Ice cream

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ice cream sundae with balls of chocolate ice cream, whipped cream, eggnog and waffle

Ice cream , in Switzerland and Luxembourg , the Glace [ ɡlasə ] (from the French. ), Dated Iced is a preparation of various ingredients that is caused by a freezing process in a solid or paste-like state. Of ice cream are ice creams made.

The ingredients of an ice cream are mainly liquids such as water , milk , cream , occasionally lager butter and possibly egg yolks , mixed with sugar and various flavoring additives such as fruit puree , vanilla or chocolate . In order to better combine this emulsion into a cream, natural thickeners such as corn syrup , pectin or locust bean gum are often added today . By whipping or stirring while cooling the base mass and the food additives , a cream is created without ice crystal formation.



Ice cream seller in Rome, around 1820

The first ice cream was probably made in ancient China; the Chinese rulers had large ice cream stores built. The ice cream, which is similar to sorbet , was also known in ancient Europe. The Greek poet Simonides von Keos (557/556 BC – 468/467 BC) describes it as consisting of glacial snow with ingredients such as fruit, honey or rose water . There is also evidence of Alexander the Great (356 BC – 323 BC) and Hippocrates ' (* around 460 BC) preference for water ice, the latter even prescribing the ice cream for his patients as a pain reliever. The Roman emperors had snow and ice brought to them from the Apennines by high-speed runners, the Indian emperor Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) from the Himalayas .

With the fall of the Roman Empire, knowledge of how to prepare ice-cold food and drinks was lost there. The Crusaders brought the recipe for sherbet , originally a mixture of fruit syrup and snow, to Europe. The preparation of such chilled drinks is said to have been taken over by China in the Arab region. In the 11th century, ice cream was widely used in upper class households there. In the summer, ice cream was offered in stick form or as “snow” by street vendors.

At the end of the 13th century, Marco Polo (1254–1324) described the production of a cold mixture from snow or water and saltpetre that he had met in China. Ice cream made from water and fruit juice or puree ( granita ) became an Italian specialty, which is said to have been brought to Paris by Catherine de Medici (1519–1589) in the 16th century . However, there is no written evidence to support this theory. A German-language cookbook by Anna Wecker with the title A delicious new cookbook of all kinds of food , which appeared in 1597, already contained a recipe for ice-cold milk cream, i.e. a preliminary stage for milk ice cream.

Modern times

Ice cream sundae with strawberries and whipped cream
Ice bike in the English Garden of Munich (2013)
Motorized tricycle as a sales vehicle for ice cream in The Hague (2009)
Italian ice cream

Recipes for ice cream made from sugar, salt, snow, lemon juice and various fruits or with chocolate or cinnamon also contain an Italian script, written around 1692. In 1775, the first book was published in Naples that was exclusively about the art of making ice cream under the title De 'sorbetti by Filippo Baldini.

The first French café that also offered ice cream was opened in Paris in 1686 by the Italian Francesco Procopio di Cultelli , a chef of Louis XIV : the Café Procope . Around 1700 ice cream was also known in other European coffee houses. In the 18th century, ice cream was sold on the street in France. A Neapolitan opened the first real ice cream parlor on the Boulevard des Italiens . The first known gelateria in what would later become the United States was in New York in 1770. In Hamburg, what was probably the first German ice cream parlor opened in the Alsterpavillon in 1799 .

In the US, the first presidents played an important role in popularizing ice cream. George Washington is believed to have bought an ice maker for his private household in the 1780s . He also introduced ice cream serving at afternoon receptions. Thomas Jefferson met ice cream as Secretary of State in France and had ice cream served at official state banquets in the White House after 1800. The wife of the fourth President, James Madison, took over this fashion and introduced the ice bomb (bombe glacée) .

