Political correctness

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Political correctness or politically correct , more often Political Correctness as a loan word from English ( PC for short ), is a political catchphrase originating from the English-speaking world that plays a role in the theory of public opinion in particular . In its original meaning, the English term politically correct denotes the approval of the idea that expressions and actions should be avoided that offend or offend groups of people (e.g. related to gender or skin color ). The term is older, but has only become more widespread since the early 1990s. At that time it was picked up by the political right and conservatives in the United States to reject the use and alleged dominance of "politically correct" language as censorship and restriction of freedom of speech . In the following years, conservative circles in Europe also picked up the catchphrase.

Concept development

The term politically correct was mentioned as early as 1793 in a court case before the Supreme Court of the United States ( Chisholm v. Georgia case ). The court considered civil rights and described it as “not politically correct” to make a toast to the state (the USA) instead of the people (US-Americans) because the state is “the noblest Work of man ”, but man himself is“ the noblest work of God ”.

Mid-1980s turned students especially the University of California against mandatory courses on Western civilization (western civilization) , in which, in its view the works of "dead, white European men" ( dead white European males , were meant mainly philosophers Enlightenment ) were too much in the foreground. They called for the teaching material to be expanded to include female and non-European authors, and created speech codes aimed at including minorities . With the expansion of these language regulations, the ironically used term politically correct gained in importance.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the expression has increasingly changed from a mere self-description to a pejoratively used battle term of the political right in the USA. Conservative students, academics and journalists adopted the name and converted it into a code to reject left-wing anti-discrimination efforts; US Conservatives have been using them in political contexts in disputes with their political opponents since the 1990s. However, it was and continues to be used by undogmatic leftists. In the course of time the expression became substantive to political correctness .

Ariane Manske described the derogatory use of the term political correctness as one of the "strategies" of the conservative defense of traditional values. "Political correctness" expresses itself here as a "vehemently operated defamation campaign against the liberals ". The Conservatives “are continuing a strategy of political defamation from the 1980s. Instead of the L-word s (a negative connotation for liberalism coined by conservatives in the 1988 election campaign ), there has now been political correctness in order to take action against the liberal 'enemy'. "

Dorothy E. Smith wrote in her 1999 book on the subject that political correctness is an ideological code and expression of resistance by a traditional elite to the loss of authority and power. The PC code was instrumentalized by the neo-conservative side and made it possible to suppress and discredit criticism of the institutional order and the cultural dominance of certain groups. The PC code does not appear to be censorship , although the code implicitly fulfills this function by regulating public discourses and the authority and credibility of the participants in the discourse and deciding what and how topics are discussed.

The French philosopher and author Alain Finkielkraut defined political correctness as "not wanting to see what is to be seen", which, according to Jürg Altwegg, means turning away from an unbearable reality and not looking the truth in the eye out of despondency or some considerations .

Usage context

We can now distinguish between two different uses of the term:

  • Firstly, political correctness is a concise and well-known catchphrase in the context of the social tendency, which has existed since the late 20th century, especially in North America, Australia and Europe, to represent the interests of minorities more strongly and to avoid discrimination, especially in linguistic use, which was accepted or simply accepted in the past was unrecognized. The statement that something is “politically incorrect” or “politically incorrect” is intended to express that a norm has been violated, an utterance (or action) contravenes general moral norms or even a taboo has been broken.
  • The second context is the rejection of a social norm or criticism that is perceived as a restriction of freedom or censorship, be it in order to hold on to what is familiar, be it against exaggeration in avoiding designations perceived as negative, or because the utterance of (perceived as such ) Facts or truths would be suppressed. This criticism of supposed “political correctness” as a fighting term against too much consideration or against a political opponent is also used as a political catchphrase.

Establishment of the term in the US media

By October 1990, the term politically correct was unknown to the broader US public . An analysis of selected US media showed a rapid increase in the use of the term between 1989 and 1994:

  • 1989: 15 sites
  • 1990: 65
  • 1991: 1570
  • 1992: 2835
  • 1993: 4914
  • 1994: 6985

Richard Bernstein's article in the New York Times in October 1990 with the title The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct is considered the first important impetus for the spread of the term ("The emerging predominance of the politically correct").

