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A compilation of 20 portraits of women

Woman ( Middle High German  frouwe ; from Old High German  frouwa "noble, high woman; mistress", as Old High German frō to Germanic fraujan , 'Herr'), Latin and technically also Femina , denotes a female , adult person . The terms differentiate between biological sex , gender role or both (compare gender ). “Frau” is also used in the German language as the usual form of address for women, followed by the family name of the person addressed. Female children and adolescents are referred to as girls .

The development of the biological sex is genetically determined by a chromosome pair XX and the lack of the Y chromosome , which is necessary for male development and which controls the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In contrast to men, women with typical genetic development are generally able to become pregnant and bear children from puberty to menopause .

The Venus symbol is generally used as a symbol for women, femininity and the feminine gender : a simplified hand mirror . In addition, there are trans women whose gender identity differs from the gender assigned to them at birth, as well as intersex people with gender characteristics that do not match the gender distinction between “woman” and “man”.

Biological characteristics

Genetic traits

Karyotype of a woman

From a molecular biological point of view, women differ from men by the chromosome pair XX in the sex chromosomes . This difference leads to a sex dimorphism and forms the chrimosomal sex . When an X chromosome from the maternal side ( egg cell ) and an X chromosome from the paternal side ( sperm ) come together in the zygote , the genital organs are formed during embryonic development. Women usually have two X chromosomes in their chromosome set , while men usually only have one X and the sex determining Y chromosome on which the sex determining region of Y (SRY) is located and that in men for embryonic production the testis-determining factor (TDF for English testis-determining factor ), a protein , is responsible. If TDF is formed, male characteristics develop. In the absence of the TDF, female characteristics are formed. Due to various genetic causes, an embryo can, in exceptional cases, develop into a female baby despite a 46, XY chromosome set (see also XY woman ).

Morphological and physiological characteristics

Pregnant woman
Woman with an Infant

Women differ physically from men in their primary and secondary sex characteristics , the somatic sex. The primary sexual characteristics of women are the real female genitals , which are for the most part in the body and are used in reproduction. The secondary gender characteristics of women include, for example, the breasts , the body shape, the reduced body hair and the voice.

The internal sexual organs of the woman consist of the uterus with the paired fallopian tubes and the female gonads , the ovaries , in which the egg cells are created and mature as female germ cells. The vagina connects the uterus to the vulva , which forms the woman's outer primary genitalia. The vaginal exit lies between the small and large labia in the vaginal vestibule , into which the urethra as the exit of the urinary bladder also opens. The clitoris is a cylindrical erectile organ formed by erectile tissue that is interspersed with sensitive nerve endings and is therefore particularly capable of reacting to touch.

In the female breasts , which, with the mammary glands in them, belong to the secondary sexual characteristics and do not develop until puberty , breast milk is formed after a child is born , with which the mother can breastfeed the newborn until it is fed with other food ( baby food ). can be fed.

In addition to the different reproductive organs and breasts, there tend to be a few other physical differences between men and women, also known as tertiary sex characteristics. For example, the female bone structure, especially in the pelvis, differs significantly from the male. The facial skull differs slightly, the muscle proportion and the distribution and expression of fatty tissue is mostly different than in men. A woman's body tends to be less muscular than that of a man ; While the proportion of skeletal muscle tissue in women is around 23 percent on average, it is around 40 percent in men. The main reason for the difference is the effect of the male sex hormone testosterone , which has a strong muscle building effect. As a result, an average build woman can only develop around 65% of the muscle strength of an average man. Also due to hormones is a higher susceptibility of women to the bone-degrading disease osteoporosis , which affects about 25% of women after menopause and is mainly due to the lack of estrogen production after menopause . This disease can also occur in men, but it occurs less often and usually at an older age.

Another striking difference between the sexes is the frequency spectrum of the human voice due to the different sizes of the larynx and the length of the vocal cords.

The degree to which physical characteristics, if they are also present individually, are regarded as “typically female” depends on the upbringing and conditioning. All women also have so-called “male parts” - and vice versa (see femininity and masculinity ).

Hormonal characteristics and menstruation

Schematic representation of the ovarian cycle

An essential difference between men and women is formed by the hormonal equipment and the menstrual cycle controlled by it . The hormonal control is primarily by the interaction of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH hormone), which in both sexes in certain cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is formed (adenohypophysis), and in the ovaries in follicles and corpora lutea formed estrogens and progesterone , as well as the luteinizing hormone .

