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Negro (from French nègre and Spanish negro , "black", from Latin niger "black") is a term introduced in the German language in the 17th century , which indicates a dark skin color of the person being designated. The word was initially only used to a limited extent; With the emergence of the racial theories, which are closely linked to the history of colonialism , slavery and racial segregation , and the outdated notion of a " negro race", it became commonplace in colloquial , literary and scientific language from the 18th century . “Negro” still had the regional meaning “ black ” in the late 20th century . The synonym is now like that of the United States reached Germany contemptuous Nebenform " nigger " as a derogatory, racially discriminatory designation and is a term of abuse used.



According to the Etymological Dictionary of the German Language , the word Neger has the initial meaning " black " (as it was used synonymously by Wilhelm Busch around 1879 and as it was also stated in the Duden of 1929) and is a loan word from the French nègre , which in turn dated Spanish negro , which is derived from the Latin niger ("black"). The name was first used in the 16th century during the Spanish and Portuguese slave trade to refer to people, primarily African enslaved, and referred to their skin color. According to the publications of the sociologist Wulf D. Hund , “against the background of colonialism and modern slavery” emerged  the stereotyping of people into human races by “turning secondary physical characteristics into a political question”. The analogous term in the German language found limited use in texts of the 17th century and became established in the 18th century at the same time as the establishment of racial theories.

The term Mohr , which has been partially replaced by the term Negro , which was naturalized as early as the 16th century, according to one interpretation, also makes a statement about skin color according to its origin, see in detail in the history of the word Mohr .

The term Ethiopian , which used to be used for dark-skinned Africans, is also determined by skin color, which comes from the Greek Αἴθιοψ Aithiops (" burned face "). The term "burn face" refers to the myth of Phaethon .

Until the English word Aborigines became established in German-speaking countries in the 1970s, the Australian natives were called Australneges .


The Latin adjective niger , meaning black , was substantiated when translated into other languages . In relation to humans, it therefore contains the denotation "black- skinned person". Already when it was used in Portuguese and Spanish in the 16th century, the term “negro” was connoted with the word slave and subsequently with anatomical-aesthetic (ugly), social (wild, without culture), sexual (abnormal) and psychological (childlike) ) Ideas linked. The adoption of the term in French as “nègre” in the 16th century included the connotations and thus stood in contrast to the noir for black, which was derived directly from Latin . The word “Neger” was transferred into German in the 17th century with the same weighting, the connotation was included from the outset and permanently, but was not problematized by most Europeans until the middle of the 20th century. It was only with the end of colonialism after the Second World War , and even more so with the American civil rights movement and the overcoming of racial theories , that the term's racist connotation was recognized.

History of meaning

In the classification of the animal kingdom in 1735 , Carl von Linné divided the genus Homo in the first edition of his Systema Naturae into the four varieties Homo europaeus albescens (European pale people), Homo americanus rubescens (American blushing people), Homo asiaticus fuscus (Asian dark person) and Homo africanus niger (African black person). On the basis of the characteristic of skin color, people thus became different biological and anthropological units in a scientific classification principle, even if this assumption could only be used to a limited extent, because the perception of natural differences did not correspond to the abstracts of "white", "red" , “Yellow” or “black” of the skin color. Both anthropology , including through Johann Friedrich Blumenbach , and philosophy of the 18th and 19th centuries expanded to include racial theory. In a conglomerate of biological and aesthetic evaluations, the racist stereotype of the "negro" was created, who, according to Immanuel Kant , for example, is to be viewed as "strong, meaty, agile, ... lazy, soft and dandy" or, according to the popular philosopher Christoph Meiners, merely as "half-human" be.

This construction of a race and the establishment of the term "negro" went hand in hand with the great political and economic factor of the transatlantic slave trade . Wulf D. Hund explains: “In fact, while the Europeans are making an entire continent into the slave reservoir of their colonial expansion, they are simultaneously constructing the Africanus niger. In a lengthy and by no means straightforward process, a process that takes place over the course of the 16th and 17th Century, increasingly negatively characterized image of the Moor merged with the category of order developed in the 18th century to create the term Negro. "


According to the African scholar Susan Arndt , the term “as the linguistic creation of slavery and colonialism [...] retained the ideologems, thought patterns and hierarchies of that time”. The term “negro” as a lexeme was delimited differently in terms of external features and geographical distribution and was never clear. The meaning changed over time.