Brigitta Huhnke, linguist at the University of Klagenfurt , followed Lorna Weir's detailed analysis of Bernstein. Bernstein represent "pc" as a subspecies of " tyranny ", on a par with " orthodoxy ", " fascism " and " fundamentalism ". Huhnke wrote: “On the third level, the hyponyms of 'pc' follow , so to speak the subordinate subsets of 'pc'. These are: 'Foreign Policy', 'African-American Studies',' Curriculum Change ',' Affirmative Action ',' Gay and Lesbian Research ', but also' Feminism ',' Palestinian Self-Determination 'and' Attacks on the Canon and the West '". According to Huhnke, Bernstein had "alluded to the educational content of the American reform movements since the 1960s, which he clearly classified as negative". On a further, institutional level he relates the "curriculum change" to the "Universities of Texas and Berkeley", according to the opinion of conservative strongholds of left-wing teaching content, as well as to publications of the Modern Languages ​​Association (MLA) and others.

John Taylor's article Politically Correct in New York Magazine January 1991 gave an overview of measures introduced around 1989 at various North American universities to correct language in racist and sexual terms:

“When a student at the University of Michigan read a limerick that speculated jokingly about the homosexuality of a famous athlete, he was required to attend gay-sensitivity sessions and publish a piece of self-criticism in the student newspaper called“ Learned My Lesson. ” […] In October (1990) Roderick Nash, a professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara, pointed out during a lecture on environmental ethics that there is a movement to start referring to pets as animal companions. (Apparently, domesticated animals are offended by the word pet.) Nash then made some sort of off-the-cuff observation about how women who pose for Penthouse are still called Pets (and not Penthouse Animal Companions). Inevitably, several female students filed a formal sexual-harassment complaint against him. Susan Rode, one of the signers, said, Maybe this will make more people aware in other classes and make other faculty 'watch what they say.' ”

In his speech at the University of Michigan on May 4, 1991 ("Remarks at the University of Michigan Commencement Ceremony in Ann Arbor"), US President George H. W. Bush took up this new media expression and dealt with it in the context of free speech :

“Ironically, on the 200th anniversary of the Bill of Rights, we are finding that free speech is happening across the United States, including some university campuses. The idea of ​​political correctness has sparked controversy across the country. And although the movement grew out of the laudable need to sweep away the remnants of racism and sexism and hatred, it is only replacing old prejudices with new ones. It declares certain topics taboo, certain expressions taboo and even certain gestures taboo. What began as a crusade for decency has turned into a focus of conflict and even censorship. Those in conflict regard pure coercion as a substitute for the power of thought - for example by having their opponent punished or expelled. "

- George HW Bush

In the following year, Ric Dolphin combined the term PC with the reeducation methods of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution in his book Not Politically Correct: a Field Guide to Surviving the Pc Reign of Terror .

Change of meaning by conservatives

In the USA, scientists such as John Karl Wilson in 1995 in Myth of Political Correctness or Lorna Weir “(PC Then and Now)” and Stephen Richter investigated the development of the conceptual content. In their opinion, a conservative myth has formed here.

In 1997 Brigitta Huhnke also saw a legend and a mythical function of the term, both in its American discourse history and in that of the Federal Republic of Germany . In 2004 Marc Fabian Erdl wrote of a "legend of political correctness" and the "success story of an imported myth".

Like Weir and Wilson, Ariane Manske points out that this campaign by the neoconservatives has changed the connotation of the name. This explains how the "Myth of Political Correctness" (Wilson) works. For it allows a reference to "truth" to shimmer - the expression was used in a similar form, but in a different sense by parts of the emancipation movements - but it empties and deforms the original meaning. So from a well-founded and positively connoted political statement ("If we don't want racism, we don't need the word 'nigger'" etc.) an insinuation ("You want to forbid my language and my thinking") and with the Labeled "Political Correctness". Combined with ideas of censorship and the prohibition of thinking, etc., the idiom not only has a negative meaning, but a completely new message. This statement no longer deals with the real problem. It becomes a statement about something (metalanguage). Abbreviated and symbolized in the short form “pc”, this term can be used to speak politically about something, not only to name it, but also to classify it, depending on requirements and the situation. Because the original use of the term is assigned to the liberals and leftists - for example in the form of ironic self-criticism (Lorna Weir) among fellow campaigners - it arouses authenticity and, like all myths, lives from an apparent reality. As Katrin Auer believes, this transformation means that rhetorical figures such as the code “PC” can only be deciphered by informed readers in the sense that it is recognized how a historical meaning is transformed into a meaning-distorted statement.