The cycle consists of a regular and roughly monthly rhythm, in which the maturation of an egg cell in an ovarian follicle in the ovary until ovulation takes place approximately halfway through the cycle period. As the egg moves through the fallopian tube to the uterus, the follicle becomes the corpus luteum and finally completely broken down. Parallel to the maturation of the egg, an endometrium is built up in the uterus and a plug of mucus ( cervical mucus ) is built up in the area of ​​the cervix , which, in the event of fertilization, can absorb the zygote that then forms and feed it as plaster cake . If the egg cell is not fertilized and embedded, the endometrium is broken down again at the end of the cycle and causes the woman to menstruate .

In addition to the changed level of the hormones involved, which in the case of FSH, LH and oestrogens have their highest value at ovulation and in the case of progesterone rise and fall again during the second half of the cycle, as well as the organic changes in the uterine lining and the cervix , the woman's basal temperature also changes, rising after ovulation and falling again until the menstrual period.

The woman in cultural history

The role of women in society differs depending on the various cultures and has in some cases changed significantly over time and the development of cultures.

Women in prehistory and in indigenous peoples

Caring for children inevitably restricts women's mobility ( Yanomami woman with child)
Mandan girl picking berries (Edward S. Curtis, ca.1908)

In recent and historical primitive peoples , the role of women is different. In most peoples, they primarily take on the role of raising and raising children and therefore mostly stay near the settlements. In the case of hunter and gatherer cultures , she is usually the person who tends the fire and prepares the food, additionally collects or collects vegetable food and small animals in the vicinity of the camp as a basis for food and prepares the food, while the man usually on the Is hunting and provides for the protein-rich meat. In traditional digging sticks and hacking cultures , most of the work to provide food is done by women, which means that matriarchal structures often prevailed in these peoples . In contrast, it plays a smaller role in the procurement of food among nomadic pastoralists .

Some anthropologists, such as Margaret Ehrenberg , assume that, historically, women were more respected than men. For the early groups of hunters and gatherers, female members were therefore possibly more economically important because of the greater steadiness of the yields than foragers compared to the changing success of the hunters. With their ability to give birth, women contributed to the maintenance of the group. The fact that the mother of a child can always be named unequivocally, but this is not the case for fatherhood, is said to have strengthened the role of women within the group. Whether it is even possible to speak of a gender hierarchy for prehistory is, however, controversial.

In hunter cultures , men were responsible for hunting. Meat, with its protein and fat, was particularly valuable in the cold, northern latitudes. Women secured a basic food supply by collecting fruits, herbs and seeds; however, hunters have also been proven. While the men wandered about, women managed the rest of life: prepared food, tended the fire after it had been tamed, looked after the provisions, built huts, nursed the babies and raised the toddlers in groups. Women formed the group's rather stabilizing, closely-knit network .

In order to give women the ability to give life, the first cults and religions are said to have emerged in the Paleolithic , in which ancestors and mainly female deities were worshiped. This idea serves as a basis for the widespread but not uncontested idea that a matriarchy can be assumed for prehistory . With archaeological means, however, it is not possible to make such extensive statements about the type of society.

According to Ehrenberg, women are said to have played a major role in the development of agriculture and other cultural techniques, or to have invented them. In the Neolithic Age, the new economy was accompanied by significant population growth, as production surpluses could be hoarded for the first time. As a result, the first social differences emerged. In this process, which lasted several thousand years, it is assumed that the symbolic or actual primacy of women or the equality of the sexes in favor of men have shifted permanently. This was probably due to a greater involvement of men in agricultural plowing and harvesting, along with large and small animal breeding and animal husbandry, which weakened the position of women.

Ancient women

Classical antiquity was organized on a patriarchal basis and the role of women was subordinate to that of men. In ancient Greece women were limited to household chores and had limited legal capacity.

This was also the case in ancient Rome , where the wife was largely subordinate to the father or husband without any rights . In the house, however, she was self-employed and a married woman enjoyed social respect. Around 100 BC, their legal status was increasingly improved.

The Germanic tribes and other peoples were also organized in a strongly patriarchal manner. Here the woman was without legal capacity and passed from paternal power to that of the husband. Respect for the woman, who was also seen as a potential seer , and the duty to protect a woman, however, softened the harshness of the law and potential punishments by the man.