“Negro is the common name of the middle and north-western population, distinguished by the black color of the velvety soft, greasy skin, black, woolly hair, flat skull, protruding cheekbones and raised lips. Africa, which makes up the most essential part of the Ethiopian human race (see human). "

- Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon. 1839

While the Brockhaus of 1839 sees those referred to as "negroes" in the Central and Northwest African population as well as in the East Indies and on the South Sea islands, Meyers Konversations-Lexikon from 1888 also gives deviating scientific opinions as to which peoples should be included under this term:

"Negro: (French. Nègre, v. Latin. Niger, black, Nigritier), the distinct race of Africa, which this continent, from the southern edge of the Sahara to the area of ​​the Hottentoten and Bushmen in the southern hemisphere and from the Atlantic to." inhabited to the Indian Ocean, so that only the southwestern part of Africa and the north are occupied by other races (Khoi-Khoin, Hamites, Semites). [...] Waitz excludes Berbers, Copts, Abyssinians, Galla, Nubians, Hottentoten, Kaffirs , Congo peoples and Malgaschen, Schweinfurth also the Bongo from the actual 'Negroes' , and Ms. Müller only wants the peoples of the western to join the 'Negroes' and middle Africa, who live between the Sahara and the equator. Others have recently tried again to unite the light-colored North Africans (Hamites) with them, as there are numerous transitions between them and the actual 'negroes'. [...] "

- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 1888

In the German Colonial Lexicon of 1920, the Hamburg ethnologist Georg Thilenius names the problems of the division of the "race":

"Negro. The dark-skinned race that inhabits Africa, apart from skin color, is characterized by long-headedness, prognathism, frizzy scalp hair. There are individual differences by area, but it has not been possible to define strictly limited subdivisions of the N. or to set up anthropological groups corresponding to the two language groups, the Sudan languages (see d.) And Bantu languages (see d.). [...] "

- German Colonial Lexicon. 1920

"Negro 1) N., older term 'Mohren, Nigritier, Ethiopier' [...] uniform. Human race in southern Africa from the Sahara to the Cape [...] dark skin color, grading from the deepest brown-black to gray-brown, chocolate-brown and reddish brown, woolly hair growth. This difference is mostly based on a mixture with the other racial elements of Africa [...]. "

During the period of National Socialism were in the 12th  Duden Edition of the 1941 Nazi racial doctrine according to the lemma "Negroid", "Negroid" and "Negroid" was recorded and the word "nigger" as negrider branch of the human races combined. The entries remained unchanged until the 15th Duden re-edition in 1961.

From the mid-1970s, there were initially isolated references to a derogatory or discriminatory connotation of the term in German dictionaries . While the dtv lexicon continued to describe a “Negro racial group”, a distinction was made between Afro-Americans (compare also Afro-Canadians ) and Africans in the dictionary of contemporary German language from 1975 : The term Negro is used here as “obsolete” and “today often derogatory ”; as an entry for African Americans, however, there is no such mark.

"Negro [from Spanish" black "], in common parlance the dark-skinned inhabitants of Africa south of the Sahara to the Cape, as well as the descendants of slaves who were deported to North Africa, Arabia and especially to the West Indies, North and South America. The N. form the most characteristic groups of the Negrid race group (→ Negride). → African languages. "

- dtv lexicon. 1975

“Negro, dark-skinned person with very curly black hair a) Descendants of the inhabitants of Africa who were deported to America: the struggle of the N. in the USA for their equality b) obsolete / today often disparaging / inhabitants of large parts of Africa: Togo , an independent nation-state of N. on the Guinea coast [...] "

- Dictionary of contemporary German. 1975

"Negroes, the inhabitants of Africa belonging to the Negro race, today referred to as Africans or blacks because of the derogatory conditions that are often associated with them."