In 1843, Nancy Johnson invented the first patented, hand-cranked ice-cream maker that greatly simplified ice-making. More households than before were now producing ice cream themselves. The first ice cream factory was founded on June 15, 1851 in Seven Valleys, Pennsylvania, by Baltimore dairy trader Jacob Fussell . Until the invention of the refrigerator by Carl von Linde in 1876 it was, however, on Blockice from the winter, which in ice cellars was kept until the summer, and saline rely on the cold mixture. Linde's refrigeration machine then brought the technical availability of refrigeration and helped ice cream to break through as a mass product. The English cook and inventor Agnes Marshall patented a more efficient machine for making ice cream in the home and an ice chest in 1885. She has also published several books and articles on ice making and is considered a pioneer in liquid nitrogen freezing . In 1899 August Gaulin invented the homogenization process for dairy products, which improved the quality of ice cream.

When the ice cream cone was invented is unclear, possibly before the 19th century. Agnes Marshall published a recipe for an ice cream cone in 1888, although it was intended to be served on a plate, not as a container for street sale. The Museum of Modern Art has in its collection a (reworked) ice cream cone by Italo Marchioni, dated 1896. Antonio Valvona received the first known patent for a device that mechanically shaped waffles and made rolling by hand unnecessary in 1902 in Manchester .

In Austria, spatula-shaped waffles filled with lemon cream and typically 150 × 25 × 5 mm in size, which are placed in an ice cream sundae serving as decoration, are used in Austria . Also, wafer sticks , similar to long, medium brown baked, sweet Teigröhrchen be inserted. Open umbrellas made of wooden sticks and paper and similar decorations are not edible. Ice cones are called stanitzels or Germanized ice cream cones in Austria , which are wrapped in a cone - darker, sweeter and crispy - also as cornetto freezer ice wrapped in aluminum paper with a cardboard lid or as a compression-molded waffle either conical with a spherical widening at the top or only half as high as a truncated cone-shaped cup that can be placed on the horizontal display case itself.

The take-away ice cream in Europe apparently goes back to Italian immigrants in Great Britain, who from around 1870 sold ice cream on the streets of small mobile stalls in major cities. They were soon called "Hokey-pokey men", which is said to go back to the Italian phrase "Gelati, ecco un poco" ("a little ice cream here"). They sold the ice cream in paper cups and cardboard cones as well as so-called penny licks , an ice ball for a penny in a small glass container that was returned by the buyers. The first ice cream on a stick (Switzerland: Glacestengel or Glacestängeli ) was patented in 1923 by the American lemonade manufacturer Frank Epperson. According to his own account, he invented it by chance in 1905 when he accidentally left a glass of lemonade with a spoon in the open air - the lemonade froze to ice overnight . Epperson called his ice cream Eppsicle Ice pop , which later became the name Popsicle , which is now a protected brand name for a specific water ice in the USA. On October 9, 1923, his compatriot Harry Bust applied for a patent for the production of vanilla ice cream with a chocolate coating, frozen on a stick.

The first Italian ice cream parlors opened in Germany in the 1920s . This was the first major wave of gastronomy operated by foreigners (see also Gelatiere ). The industrial production of ice cream began in Germany in the mid-1930s with the Langnese (1935) and Schöller (1937) companies.

In 1934 the Greek Tom Carvel invented soft ice cream in the USA , only with a recipe adapted from the confectionery industry and a special machine did he achieve the breakthrough with the Carvel ice cream parlor chain.

It is a myth that the future British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was a member of the development team of chemists and food technicians who are said to have invented soft ice cream, as claimed on numerous websites.

Since the 2010s, molecular cuisine methods have been used to shock freeze fresh ingredients into ice cream. In recent years, ice cream parlors have increasingly offered unusual creations, including sour, salty and tart taste nuances through to bizarre extravagances such as Munich white sausage ice cream with mustard ice cream and beer ice cream.



An ice cream maker for the household

To make ice cream, the ingredients are first mixed, then the mass is frozen while constantly stirring and scraping off the metal wall, whereby fine air bubbles get into the mass and the ice crystals remain small. Ice cream only has a creamy melt when the crystals are so small that they cannot be felt in the mouth and dissolve immediately. Traditionally, ice cream was frozen in a metal bowl, which is in a container with a mixture of crushed water ice and table salt , the so-called cold mixture . The mixture, which is below −10 ° C, freezes the ice cream mass and can be stirred at the same time. Today there are also electrically operated ice machines for the household , which take on this task with the help of pre-frozen cooling containers or even fully automatically.