Women in early Christianity

In Paul's letters there are indications that women might have taken on leading roles in early Christianity . It is true that Paul's first letter to the Corinthians contains the Pauline command of silence for women in the parish. There are suspicions about this, however, that it was only added later, since the same letter describes how women should pray or speak prophetically.

Basically, however , the role and position of women did not change in the old church , with its growing importance in Rome. It was considered the "vessel of sin". Until the time of the Franconian Empire in the 5th to 9th centuries, men had legal gender guardianship over their wives . This increasingly decreased in the Middle Ages and until the Middle Ages it became a duty of assistance and administrator in legal matters.

Women in the late Middle Ages to modern times

In the later Middle Ages, wars , feuds and diseases created a large excess of women in society, which led to sociological problems. For every 1000 men there were 1150 women, a surplus of about 15%, and women became more important in the economy and commerce of the cities. As a result of the newly founded businesses from around 1300 onwards, the reputation and social position of women rose until around 1650 , and they were able to assert themselves above all in branches of the economy that were not organized by guilds and were equally important as men in wholesale and retail trade. From a legal point of view, women were in some cases equal to men in trade, for example in Hamburg's city law of 1603.

Albrecht Dürer 1491: The four witches

However, some of these laws were withdrawn in the late Middle Ages and early modern times , and through the return of ancient ideals in the Renaissance, as well as through contemporary interpretation of Roman law and the persecution of witches . The latter in particular led to massive lack of freedom for women who ran the risk of being persecuted and killed for allegations of witchcraft and “sexual anomalies”. About 100,000 women were killed in this persecution.

From around the second half of the 17th century, women from the upper social classes increasingly succeeded in gaining access to higher education and thus establishing the status of the “learned” and later the “gallant woman”. In the Rococo , it was primarily these women who helped to determine social and intellectual development. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, women like Rahel von Varnhagen or Bettina von Arnim became central figures in literary salons and some women like Anna Luise Karsch and George Sand were able to establish themselves as writers. At this time, the political women's movement began, which campaigned for the legal equality of women and their independence in public life. It was not until the General German Commercial Code of 1897 that women regained their previous legal status in the commercial sector; at about the same time and shortly afterwards, women gained the right to stand as a candidate and later also the right to vote in individual countries .

The woman in society

Social role and emancipation

In many, especially non-Western, cultures there is a more or less pronounced gender division of labor . In many traditional societies , women are typically assigned predominantly reproductive tasks and men productive tasks. The reproductive tasks in a society include in particular the upbringing and care of children, but also the care of sick and old people, the provision of food, clothing, etc. This division of labor is very old and did not necessarily mean that women were subordinated. Which conditions led to women becoming economically and socially dependent on men and having to subordinate themselves to them can only be answered in the historical context of environmental conditions, culture, worldview or religion, society and economic mode.

In all European countries at the beginning of the 20th century only men were considered legally competent, an unmarried woman needed a guardian . This is still the case today in many countries outside Europe. The question of the right to self-determination about one's own body or the classification and scope of the rights of the nasciturus in the event of pregnancy is still controversial , although a number of states introduced more liberal abortion law in the course of the 20th century .

By the women's movements in the US and Europe since the late 19th century, triggered by her emancipation of women were traditional in the Western world patriarchal structured gender roles questioned. Today, women, especially in Western countries, have access to all vocational training and in most countries they are legally equal to men. In Germany there are some laws (e.g. Section 56, Paragraph 2, Clause 8 of Book VI of the Social Code, Section 2 of the BGG) which women prefer in order to implement actual equality between women and men.

In societies in which the status of a woman is real or supposedly partly defined by her beauty, a veritable “beauty craze” can arise, which can lead to mental disorders such as eating disorders .

Women in the world of work

Nurse in Ethiopia preparing an injection Metal worker at lathe, aircraft manufacturing during the war, USA, 1942
Nurse in Ethiopia preparing an injection
Metal worker at lathe, aircraft manufacturing during the war, USA, 1942

The labor market in Western Europe shows a gender-specific segregation , with an above-average number of women in reproductive and service occupations : education and training occupations , care occupations, sales and commercial occupations. One also speaks of women's domains . Gender segregation is also evident within occupational fields that are typical for women, so that, in relation to the population in the examined occupational field, there are above-average numbers of women in management positions. In addition, in occupational fields such as nursing or lower-level teachers, despite intensive political efforts, the wage level has so far been lower than in occupational fields in which an above-average number of men work, such as construction or production.