- Duden. Lexicon from A to Z. 1984

In the Duden of 1999, “Negro” was marked for the first time as “is mostly perceived as derogatory today”, and in the Dudenverlag dictionaries from 2004 onwards, usage notes on explosive words are also placed in front of the forewords, so the term is no longer desired in the synonym dictionary and marked as discriminatory in the spelling dictionary .

“Negro - Many people today perceive the designation negro as discriminatory. Alternative names are Black African , Black African or Afro-American, Afro- American, Afro-German , Afro-German; in certain contexts also blacks, blacks. Compositions with negroes such as negro kiss should also be avoided; it is better to use chocolate kiss instead . "

- Duden - The German spelling. 2006

In the online Duden edition of 2019, the word is described as a "highly discriminatory term for a person with dark skin", followed by the following note:

“The term negro is considered highly discriminatory in public usage and is therefore avoided. Colored, colored, and black, black are alternative names; the latter name is z. B. to be found increasingly in reports about South Africa, probably in order to be able to refer more clearly to the black population (e.g. in contrast to Indians). People with dark skin who live in Germany often choose the own designation Afro-Germans, Afro-Germans, which is increasingly being used. "

Occurrence in other languages

English speaking area

The term Negro used in the English and American areas has a different history of origin than the German term. It was maintained for people of black origin or appearance, regardless of origin, until the official classifications of race and ethnicity in the United States changed in the 1960s. The previously common division into Negride , Europide and Mongolide was abandoned. The use also as a self-name was widespread until the American civil rights movement , for example with Martin Luther King . Attempts to use the term positively were later given up in favor of the more widespread Black or Afro today . These terms were partly subject to a euphemism treadmill and had themselves previously been negatively or racially interpreted or used.

Although "Negro" and "Neger" are increasingly viewed as ethnophaulism after the 1960s , there are individual institutions in the USA with this word in their name. One example is the United Negro College Fund as a major scholarship provider for black students. In addition, individual segregated institutions such as the Negro Leagues ( baseball ) are deliberately thought of under this name. In the USA there is also an official classification based on self-identification with a race , which would not be possible in Germany due to the fundamental right to equality ( Art. 3 III GG ). According to the United States Census Bureau , the term Negro remained in use alongside “Black” and “African-American” in the 2010 census , as older citizens would still identify with it.

The etymologically related name nigger is considered to have racist connotations and extremely derogatory . The Magical Negro , a recurring character in US books and films, is controversial .


The term Négritude, derived from French , was incorporated into German. The poet and politician Aimé Césaire began a francophone literary, philosophical and political movement that advocates the cultural self-assertion of all people in Africa and their African origins. Modern African literature became known in Germany through Léopold Sédar Senghor and his friendship with Janheinz Jahn ; (West German) ideas have been decisively modernized and prejudices against Africans broken down.

Decrease in usage

Use of language, dictionary entries, spellings

In the 1980s, members of the American civil rights movement tried to counteract discrimination against minorities with the help of a language that they themselves found to be “non-judgmental” and “neutral”. Later, linguists in German-speaking countries identified “Neger” as an evaluative term. Pejorativity was finally explicitly presented in dictionaries. Ulrike Kramer concluded from looking at dictionary entries that it could be said “that negro in his word history moved away from the original extreme of a value-free meaning and in the direction of another extreme, namely a swear word”. Ulrich Ammon , who published the German dictionary of variants , affirmed in 2018: "It should be clear to everyone that 'negro' is a dirty word". The Austrian linguist Manfred Glauninger also found that Negro "is actually a swear word and that the traditional racial theories are not tenable." In her dissertation on "Political Correctness in the USA and Germany" in 2001, Sabine Wierlemann dealt with the negative linguistic value the designation in Germany and comes to the conclusion "that the expression" negro "functions today as an explicit defamation word and is avoided in public usage except for right-wing extremists". In 2004, the literary scholar Susan Arndt and the linguist Antje Hornscheidt saw the claim of an earlier non-discriminatory use of the word as a “misunderstanding of linguistic-historical contexts and the colonialist history of concepts and conventionalization”. Sonja Steffek wrote in 2000 that the term “negro” was strictly rejected by those named.