Boku Europa
ice cream maker

In commercial and industrial production, the procedure is basically similar; however, auxiliary substances such as binders , emulsifiers , stabilizers , vegetable fats and flavorings and colorings are often added or ready-mixed ice cream bases are whipped and frozen. As a natural emulsifier which is often in egg yolk occurring lecithin used. With its help, a very fine distribution of the fat droplets in the water is achieved and creaming , i.e. the separation of the fat from the water, is prevented.

Carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC - additive number E 466 ) are used as an additive for ice cream production. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is generally approved for foodstuffs with no maximum quantity restriction ( quantum satis ). Although a similar substance ( methyl cellulose = Tylose, E 461) was originally invented as wallpaper paste and is still used as the basis for making wallpaper glue , there is no reason not to use CMC as an additive, as it is considered to be safe for human health. However, CMC is partly made from genetically modified cotton. CMC is used in ice cream production (or generally in food technology) to optimize the consistency, the formation of ice crystals is reduced, which results in a soft, creamy consistency. CMC is not digested and excreted unchanged. The consumption of larger amounts can have a laxative effect.

After Agnes Marshall's discovery of making ice cream with liquid nitrogen , this method was made popular again by molecular gastronomy : If about a third of its volume of liquid nitrogen is added to the ice cream mass with gentle stirring, the nitrogen begins to boil while the ice cream mass freezes at the same time. The ice is ready after about one minute. The sudden freezing prevents large, disruptive ice crystals from forming.

Hygienic aspects

Since ice cream essentially consists of raw and partially pureed ingredients and has a large surface when it is whipped, it is a good breeding ground for bacteria that may already have been present in the ingredients or that got into the ice cream mass during production. While the ice mass is frozen, they cannot multiply, but neither do they die. In contrast, in melted ice cream (melted on the surface) the reproduction can take place very quickly. If the melted ice is frozen again, the load increases further. In the case of industrially produced ice cream, the ingredients are pasteurized before freezing .

Soft ice cream was problematic from a hygienic point of view in the 1970s and 1980s: On the one hand, there was a real soft ice cream boom with which many inexperienced entrepreneurs wanted to earn "quick money" and were not sufficiently concerned with hygiene regulations. On the other hand, ice cream was still made with raw eggs. This combination then led to more frequent infections, especially with coliforms and salmonella .

Nowadays, soft ice cream no longer contains eggs, and the professional soft ice cream machines pasteurize the soft ice cream mix. Ice machines that work with self-contained freezing technology, including soft ice cream machines, are safe when used correctly, because in most cases contamination occurs on open ice.

Another source of bacteria is the water in which the ice cream scoop is immersed in order to heat or wet it. In modern systems, fresh water is constantly flowing in and water out. The only problematic are water tanks whose liquid, which is contaminated with ice residue, is too warm and not changed.

The hygienic disadvantages of thawing on the surface and the ice cream scoop are avoided if the ice cream is stored invisibly for the consumer in an ice cream container in a cooled cylindrical tube, scraped out with an iron rod (with a spatula at the tip) and thus applied to the ice cream cone , as it is / was in some traditional ice cream parlors in Italy or in the past with drive sellers.

Types of ice cream

raspberry sorbet
Chocolate ice cream in a waffle (bag)

A distinction is made between several types of ice cream according to the basic ingredients and method of preparation:

  • Frozen custard (also mousse ) or Eiercremeeis is prepared from at least 50% milk, water is not used in the preparation. The ice cream mix contains at least 270 g whole eggs or 90 g egg yolk for1 liter of milk.
  • Ice cream consists of at least 10% milk fat and is primarily produced industrially.
  • Fruit ice cream contains at least 20% fruit. If fruit ice cream is made from citrus fruits and other acidic fruits with a citric acid content of at least 2.5%, the fruit content is at least 10%, for example: lemons, oranges and passion fruit.
  • Fruit ice cream consists of at least 8% milk fat and has a clearly perceptible fruit taste. This ice cream is also produced industrially.
  • Semi-frozen
  • Milk ice cream consists essentially of milk (at least 70%) that has been sweetened with sugar syrup and flavored with fruit pulp or other ingredients. The ice cream common today is mostly milk ice cream.
  • Ice cream (including ice cream ) has a milk fat content of at least 18 percent of the used cream ( cream ) (whipped cream or liquid) which will be added in the ice machine during freezing, some with egg yolk. Its high fat content makes it particularly creamy and aromatic. It can be used as the basis for the same flavors as milk ice cream. Cream ice cream and parfait are also used for ice cream cakes and ice cream bombs, for example for the Fürst-Pückler-Torte .
  • Soft ice cream is not an independent type of ice cream according to the ice cream ordinance, but a preparation method in which the ice cream mass is foamed and frozen at the same time.
  • Creamy ice cream can also be made with plant-based milk alternatives , e.g. B. with soy milk , almond milk , rice milk or lupine milk . Together with (frozen) bananas and other types of fruit, ice cream, known as nice cream, can be made in a blender or in a juicer .
  • Sorbet (also called fruit sorbet ) is an ice drink or thin-bodied ice cream made from heavily sweetened fruit juice , sweet wine or spirits and, depending on the recipe, egg white , whipped cream or meringue mixture . The preparation is partly regulated by legal regulations.
  • Water ice consists mainly of frozen water and sugar, has a maximum of 3% fat and a dry matter content of sweetening and / or other flavoring ingredients of at least 12 percent. Water ice is primarily produced in industry.

Flavors and market shares

The most popular types of ice cream in Germany in 2016

Ice cream specialties

In addition to the various individual types of ice cream, there are also established ice cream dishes :


The decoration includes ice palms, ice umbrellas, decorative rosettes, decorative pickers and waffles, for example almond fans.

An ice specialty is also the Krokanteis, in which the ball of ice cream cone first into a molten chocolate and then in brittle or colored sprinkles is immersed, which is now at industrially produced ice cream out of the bag, or from the stalk with cocoa containing glaze is imitated.

Industrial products

Special brand names are:


The ice cream market

Per capita consumption of branded ice cream in Europe (2007)

The ice cream market is a branch of the food production and trade in which billions of dollars are sold worldwide.


Total sales of industrial branded ice cream in Germany in 2003 were 587 million liters. The turnover was 2.03 billion euros.

In 2016, sales in the ice cream market for industrially manufactured products totaled approx. 529.3 million liters (2012: 505.7 million):

  • of which 241.1 million liters household packs (usually from 300 ml)
  • including 222.5 million liters of multipacks
  • of which 35.3 million liters of impulse ice cream (small packaging)
  • 30.4 million liters of which are large-scale consumer goods

Fast food chains and vending machines also sell around 20 million liters of soft ice cream .

There are around 4,000 ice cream parlors or ice cream parlors in Germany. In them and in other catering establishments, a total of around 107 million liters were produced in a craft / commercial manner in 2012 (17% market share). In 2016, German ice cream parlors produced 106 million liters (16.3% market share).

In the summer of 2003 , the per capita consumption of ice cream in Germany was 8.7 liters, in 2007 it was 8.1 liters and in 2012 around 7.7 liters. In 2016, German per capita consumption remained stable at 7.9 liters.


The industry's turnover in 2008 was around € 318 million, with around € 30 billion in wholesale and retail sales in the food sector , i.e. around 1%.

United States

In the USA, per capita consumption was around 13 liters, with total production in 2006 of around 7 billion liters and sales of US $ 23 billion .

Ice cream parlors are uncommon in the USA: retail trade takes place in convenience shops 11.4%; Drug Stores 0.2%. 80% of supermarket sales in 2001 were half-gallon containers (around 2 liter packs), source: IDFA / IRI, 2001.

Ice cream manufacturers and professional representatives

The world's most important producers include Unilever ( Langnese / Eskimo / Lusso ) and Nestlé (such as Schöllereis / Mövenpick ).

Important international interest groups are the International Ice Cream Association ( IFDA ) and the International Association of Ice Cream Vendors ( IAICV ), both with a focus on the USA.

Vocational training

In Germany from 2008 to 2014 there was an independent profession of ice cream maker based on two-year vocational training, which was replaced by the three-year training profession as an ice cream specialist . This vocational training was discontinued at the end of July 2019.