Women in politics

Benazir Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988. Angela Merkel, German Chancellor since 2005
Benazir Bhutto , Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 .
Angela Merkel , German Chancellor since 2005

In most countries around the world, women are underrepresented in government and politics. In January 2019, the average share of women in national parliaments was 24.3% globally. The highest proportion of women in the parliaments of the Nordic countries was 42.5% , while the average for the other European countries was 27.2%. The Pacific countries have the lowest shares with 16.3%, the Middle East and North Africa with 19.0% and the Asian countries with 19.9%. In southern Africa (sub-Saharan Africa) the proportion was 23.9% and in the states of North and South America it was 30.6%.

The right to vote as a civil right was denied to women in numerous Western countries until the 20th century. In New Zealand women were given active voting rights in 1893 and passive voting rights in 1919 , claiming to have been “the first self-governing country in the world” with women’s right to vote. The Commonwealth of Australia , relieved of state sovereignty by Great Britain and newly established, adopted the New Zealand example in 1902, but at the same time introduced passive and active suffrage. In 1919, the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was the first Muslim-majority state worldwide to introduce women's suffrage with equal rights for men. On April 30, 1937, the Philippines let women decide for themselves in a plebiscite about women's suffrage, making it the second country in Asia in which the active and passive right to vote for women was decided. Women's suffrage was introduced in India in 1950 and in Iran in 1963 .

In Europe it was well into the 20th century before women were allowed to vote in all countries. In Switzerland, women's suffrage was only introduced in the 1971 federal elections, and in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women were only given the right to vote in local affairs in 1991 after the canton was forced to do so by the Swiss Federal Court. In Liechtenstein , the right to vote for women was introduced in 1984 through a women's referendum. In the United States , women's suffrage was gradually introduced, initially at the state and local levels. Beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and beginning in 1920, women in the United States received universal suffrage with the passage of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution .

Introduction of active women's suffrage worldwide (yellow = no women's suffrage):

Women in science

Like many other areas of life, medicine and science were dominated by men until the 20th century and women, despite a few exceptions, played only a very subordinate role. Historical evidence of the existence of women scientists has been known since the earliest times. Depending on the region, time period and social system, the work of the early researchers could gain more or less validity or experience a historical tradition up to the present day. In ancient times and far beyond, women created new knowledge, primarily in the fields of medicine and chemistry or alchemy . For example, the Babylonian perfumer Tapputi from the 12th century BC is considered the earliest known chemist in the world. The botanist and medicin Artemisia II discovered the healing properties of a number of plants around 300 BC. In ancient Greece women were banned from practicing medical professions. The philosophers Pythagoras , Socrates and Epicurus questioned the role model and demanded that women be trained with the same intensity as men. However, some mathematical-philosophical schools of thought had many active female members. The mathematician Theano was a teacher in the school of Pythagoras and took over her leadership after his death.

The US nuclear physicist Shirley Ann Jackson at the 2010 World Economic Forum in China.

The European Middle Ages divided researchers into two groups by gender and shifted female science to the nunneries. Some women, especially nuns , gained some reputation for their activities. Some women's convents were able to develop into educational institutions for noble daughters and also teach natural sciences and medicine there. With a few exceptions, women were not allowed in the modern universities of the early modern period . In the centuries that followed, science was centered in a small academic circle from which women were institutionally excluded due to extensive gender segregation in the educational system.

Since the late 19th century, women in many countries have been gradually admitted to academic qualifications for scientific work. Worldwide, however, there are still more men than women active in university and non-university research. In OECD countries, however, the lower proportion of women scientists contrasts with a largely balanced ratio between students. In most countries, women's participation in science is growing slowly and steadily. Cohort studies but suggest that more women than men of a scientific career to the next stage of the scientific community to leave. For example, the proportion of female students in Germany in an analysis in 2009 was around 50% and remained at this level until graduation, but the proportion of women decreased increasingly afterwards:

Gender distribution

Old woman

Although slightly more male children are born during times of sufficient food supply - the ratio is around 105 to 100 - women make up the majority of adults. One of the reasons for this is that men of all ages have a slightly higher mortality rate - especially up to the age of 30 due to accidents. For various reasons women have a life expectancy that is around five years longer, partly due to actual gender differences, partly due to their social role.