The term “negro” has been described by some as derogatory since the 1970s in the Federal Republic of Germany and since the 1980s in the GDR (possibly influenced by the civil rights movement in the USA). According to a book from 2001, the term has a racist connotation, represents stereotyping through biological classifications and serves to pseudo-legitimize the construct “race”. The Germanist Theodor Ickler saw the disparaging valuation of the term in the historical development and also refers to an influence "an overpowering foreign discussion [...] which practically excludes an own development for the German".

In German dictionaries from the mid-1970s, the advice spread that one should avoid the term and its compound words. The expressions "were in use about Negro music " as a derogatory term for African Americans influenced by musical styles, " Negroes money " as candy and previously collective term for African and some Asian cash or " Nick Negro " as a mission money box. In 1978 the editors of the news magazine Der Spiegel wrote in an article about Latinos in the USA of the "former mass importation of African negroes" and that "the minority of Latinos outnumbered the US negroes". According to Arndt / Hornscheidt, the word was sometimes used uncritically in the German-speaking area due to the lack of public discussion of the term; here, however, reference is made to a single publication from 2002.

Since 2015, the term has occasionally been used in a spelling that does not reflect the name as a whole, for example as "N-word". Matthias Dell describes this practice as “the attempt to resolve a performative contradiction or at least to mark the fact that one has become aware of it.” Only against this background should the emergence of an avoidance term such as “N-word” be understood.

The term " Black ", which according to the British Black is widely used as a proper name is, connotes otherwise Poenicke. It refers semantically not on skin color, but contains a cultural and social identity (see social identity theory ) by which the context will taken up in the people through racism and socialization were made to blacks.

Controversy over use in literature and product names

The use of the term in nursery rhymes and books and sweets for children, as well as the use of the terms Negerlein or Negerkind, shows how the public has used the word.

The counting rhyme song Ten Little Negerlein , first published in the USA in 1869 as Ten Little Niggers and published in Germany from 1885, is currently considered to be “one of the most famous and controversial children's books in the world.” Until the early 1990s, Dr. Oetker GmbH still has the “Negerlein” ice cream, a chocolate-coated vanilla ice cream . Also in the 1990s, the trade names "Negerkuss" for chocolate kiss and Negro money for liquorice coins from Haribo disappeared .

In 2013, the question arose whether the term “Neger” in literary texts (especially children's book classics by Otfried Preußler , Erich Kästner and in German translations of Astrid Lindgren's books ) should be replaced by other terms. The reason was the decision of the Thienemann-Esslinger Verlag to replace discriminatory words in Preussler's book Die kleine Hexe . A few years earlier, the Oetinger publishing group had already replaced “ Negro King ” in Pippi Longstocking's name as the “King of the Negroes” in Taka-Tuka Land with “South Sea King”. The Swedish TV broadcaster SVT also cut the word (in the Swedish original Pippi Långstrump : "negerkung" ) from the films after the company Saltkrokan, which holds the rights to Lindgren's works, agreed to it.

In 2014, the Austrian Press Council assessed the use of the term “Negro children” in a magazine comment as a violation of the code of honor and denied a satirical context. The term “negro”, although it may have been considered harmless in the past, now has a discriminatory meaning.

Parliamentary debate

In October 2018, the chairman of the AfD parliamentary group in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania state parliament, Nikolaus Kramer, used the word in several interjections and explicitly admitted to it in a speech: He “cannot be dictated [...] what is swearword here or what is not”. Thereupon he received a call to order in November 2018 , which, however, did not withstand the judicial review. The state constitutional court of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ruled on December 19, 2019 that the mere use of the word should not be punished as a general violation of the dignity of the house. Whether it is meant derogatory can "only be judged from the context". This is not the case, for example, if it is used ironically or in a quotation, or if “the word and its usability” is spoken of, as Kramer had done in his speech. The verdict sparked outrage and started a petition on ; a protest demonstration was organized in Hamburg .


