form of sexuality. There are a number of hadiths , some of which are also negative about masturbation. Among other things, fasting is recommended to avoid sin.
In the case of Shiites, masturbation is generally forbidden, and in the case of Sunnis also with different evaluations of exceptional cases. While masturbation is generally forbidden among Shafiʿites and Malikites , it may be permitted in individual cases with Hanafites and Hanbalites , e.g. B. after a failed marriage relationship.
In contrast to many other religions, Daoism does not see masturbation as a “sin”, but it views male masturbation leading to ejaculation critically because it causes a loss of qi through the waste of the semen and leads to weakening and illness of the body. On the other hand, masturbation, performed correctly in Taoism - i.e. without ejaculation - is not only tolerated, but also considered healthy for the body. ( See also: Daoist Sexual Practices, Male Ejaculation Section )
Masturbation in the animal kingdom
Masturbation has been observed in numerous mammal species (e.g. dogs, numerous monkey species, cows, horses, whales, bats, sheep) but also in birds and reptiles (e.g. turtles). Contrary to previous claims, this includes not only domesticated and captive animals, but also wild animals of both sexes in the wild.
Bears have been observed to masturbate while watching other bears mate.
The techniques used are diverse and include, for example, manual stimulation with hands, paws, feet or tail, autofellatio, rubbing the penis against the stomach or objects. The making of tools for masturbation is also known in some species. In some species, spontaneous ejaculation without prior physical stimulation has been observed. The stimulation of other erogenous zones such as the teats or the antlers of various deer species can also be observed. In female mammals, masturbation often involves direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris present in all mammals.
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