Middle High German vrouwe , Old High German frouwa are (like the old Icelandic name of the goddess Freyja ) female formations of a Germanic word for "Lord" that has disappeared in German and which only survives in word formations such as Corpus Christi and Frondienst . The real meaning of the masculine is "the first"; it belongs to Indo-European prō̆- "forwards, forwards".

Names for women

Until the 16th century, only adult and / or married persons of the feudal upper class were referred to as “women” . With the adoption of this form of address by the early bourgeois classes, the upper class dodged from the 17th century onwards to the name “lady” derived from the Latin domina , which is still used in German today as a polite form of address or to name women in sport ( ladies' ice hockey ) . Until then, a female adult was generally referred to as a woman without any evaluation . As a result, this word - apart from its use in the adjective "female" - has mostly been understood as derogatory. The term “ gracious woman” is seldom used today (see Ode to Joy by Friedrich Schiller). Until the late 20th century, unmarried women were usually referred to and addressed as fräulein in a diminutive way ; they can still be found today in jocular addressing of girls.

In German, many job titles such as professions are differentiated depending on whether they are carried out by a man or a woman. In contrast to other differences such as origin, no adjective is used, but there are derived ( movied ) feminine terms for almost all professions , usually indicated by adding the ending -in : author, baker . An exception to this is about the Zimmerin to the carpenter . The Duden recorded in the 23rd edition in 2004 for the first time all female name forms. Ends the name on househusband , this is most often carried clerk replaced: Bürokaufmann → office administrator (parent: merchants ). Have different meanings maid and landlady , without the easy way to make (the landlady) in this case a male form. Few professions are not named differently according to gender; so after today Salutation Miss came socially out of fashion, the term upper used for both female and male waiter because the female form matron is used in other contexts. New names have been created for the female job titles midwife and nurse in order to be able to form masculine terms: maternity nurse , nurse (with a derived female form: nurse ); Since 2020, the job title midwife has also been valid for male professional members (see also linguistic equal treatment of men and women in job titles ).

In cover letters and addresses, both the feminine and the masculine form of the designation are often explicitly mentioned today (see Gender-Equitable Language and Political Correctness ). Since this pair form (both naming) means a noticeable extra effort in longer texts, abbreviations are sometimes used to combine economy and correctness. The best known is the spelling with a slash: students / inside, students (the official spelling only allows with a hyphen). Not covered by the official rules is the spelling with internal I : students , as well as gender symbols that go beyond the two- sexes such as gender gap (students) or gender star (students) . These want to include all genders and gender identities . The emphasis on the activity with participles is also used, so the plural students should address all genders in a sex- neutral way. In contrast, the so-called “ generic masculine ” is a habit of use in which grammatically masculine personal designations or pronouns in the generalizing sense ( generic ) are used if the biological or social gender ( gender ) of the person referred to is unknown or should not be significant.

In Austria and other German-speaking regions, women or daughters in particular are sometimes addressed by older people using the title of their husband or father, such as director, doctor or councilor . This form is used less often, however, in Germany and Switzerland this form of address has largely disappeared. Rarely (not uncommon, but only used in certain parts of Germany and Austria) is the name of a woman by adding -in to the family name , for example Lutherin or Hübnerin or vulgo names such as Huberbäurin .

See also

Portal: Women  - Overview of Wikipedia content on women


  • Ulrike Haas: Woman who are you. Freya, Linz 2009 ( online ).
  • Sarah Blaffer Hrdy : Mother Nature: The Feminine Side of Evolution. Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 978-3-8270-0240-2 (Original: Mother Nature: A history of mothers, infants and Natural Selection , New York 1999)
  • Gisela Bock : Women in European History. Beck, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-406-46167-0 .
  • Anne Commire, Deborah Klezmer (Ed.): Women in world history. A biographical encyclopedia. 17 volumes. Yorkin Publ. Et al., Waterford, Conn. et al. 1999-2002.
  • Georges Duby, Michelle Perrot: History of Women. 5 volumes. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-596-14030-7 .
  • Margaret Ehrenberg : The woman in the prehistory. Kunstmann, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-88897-057-1 (Original: Women in Prehistory , 1989).
  • Edith Ennen: Women in the Middle Ages. Munich 1984.
  • Anne Marie Fröhlich (Ed.): Women's stories, texts from world literature , Manesse Verlag, Zurich 2000, ISBN 3-7175-1952-2 .
  • Annette Kuhn (Ed.): The Chronicle of Women. Chronicle, Berlin 1992, ISBN 978-3-611-00195-6 .
  • Jochen Martin , Renate Zoepffel (Ed.): Tasks, roles and spaces of women and men (= publications of the "Institute for Historical Anthropology eV" Volume 5). 2 part volumes, Karl Alber, Freiburg / Munich 1989, ISBN 3-495-47554-0 .
  • Ulrike Prokop : Female context in life. From the limitations of strategies and the inappropriateness of desires. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-518-00808-0 .
  • Sheila Rowbotham : A Century of Women: The History of Women in Britain and the United States. Viking, New York 1997, ISBN 0-670-87420-5 .
  • Christian Seidel : The woman in me - a man dares to experiment. Heyne, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-453-60299-1 .