  • Marimba Ani: Yurugu. An african-centered critique of european cultural thought and behavior. Africa World Press, Trenton N.J. 1994, ISBN 0-86543-249-X .
  • Susan Arndt , Antje Hornscheidt (Hrsg.): Africa and the German language. A critical reference work. Unrast, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-89771-424-8 , p. 184 ( excerpt from ).
  • Susan Arndt (Ed.): AfrikaBilder. Studies on racism in Germany. Unrast, Münster 2001, ISBN 3-89771-407-8 .
  • Urs Bitterli : The “savages” and the “civilized”. The European-overseas encounter. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-35583-8 .
  • Frank Böckelmann : The yellow, the black and the white. Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-8218-4475-2 .
  • Duden editorial team : Entry negro. In: Duden - The dictionary of linguistic doubtful cases: Correct and good German (=  Duden. Volume 9). 8th, completely revised edition. Bibliographisches Institut, Dudenverlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-411-04098-8 , pp. 657 , 735 in the Google book search).
  • Reimer Gronemeyer (ed.): The lazy negro. From the white crusade against black idleness. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1991, ISBN 3-499-13071-8 .
  • Grada Kilomba-Ferreira: “Don't You Call Me Neger!” The N-word, trauma and racism. In: Anti-Discrimination Office u. a. (Ed.): The BlackBook. Germany's moults. Iko, Frankfurt / M. 2004, ISBN 3-88939-745-X .
  • Grada Kilomba-Ferreira: The Colonization of the Self. Black's place. In: Hito Steyerl, Encarnación Gutiérrez Rodríguez (ed.): Does the subaltern speak German? Migration and Post-Colonial Criticism. Unrast, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-89771-425-6 .
  • Marie Lorbeer, Beate Wild (ed.): People eaters, negro kisses. The image of strangers in everyday German life. Elefanten Press, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-88520-394-4 .
  • Peter Martin: Black devils, noble Moors. Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-930908-64-6 .
  • Henning Melber : The last word in wisdom. Racism and Colonial Views. Brandes & Apsel, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-86099-102-7 .
  • Ulrike Krämer: Negro doesn't mean (just) “black”. How the word field 'negro' changed its meaning. Praesens Verlag, Vienna 2008.