Authors such as John K. Wilson sought to show how conservative forces, by exaggerating and distorting "anecdotes" about a few cases of oppression, had created a "myth of political correctness". Wilson called this myth "CC - Conservative Correctness". This tries to suppress progressive ideas. Wilson's book met with approval, but was also the subject of harsh criticism. Critics pointed out that while anecdotes were deliberately exaggerated by conservatives, on the other hand liberals and even some Marxists opposed political correctness.

Empirical research on language regulation

Researchers at Cornell University tried to prove in 2014 that the standardization of language in the sense of a politically correct use in a group composed of men and women increases the creativity of the discussion contributions, since in this case the members do not have to think about which unexpected reactions they would not get from you -regulated code (e.g. by using a non-gender neutral language). Self-censorship under conditions of insecurity suppresses creative expressions. The authors conclude from this that politically correct language regulation in demographically heterogeneous groups increases creativity because it creates greater security with regard to the use of the code. In homogeneous groups, however, the opposite effect occurs, since the initial uncertainty is less here.

Use in Germany

In German, political correctness can describe a use of language that is characterized by a special sensitization towards minorities and that feels committed to anti- discrimination . The linguist Anatol Stefanowitsch sums it up in 2010: “The decisive factor with politically correct language is the goal of making people aware of actual discrimination by making them aware of linguistic discrimination. [...] Politically correct language can help uncover structural inequalities . "

At the same time, the term political correctness experienced a change in meaning and, according to Sabine Wierlemann, is used as a political catchphrase by the conservative side as a “defamation word ” and “external term for the entire liberal spectrum ”.

Print media

The expression "political correctness" was first mentioned in the program in the early 1990s. The Süddeutsche Zeitung headlined with an article by Christine Brink on November 3, 1991: “Multi-cultural yoghurt. A new language terror is spreading in American universities. ”Another article appeared in the same newspaper by Richard Bernstein , the New York Times journalist,“ who started the inter-media agenda setting in the American media at the end of 1990 Had set".

Der Spiegel did not react to the subject until 1993. Matthias Matussek seesa “show trial”in a New York exhibition by the photographer Nan Goldin : “A battle concept of the Black Power movement from the sixties is making a new career: 'political correctness'. The politically correct, a linguistic and thought police of radical minorities, not only control lecture lists or feature sections - they now rule a New York museum show. "

The first article that addresses the term in the time came from Dieter E. Zimmer : PC or: Coziness ends there. The editorial team preceded the article with the remark that the Zimmer “theses” were very controversial in the editorial office.

National rhetoric

Extreme right-wing authors use the term disparagingly. The right's criticism of what they call “political correctness” is directed primarily against the representatives of the 68 generation . According to Martin Dietzsch and Anton Maegerle, the aim is “to caricature and falsify the efforts of liberals, leftists, feminists, representatives of minorities and supporters of multiculturalism to open up society, to question traditional taboos, ideas and stereotypes. Today the pc is used to express contempt for these beliefs and goals. For example, the relativization of the performance standard, the alleged restriction of freedom of expression and the dangers of self-destructive separation are evoked. "

As a battle cry of expression as it acts as a universal weapon of the right to dismiss criticism of right concepts. The term used pejoratively serves to immunize one's own position, i. H. bypassing a debate if it is applied in a generally discrediting form without addressing a specific opposing position in terms of content.

A survey by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann from 1996, which was presented in the FAZ , also showed the clear relation to questions of national identity with regard to immigration and the image of history . According to this, the Germans put the following topics first as “PC detention”: asylum seekers, Jews, Hitler, the “Third Reich”, resettlers, neo-Nazis, Turks.

According to Marc Fabian Erdl, in addition to the historians ' dispute and the Jenninger speech , the “political correctness” rhetoric was also used in the Walser-Bubis debate . Synonymous with this was the talk of the "Auschwitz club". In his laudatory speech on September 26, 2004 for the awarding of the Kassel Citizen Prize to Klaus von Dohnanyi , Wolfgang Schäuble defended German “ patriotism ” and “ elite education ” as moral courage against “political correctness”.