Web links

Commons : Frauen (women)  - collection of images
Wiktionary: Woman  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikiquote: Women  - Quotes
Wikisource: Women  - Sources and Full Texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 20th ed., Ed. by Walther Mitzka , De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , p. 215.
  2. Arne Schäffler, Nicole Menche: Man, Body, Illness. 3rd edition, Urban & Fischer, Munich 1999; P. 109. ISBN 3-437-55091-8 .
  3. Arne Schäffler, Nicole Menche: Man, Body, Illness. 3rd edition, Urban & Fischer, Munich 1999; P. 157. ISBN 3-437-55091-8 .
  4. a b c d e f g h i j "Woman" In: Brockhaus. Encyclopedia in 30 volumes. Brockhaus, Leipzig 2005 to 2006; Pp. 540-542. ISBN 978-3-7653-4140-3 .
  5. See Steven L. Kuhn and Mary C. Stiner : What's a Mother to Do? The Division of Labor among Neandertals and Modern Humans in Eurasia , in: Current Anthropology Vol. 47, 2006, pdf .
  6. See also Sarah Blaffer Hrdy: Mother Nature: The female side of evolution , Berlin Verlag, 2000, ISBN 978-3-8270-0240-2 .
  7. a b Margaret Ehrenberg : The woman in the prehistory. Kunstmann, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-88897-057-1 (original 1989: Women in Prehistory ).
  8. See for example Vere Gordon Childe: Soziale Evolution. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt 1975, pp. 69/70 (English 1951: Social Evolution ).
  9. Cf. Röder / Hummel / Kunz: Göttinnendämmerung: Das Matriatchat from an archaeological point of view Krummwisch 2001 (1996).
  10. Monika Konigorski: Prophets, Disciples, Apostles . In: Deutschlandfunk . December 26, 2013, accessed June 5, 2019.
  11. ^ Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages . Ipu.org. February 14, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  12. ^ Women and the vote - Introduction . In: New Zealand History . Ministry for Culture & Heritage , accessed on September 22, 2018 (English, ... and eight following websites).
  13. ^ A World Chronology of the Recognition of Women's Rights to Vote and to Stand for Election. Inter-Parliamentary Union, accessed August 10, 2018 .
  14. ^ Glocal. In: Women Suffrage and Beyond. Accessed August 10, 2018 (English).
  15. Walther Schönfeld : Women in Western Medicine. From classical antiquity to the end of the 19th century. Stuttgart 1947.
  16. Margaret Alic, Rita Peterli: Hypatias Töchter. The denied share of women in science. Unionsverlag, Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-293-00116-5 , pp. 35-36.
  17. Competence Center Women in Science and Research (CEWS), http://www.gesis.org/cews/fileadmin/cews/www/statistiken/01_t.gif ( Memento from 7 December 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  18. ^ The dictionary of origin (=  Der Duden in twelve volumes . Volume 7 ). Reprint of the 2nd edition. Dudenverlag, Mannheim 1997 ( p. 203 ). See also: Friedrich Kluge : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 7th edition. Trübner, Strasbourg 1910 ( p. 147 ).
  19. Peter von Polenz : German language history from the late Middle Ages to the present. Volume 1: Introduction, Basic Concepts: 14th to 16th Century. 2nd, revised and expanded edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 2000, p. 47.
  20. Peter von Polenz: German language history from the late Middle Ages to the present. Volume 1: Introduction, Basic Concepts: 14th to 16th Century. 2nd, revised and expanded edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 2000, p. 74.