Web links

Wiktionary: Negro  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language. 20th edition, ed. by Walther Mitzka . De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , p. 506.
  2. Wilhelm Busch: Fipps, the monkey : "The Negro's heart is afraid [...]" followed by "But the black man ate since this incident [...]".
  3. Cf. The great Duden. Spelling of the German language and foreign words. Edited by Theodor Matthias. 10th, revised and expanded edition, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1929, p. 374.
  4. ^ Friedrich Kluge: Etymological dictionary of the German language. 23rd, extended edition, Berlin / New York 1999.
  5. a b Anke Poenicke, Holger Dix: Africa realistically represent. Discussions and alternatives to current practice, focus on school books (=  Zukunftsforum Politik , No. 55). 2nd, revised edition, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , St. Augustin 2003, ISBN 3-933714-93-1 , p. 16 ff. ( PDF; 476 kB, 120 pages on
  6. Wulf D. Hund : Racism. The social construction of natural inequality. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-89691-453-7 , p. 12 ( PDF; 632 kB, 173 pages ( memento of April 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) on
  7. a b Dictionary entry: Etymology, dictionary of origin of the German language. In: The great Duden. Volume 7. Bibliographical Institute, Dudenverlag, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1963, p. 464.
  8. Wulf D. Hund: Racism. The social construction of natural inequality. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1999, pp. 34–35 ( PDF; 632 kB ( Memento from April 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive )).
  9. ^ Friedrich Kluge, Alfred Götze: Etymological dictionary of the German language. 20th edition, ed. by Walther Mitzka. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Neudruck, ibid 1975, p. 653 ( Neger ) and 484 ( Mohr ).
  10. Gemoll. Greek-German school and manual dictionary by W. Gemoll and K. Vretska. 10th edition, Munich / Düsseldorf / Stuttgart 2006.
  11. Matthias Heine : Racism and Language: Even those who loved “Negerpüppis” no longer say “Neger” , Welt Online , April 18, 2018.
  12. Dakha Deme: connotation and denotation using the example of the term “negro” , in: Interkulturell. Forum for intercultural learning in schools and social education , published by the Research Center Migration and Integration at the Freiburg University of Education, Freiburg im Breisgau 1994, p. 57.
  13. Dakha Deme: connotation and denotation using the example of the term “negro” , p. 61 f.
  14. Dakha Deme: connotation and denotation using the example of the term "negro". P. 59.
  15. ^ Carl von Linné : Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species. 1st edition, Leiden 1735, p. 12 ( TIF side view on
  16. Wulf D. Hund: The color of black. About the construction of human races. In: Same: Racism. The social construction of natural inequality. Westphalian steam boat, Münster 1999, p. 19 f. ( PDF; 632 kB ( Memento from April 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive )).
  17. Immanuel Kant : Definition of the concept of a human race. 1785. In: Kant. Works Volume 9: Writings on anthropology, philosophy of history, politics and education. Published by Wilhelm Weischedel . Darmstadt 1983, p. 79.
  18. Christoph Meiners (1790): About the nature of African negroes and the liberation or restriction of blacks that depend on them. ( TIF side view on
  19. Wulf D. Hund: The color of black. About the construction of human races. In: Same: Racism. The social construction of natural inequality. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1999, p. 33 ( PDF; 632 kB ( Memento from April 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive )).
  20. Lexicon entry: Neger. In: Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon. Volume 3. Leipzig 1839, pp. 256-257 ( side view on ).
  21. Lexicon entry: Neger. In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 16 volumes 1888–1889. 4th edition, Volume 4, 1888, p. 39 ( stored online at; see. in contrast, Meyer's Lexicon online : Neger ( Memento from June 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive ).
  22. Lexicon entry: Neger. In: German Colonial Lexicon . Volume 2. 1920, p. 627 ( search results on
  23. Lexicon entry: Neger. In: The Great Brockhaus. Handbook of knowledge in twenty volumes. Volume 13. Leipzig 1934, p. 252; quoted from Susan Arndt , Antje Hornscheidt (ed.): Africa and the German language. A critical reference work. Unrast, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-89771-424-8 , p. 184.
  24. Werner A. Schöneck: The Dictionary - A Mirror of Time ?! Socio-cultural implications, political-ideological positions and reflexes of language change in lexicographical collections, descriptions and structures. Attempts to criticize practical lexicography. In: ELiSe (Essener Linguistic Scripts - electronic. Journal for Linguistics and Language Didactics). December 2001, p. 196 ( PDF; 6.0 MB, 297 pages on
  25. Ulrike Kramer: From negro kisses and moor heads. Terms like Neger and Mohr in the mirror of political correctness - a vocabulary analysis. Diploma thesis, University of Vienna, 2006, p. 84 ( PDF download from the textfeld association ).