In South Tyrol, ice cream maker is the official job title. In Austria the profession is called ice cream maker , in Switzerland ice cream production is part of the job description of the pastry chef (basic profession of cook or confectioner ). The latter is also the usual term as a function in the hospitality industry and in the kitchen brigade of the hotel industry.


Food law in Germany

Ordinance on ice cream of July 15, 1933

In Germany, the names for types of ice cream and minimum requirements for their composition as well as permitted ingredients were legally stipulated by the regulation on ice cream and the food labeling regulation of 1933 , which is no longer valid . Since 1998, in line with EU law, the use of all ingredients that are generally permitted for food is also permitted in ice cream. The content of the 1933 ordinance was, however, essentially adopted in the guidelines for ice cream of the German Food Book. Accordingly, types of ice cream (here simplified) are defined as follows:

Cream ice cream, custard ice cream
at least 50% milk and at least 270 g whole egg or 90 g egg yolk per liter of milk . It does not contain any additional water.
Ice cream
at least 10% milk fat
Fruit ice cream
Fruit content at least 20%, with citrus fruits at least 10%
Fruit ice cream
at least 8% milk fat and a clearly perceptible fruit taste
(Fruit) sorbet
Fruit content at least 25%, with citrus fruits 15%. Milk or milk ingredients are not used.
Milk ice cream
at least 70% milk
Ice cream, cream ice cream, Fürst-Pückler ice cream
at least 18% milk fat.
Water ice
Less than 3% fat, at least 12% dry matter content from flavoring and / or sweetening ingredients.

Austrian food code

In Austria, the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus , which dates back to 1891, documents the general public opinion about the quality of food. This Austrian food book itself is not a legal regulation in the narrower sense, but anchored in § 76 and following of the Food Safety and Consumer Protection Act and is published by the Federal Ministry for Health, Family and Youth .

Ice cream is described in Codex chapter B2 Ice cream (frozen) (here simplified):

Fruit ice cream
Fruit content (fruit juice, pulp, fruit pulp) at least 20% ( soft ice cream 15% fruit content)
Nut ice cream
Hazelnuts or almonds or walnuts at least 40 g per 1 liter base
Ice cream
(also: cream ice cream): at least 15% milk fat
(Milk) ice cream
(also: cream ice cream): at least 10% milk fat
Whole milk ice cream
at least 2.1% milk fat, which corresponds to 60% whole milk
Skimmed milk ice cream
at least 60% skimmed milk
Curd ice cream
Curd cheese content at least 20%, whole milk at least 40%
Skimmed ice cream
Skimmed curd content at least 20%, skimmed milk content at least 40%
Málaga ice cream
at least 50 ml of Málaga wine or other suitable wine in 1 liter of ice cream
Artificial ice cream
Aroma from naturally identical aromatic substances added

Food law in Switzerland

Milk ice cream
Milk fat content of at least 3%
Ice cream
Milk fat content of at least 6%
Double frame
Milk fat content of at least 12%
Fruit content of at least 20% except lemons at least 6%, citrus fruits without lemons at least 10%
Water ice
Total fat maximum 3%
Ice cream
Total fat maximum 3%

Literature (selection)