The terrorist Anders Behring Breivik introduced his manifesto 2083 with a call to fight against "political correctness", which he saw as an expression of a cultural Marxism.

Joachim Gauck spoke of Thilo Sarrazin 2,010 defensively: "He has been talking about a problem that exists in society more open than the politics." The political class can learn from the success of Sarrazin's book that "their language of political correctness makes people feel that the real problems should be covered up."

Anti-discrimination as a basis

The American left accused the American majority society of andro- and Eurocentric perceptual patterns . The general expression neglects people with deviating characteristics or discriminates against social minorities (according to descent, origin, physical or mental abilities, sexual predisposition, religious belief, social position, etc.) through derogatory or thoughtless use of language. Language standardization was seen as a contribution to correcting this image of society. For this reason, it was demanded that expressions criticized as racist or sexist, for example, should be avoided and that self-names should primarily be used in linguistic usage with reference to discriminated groups.

The nature and intensity of the measures to change the public perception of the concerns of social minorities vary widely and range from the rejection of certain designations and formulation suggestions to legally binding requirements , including those subject to sanctions . Where the latter is the case, the enforcement of bans on discrimination can lead to serious consequences such as dismissal from employment or high claims for damages, especially in the USA, where anti-discrimination known as political correctness was most widespread.

Here, as in the USA, advocates of non-discriminatory language use pursue the goal of developing linguistic sensitivity as well as increased social competence and attention both to linguistic stereotypes and to the disadvantaged social groups themselves. There are also indications that people who regularly be linguistically discriminated, also suffer psychological and physical damage.

Non-derogatory turns of phrase


The feminist linguistic research shows many studies that, in the use of grammatically masculine names ( researchers, all teachers ) in the generic sense for people of all genders, women are less conceivable or visible than the men. In order to avoid the generic masculine and to make gender equality visible in the language, the use of both names was recommended as early as the late 1970s : researchers , or in the polite variant: teachers . This could be abbreviated with the slash spelling : researchers , or in official spelling with a hyphen: researchers . Soon a contracted pair form emerged with the Binnen-I : researchers, teachers . In addition, however, it was also recommended to hide gender references through neutralization : researchers instead of researchers , or teachers, teachers instead of teachers .

After the introduction of the third gender option “ diverse ” (2018 in Germany and 2019 in Austria), both names are increasingly being avoided in favor of gender-neutral formulations : teachers instead of teachers . Diverse-sex people with non-binary gender identity should not feel excluded by pair formulas with masculine and feminine word forms. In the sense of social inclusion , the use of the gender gap (teachers) , the gender asterisk (teachers) and the gender colon (teachers) is also widespread in order to include all genders and gender identities .

Descent and ethnicity

With regard to naming members of certain ethnic groups and indigenous peoples , preference is given to using the most popular self-names and avoiding older expressions. In Germany and Austria, for example, the term “ Sinti and Roma ” is used instead of the earlier attribution of Gypsies . “ Black Germans” is also a common (self) designation and should be preferred to other expressions such as “ colored ” or Afro-Germans (the colonial terms Neger or Mohr are rejected because of their racist meaning).

In Canada the many indigenous people are divided into the groups First Nations , Métis and Inuit (instead of Eskimo ), which, however, in the case of the term "Inuit" itself has led to entanglements.

Physical and mental limitations

Instead of expressions such as “ cripples ” that are perceived as pejorative , more neutral expressions such as “people with disabilities ” are used. Especially in the USA, where most of these coins were made, designations are shifted to the positive in order not to direct the focus on the defect; as: "different endowed" or "mentally challenged" (mentally challenged) "mental retardation" or for "visually challenged" (visually challenged) for "blind". In general, the challenged has replaced the term handicapped here . (The terms "vertical challenged" (vertically challenged) for "stunted" or "gravitationally disadvantaged" for "overweight" are against kidding expressions for ironic distancing from the political correctness.)

In the meantime, the form “people with disabilities” is often used instead of the term “disabled” in order to reduce the reduction of people to their disability. Another shift relies on alternative expressions instead of "disability", as it used to be called "learning disabled", then "learning aid students" and now "special needs students".