  26. Lexicon entry: Neger. In: dtv-Lexikon. A conversation lexicon in 20 volumes. Volume 13. Munich 1975, p. 76.
  27. Lexicon entry: Neger. In: Dictionary of contemporary German. Volume 4. Berlin 1975, p. 2628.
  28. Duden editorial team : Duden. Lexicon from A to Z. FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 1984, p. 474.
  29. a b Theodor Ickler : Duden - politically correct. The "reasonable use of words". In: Scripture & Speech. German Language Research Group, August 1, 2006 ( online at Note: There is also a criticism of the Duden editorial team's approach here.
  30. ^ Duden editors: Duden - The German orthography. 24th edition, FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 2006.
  31. ^ Duden online : Negroes. Retrieved October 19, 2019 (as of October 19, 2019).
  32. American fact finder for census. ( Memento of October 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) USA, undated, accessed on January 26, 2019 (English).
  33. Cf. Sunjid Dugar, The principle of equality in relation to the general law on equal treatment in German and Mongolian law (= Munich Legal Contributions; Vol. 73), Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-8316-0921-5 , chap. 1.4.2, 2.1.2, pp. 45, 74; on the discrimination criterion “race” see also Michael Sachs (Ed.), Basic Law. Commentary , CH Beck, Munich 2003, p. 242, Rn. 293; on this in particular Däubler / Bertzbach, Komm. AGG , 2007, § 1 Rn. 22nd
  34. Jack Martin: Census Bureau defends 'negro' addition. In: United Press International, January 6, 2010, accessed January 26, 2019.
  35. Aimé Césaire, Discours sur le colonialisme, suivi de Discours sur la Négritude , Présence Africaine, July 2004, ISBN 2-7087-0531-8 .
  36. Ulrike Kramer: From negro kisses and moor heads. Terms like Neger and Mohr in the mirror of political correctness - a vocabulary analysis. Diploma thesis, University of Vienna, 2006, p. 9 ( online ).
  37. Editorial contribution: Political Correctness: Schwarzer, Farbiger, Afo-German? This is how you speak plain text without discrimination. In: Focus Online , June 15, 2018, accessed December 4, 2019.
  38. Manfred Glauninger, interviewed by Stephanie Anko: Interview: Why not say “Neger”. In: Wiener Zeitung , April 18, 2014, accessed on December 4, 2019.
  39. Sabine Wierlemann, Political Correctness in the USA and in Germany , Erich Schmidt Verlag, 2002, p. 194.
  40. ^ A b Susan Arndt, Antje Hornscheidt (ed.): Africa and the German language. A critical reference work. Unrast, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-89771-424-8 , p. 28 ( excerpt from ).
  41. Sonja Steffek: Black men, white women: Ethnological studies on the perception of the foreign in the relationships between African men and Austrian women. Lit Verlag, Berlin u. a. 2000, ISBN 3-8258-4771-3 , p. 117.
  42. Else-Lasker-Schüler-Gesellschaft / Exil-Club: “Afro-Germans” or “Neger”? ( Memento from February 6, 2013 in the web archive ) In: Undated, accessed December 4, 2019.
  43. Anke Poenicke, Holger Dix: Africa realistically represent. Discussions and alternatives to current practice, focus on school books (=  Zukunftsforum Politik. No. 55). 2nd, revised edition, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, St. Augustin 2003, p. 18 ( PDF; 476 kB ); see also Ruth Klappenbach (Ed.): Dictionary of contemporary German. Volume 4, Berlin 1975, p. 2628.
  44. Editorial article: "Our time has come". In: Der Spiegel , No. 37, September 11, 1978, without a page number ( online ).
  45. ^ Racism in society and language. Retrieved on September 1, 2019 (excerpt from: Susan Arndt, Antje Hornscheidt (ed.): Africa and the German language. A critical reference work. Unrast, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-89771-424-8 ).
  46. ^ Matthias Dell: The N word. A story of fascination. In: Merkur: German magazine for European thinking. Volume 69, No. 798, November 2015, ISSN  0026-0096 , p. 60.
  47. Anke Poenicke, Holger Dix: Africa realistically represent. Discussions and alternatives to current practice, with a focus on school books. 2nd, revised edition. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, St. Augustin 2003, p. 20 ( PDF; 476 kB ).
  48. Juliane Kaune: Children's book collection / Once Africa, always Africa. In: Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung from February 23, 2014, updated on February 26, 2014 ( online ).
  49. Announcement: Correct children's book language: Publisher removes “Neger” from “Little Witch”. In: Spiegel Online. January 4, 2013, accessed January 25, 2019.
  50. a b Report: Pippi Longstocking films: Swedish television cancels “Neger”. In: Spiegel Online. September 29, 2014, accessed January 25, 2019; Quote: “Which terms are appropriate in children's books and films? Swedish television has now decided that there is hardly any “negro”. It removes the term from the Pippi Longstocking films. "
  51. Announcement: Press Council: The term "Negro children" violates the code of honor. In: April 11, 2014, accessed on January 25, 2019 : "A journalist can be expected to deal seriously with charged terms [...]" .
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