Politically correct formulation is preferred in such a way that the obstructing barrier becomes visible - especially when it has been avoided or removed. Therefore, it is more a barrier-free entrance or wheelchair access than the disabled entrance or white writing / relief writing instead of Braille. Such terms do not refer to groups of people who were formed on the basis of a certain characteristic (e.g. handicapped, blind, deaf, dumb, paralyzed ), but refer directly to the constituent characteristic or the decisive aid (e.g. wheelchair).


The criticism of “political correctness” can be divided into a language-critical and a language-political branch.

For example, the philosopher Slavoj Žižek (* 1949) points out that “politically correct” terms wore off (the substitute terms inherit the meaning of the word they were supposed to replace over time) if they were not accompanied by a change in social reality. A constant re-creation of substitute terms (as in the US example Negro - black people - colored people - African-Americans ) alone does not result in any change if the words are not followed by actual social integration . The purely linguistic coining of new names reveals the inability to overcome the real causes of racism and sexism through language politics alone. In addition, the ongoing creation of new words or expressions results in an excessive structure, since each designation is in turn placed under suspicion of discrimination and devalued by the following. This effect is also called the “ euphemism treadmill ”. According to Žižek, the attitude of “political correctness” tries to remove all traces of the encounter with “the real” ( Jacques Lacan ) through its circular self-centeredness .

With similar arguments, the German scholar Armin Burkhardt took the view in 2010 that political correctness could not be successful in the long term if the old taboos and prejudices or superstitions were not overcome at the same time. The interpretation of political correctness as kitsch is also aimed at this fact , since, according to the social and economic scientist Paul Reinbacher, it only superficially sugar-coated the reality of postmodernism in 2015 , but does not contribute to the constructive processing of its contradictions.

At the beginning of 2017, Christian Staas, editor of the weekly newspaper Die Zeit , presented a short history of political correctness ; this contradicts the publicist Josef Joffe .

The media scientist Norbert Bolz explains in 2017 that under the guise of political correctness, “opinion is tied to morality” and that society becomes a victim of politically motivated “virtue terror” (compare virtue signaling : “virtue boasting”). Her discourse is made up of “demo bureaucracy” ( Niklas Luhmann ) and language hygiene, moralism and hypocrisy, social kitsch and a politically dangerous perversion of tolerance ”. Open discussion has been replaced by censorship , intimidation and indoctrination . Those who contradict are not refuted, but silenced. Deviating opinions are now more severely sanctioned than deviant behavior, mostly not through discussion but through exclusion.

The social scientist Samuel Salzborn holds 2017 in his book attacking the anti-democrats: the nationalist rebellion of the New Right the terminus of political correctness for a "right battle cry" and speaks in terms of its use in the right-wing conservative discourse of a "purely instrumental understanding of freedom of expression [... ], in which only anti-democratic and anti-pluralist positions are to be made socially acceptable again ”. The core of democracy, however, is "to define the political and legal limits of what can be said in order to guarantee its own existence."

The generation of people born after 1990 who are particularly sensitive to violations of Political Correctness is referred to in the USA with a negative connotation as Generation Snowflake ("Generation Snowflake"). Condoleezza Rice , US Republican politician and professor of political science, explained in an interview in 2018 that political correctness is a serious threat to university teaching , where it is also a matter of "leaving one's own comfort zone". Instead of dealing with other perspectives, society is breaking up into ever smaller identity groups with their own narrative .

In 2018, the German sociologist Werner Bruns and Markus Müller see both the defense of political correctness and its rejection as a threat to democracy : some wanted to steer politics through language instead of allowing it, others lent those a protective screen of tolerance, who did not want to muster this tolerance, which is necessary for democracy.

In literary studies there is criticism of the examination of works of world literature , the novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe (1719) is often cited as an example. Basically, literature, like all works of art, is subject to change in its reception .

See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Dictionary entry: Political Correctness. In: Duden.de . Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  2. Ngram word frequency comparison : Political Correctness vs. political correctness. In: google.com. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  3. Dictionary entry : politically correct. In: Merriam-Webster's Dictionary . Retrieved April 22, 2020 (English); Quote: “ conforming to a belief that language and practices which could offend political sensibilities (as in matters of sex or race) should be eliminated ”.
  4. United States Supreme Court : Chisholm v. State of Ga. In: caselaw.findlaw.com. February 1, 1793, accessed November 24, 2019; Quote: “ The states, rather than the People , for whose sakes the States exist, are frequently the objects which attract and arrest our principal attention. This, I believe, has produced much of the confusion and perplexity, which have appeared in several proceedings and several publications on state-politics, and on the politics, too, of the United States. Sentiments and expressions of this inaccurate kind prevail in our common, even in our convivial, language. Is a toast asked? 'The United States,' instead of the 'People of the United States,' is the toast given. This is not politically correct. The toast is meant to present to view the first great object in the Union: It presents only the second: It presents only the artificial person, instead of the natural persons, who spoke it into existence. A State I cheerfully fully admit, is the noblest work of Man: But, Man himself, free and honest, is, I speak as to this world, the noblest work of God .
  5. Stuart Hall : Some 'Politically Incorrect' Pathways Through PC. In: S. Dunant (Ed.): The War of the Words: The Political Correctness Debate. Virago Press, London 1994, pp. 164-184, here pp. ?? (English).
  6. ^ A b Ariane Manske: "Political Correctness" and Normality: The American PC Controversy in a Cultural-Historical Context. Synchron Wissenschaftsverlag der Authors, Heidelberg 2002, ISBN 3-935025-33-5 , p. ??.
  7. ^ Dorothy E. Smith : "Politically Correct": An Organizer of Public Discourse. In: Writing the Social: Critique, Theory, and Investigations. University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1999, ISBN 0-8020-4307-0 , pp. 172-194, here pp. ?? (English; page previews in the Google book search).
  8. Jürg Altwegg : Macron pays tribute to a hero: horror gives way to admiration. In: FAZ.net . April 6, 2018.
  9. ^ Richard Bernstein : Ideas & Trends: The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct. In: The New York Times. October 28, 1990, Section 4, p. 1 ( online at nytimes.com ).
  10. ^ Lorna Weir: PC Then and Now: Ressignifying Political Correctness. In: Stephen Richer, Lorna Weir (Ed.): Political Correctness. Toward the Inclusive University , University of Toronto Press, 1995, pp. 62-64. Paraphrased by Brigitta Huhnke: "political correctness": a mantra of national awakening. In: ZAG 30. ( online, without a year on nadir.org ). For more details on Lorna Weir's analysis, see Manske.
  11. ^ John Taylor: Are You Politically Correct? In: New York . January 21, 1991, p. 32–40 ( google.de [accessed on December 21, 2019]).
  12. ^ New York Magazine. January 21, 1991, pp. 34 and 37.
  13. Original text ( Memento from May 16, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
  14. Ric Dolphin: Not Politically Correct: a Field Guide to Surviving the Pc Reign of Terror. McClelland & Stewart, 1992, ISBN 1-895246-32-6 .
  15. ^ Review ( Memento of March 1, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) of March 1, 1996 by John Karl Wilson: Myth of Political Correctness. Duke University Press, 1995.
  16. ^ Lorna Weir: PC Then and Now. Resignifying Political Correctness. In: Richer, Stephen / Lorna Weir (eds.): Beyond political correctness. Toward the inclusive university. Toronto 1995, p. 51 ff.
  17. Brigitta Huhnke: "pc": The new mantra of the neoconservatives. In: Andreas Disselnkötter, Siegfried Jäger u. a. (Ed.): Evidences in the Flow : Loss of Democracy in Germany. ISBN 3-927388-60-2 , pp. ??.
  18. Marc Fabian Erdl: The legend of the political correctness. On the success story of an imported myth. Bielefeld 2004, p. ??.
  19. Clemens Knobloch: Moralization and practical compulsion: Political communication in mass democracy. Doctoral thesis, Duisburg 1998, p. ??.
  20. ^ Katrin Auer: "Political Correctness": Ideological code, enemy image and stigma word of the right. In: Austrian Journal for Political Science . Volume 31, No. 3, 2002, pp. 291-303.
  21. Compare also Gesa von Leesen: “You don't say that!” Political correctness between morality and combat concept. ( Memento of November 4, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: The Parliament , No. 1 of January 2, 2007; Brigitta Huhnke: "pc": The new mantra of the neoconservatives. In: Andreas Disselnkötter, Siegfried Jäger u. a. (Ed.): Evidences in the Flow : Loss of Democracy in Germany. ISBN 3-927388-60-2 , pp. ??. For the use of the PC as a battle term in Germany and Austria, s. also Katrin Auer: "Political Correctness". Ideological code, enemy image and stigma of the right : “Since the mid-1990s, the expression political correctness and a metadiscourse about political correctness have been established in Austrian and German media and political discourses. Above all, the meta-discourse, which deals with the ideological content and realpolitical effects, fulfills specific functions in German-language discourses from which conservatives and right-wing extremists benefit primarily. Designation and meta-discourse are only examined here in terms of discourse analysis and ideology. While the expression political correctness is used as an ideological code and stigma word, the metadiscourse produces a right or right-wing extremist enemy image. Under the phenomenon of political correctness , the spectrum of emancipatory and left-wing theory or practice is generally subsumed and defamed. At the same time, the metadiscourse modifies the meaning of right-wing extremist and revisionist content, in that it must be given space in public discourse as a supposedly necessary break of taboos, with reference to freedom of expression. "
  22. ^ S. for example Paul Trout: "The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on Higher Education", The Montana Professor - academic journal, Winter 1996 ( Internet ): "Wilson's arguments suffer from logical inconsistencies, elastic definitions, and the tendentious interpretation of evidence. [...] The flaws to be found in The Myth of Political Correctness illustrate the consequences of writing polemics before one has mastered the argumentative and intellectual skills and values ​​of traditional academic research: 'Accuracy and thoroughness in the collection and use of evidence, reasonable assertion , impartiality in the determination of the weight of the evidence, careful analytical reasoning, and fairness in argument or controversy. "
  23. ^ S. Paul Trout: The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on Higher Education. In: The Montana Professor - academic journal, Winter 1996 ( Internet ): "Among the centrist-to-Marxist opponents of PC are such distinguished and influential scholars as: C. Vann Woodward, Nat Hentoff, Mortimer J. Adler, Todd Gitlin, Eugene D. Genovese, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Louis Menand, Cynthia Griffin Wolff, David Bromwich, Derek Bok, Nuretta Koertge, Stephen Carter, John Patrick Diggins, John Searle, Irving Howe, Edward W. Said, Shelby Steele, David Riesman, James David Barber, Nadine Strossen, Russell Jacoby, Susan Haack, Steven Marcus, Daphne Patai, Helen Vendler, Nathan Glazer, Seymour Martin Lipset, Irving Louis Horowitz, Alan Kors, Jacques Barzun, Edward O. Wilson, Donald Kagan, Julius Lester, Allan Dershowitz, Colin Diver, Benno Schmidt, etc. "
  24. Jack Goncalo et al. a .: Creativity from Constraint? How Political Correctness Influences Creativity in Mixed-Sex Work Groups , August 18, 2018 Creativity from Constraint? ; commented in The Guardian , Nov. 13, 2014
  25. ^ OP-talk, New York Times , November 10, 2014.
  26. Anatol Stefanowitsch : Verbots. In: SciLogs.spektrum.de . April 23, 2010, accessed July 22, 2020.
  27. ^ Sabine Wierlemann: Political Correctness in the USA and in Germany. Erich Schmidt, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-503-06144-4 , p. 12 ff. ( Page previews in the Google book search).
    Rolf Löchel: A dangerous culture of ignorance and the prohibition of thinking: Sabine Wierlemann's linguistic investigation into the concept of political correctness. In: Literaturkritik.de . March 2003, accessed July 22, 2020.
  28. ^ Matthias Matussek : Art as a show trial . In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 1993 ( online ).
  29. Dieter E. Zimmer : PC or: That is where the comfort ends. In: The time . No. 43/1993, p. 59/60 ( de-zimmer.de PDF; 115 kB).
  30. Martin Dietzsch , Anton Maegerle : Battle term for all rights: "Political Correctness". Duisburg Institute for Linguistic and Social Research , May 1996, accessed on July 6, 2019.
  31. Constitutional Protection Report of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia for 1995
  32. ^ Rainer Wimmer: "Political Correctness": a case for language criticism. In: Andreas Disselnkötter, Siegfried Jäger u. a. (Ed.): Evidences in the Flow : Loss of Democracy in Germany. ISBN 3-927388-60-2 , pp. ??.
  33. ^ Article in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . October 16, 1996.
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  35. Marc Fabian Erdl: The legend of the political correctness. On the success story of an imported myth , transcript, Bielefeld, 2004.
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