Web links

Wiktionary: ice cream  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: glace  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: ice cream  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Ice cream  album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Johann Nepomuk Niggl: The German kitchen. Verlag der Franz'schen Buch- und Kunsthandlung, Munich 1870, p. 373, digitized from Google books .
  2. Guidelines 2016 - German Food Book: Developed and approved by the German Food Book Commission at the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture . Behr's Verlag DE, 2016, ISBN 978-3-95468-446-5 ( ).
  3. Gerd Graefe: The use of corn syrup and dextrose for ice cream . In: Die Starke / Starch , 4, 1952, pp. 41-46, doi: 10.1002 / star.19520040303 .
  4. ^ A b Svend Aage Andersen, Robert Hansen: Manufacture of ice cream . In: SA Andersen et al. (Ed.): The refrigerated room, the transport of refrigerated food and ice making. (= Handbuch der Kältetechnik , 11.) Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1962, p. 569–610, see p. 573 here: limited preview in the Google book search, doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-662-11442-1_11 .
  5. Claudia Kracht: Ice cream - spherical delicacy . In: Planet Wissen , September 26, 2017.
  6. a b Hannsferdinand Döbler : Culture and Moral History of the World. Cooking skills and culinary delights . Bertelsmann Publishing Group, Munich 1972, p. 352.
  7. a b c Ice cold passion: ice cream. (On the history of ice cream.) ( Memento from December 18, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: House of the History of the Federal Republic of Germany .
  8. Alberto Capatti, Massimo Montanari : Italian Cuisine: A Cultural History . Columbia University Press, New York 1999, ISBN 978-0-231-12232-0 , pp. 110 f., Limited preview in Google Book search. - It can be assumed that table salt (with snow) is only used externally as a cold mixture and not as an ingredient.
  9. a b c d e Legends and Myths of Ices and Ice Cream History . In: , with extensive literature list; accessed on April 2, 2018.
  10. John S. Deith: Mrs. Agnes B. Marshall (1855-1905) . In: Harlan Walker (Ed.): Cooks and Other People. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 1995. Prospect Books, Totnes 1996, ISBN 978-0-907325-72-7 , pp. 106-110.
  11. ^ Robin Weir: Mrs AB Marshall, Ice-Creammonger Extraordinary . In: Harlan Walker (Ed.): Cooks and Other People. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 1995. Prospect Books, Totnes 1996, ISBN 978-0-907325-72-7 , pp. 283-289.
  12. ^ Robin Weir: Mrs. AB Marshall, Ice-Creammonger Extraordinary. 1996, ISBN 978-0-907325-72-7 , pp. 284-285.
  13. Laura Weiss: Ice Cream. A global history. Reaction Books, London 2011, ISBN 978-1-86189-792-3 , p. 75.
  14. ^ Italo Marchioni • Ice Cream Cone • 1896 • Rolled Waffle . In: Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) , The Collection, Dept. Architecture and Design, accessed April 1, 2018.
  15. ^ Angelo Morelli: The History of Ice Cream. Hokey pokey and all that. ( Memento from June 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: .
  16. ^ Robin Weir: Penny Licks and Hokey Pokey, Ice Cream before the Cone . In: Harlan Walker (Ed.): Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1991. Public Eating. Proceedings , Prospect Books, London 1992, ISBN 0-907325-47-5 , pp. 295-300.
    Solomon Katz (Ed.), Ice cream . In: The Encyclopedia of Food and Culture . Gale Group, 2002, ISBN 978-0-684-80566-5 .
  17. ^ Frank Epperson. The Popsicle ™ . In: Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Lemelson-MIT Program , accessed April 1, 2018.
  18. June 21, 2008 - 85 years ago: Ice cream on a stick is patented . WDR 2 , as of June 21, 2008.
  19. ^ Claire Phipps: Was Margaret Thatcher really part of team that invented Mr Whippy? In: The Guardian , April 17, 2013.
  20. ^ John Brownlee: These Futuristic Popsicles Belong In A Museum, Not A Freezer . In: Co.Design , October 14, 2013.
  21. Joseph Flaherty: You'll Need a Ph.D. to Fully Appreciate These Popsicles . In: , October 24, 2013.
  22. Martin Herceg: How does white sausage ice cream actually taste? 5 answers from the “crazy ice cream maker” from Munich . In: , July 8, 2013.
  23. Ice production - basic masses, ice bases and ice binders . In: , product overview of a wholesaler.
  24. Robert Ebermann, Ibrahim Elmadfa: Textbook food chemistry and nutrition . Springer Verlag, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-211-48649-8 .
  25. The history of Henkel Adhesive Technologies • Milestones • 1936. ( Memento from February 6, 2013 in the web archive ). In: .
  26. ^ Hans-Dieter Belitz , Werner Grosch, Peter Schieberle: Textbook of food chemistry . Springer, 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-73201-3 .
  27. Thomas Blenkers: Ice cream preparation with liquid nitrogen . In: , 2008.
    Video: Quirky invention: nitrogen ice . In: Galileo , May 5, 2015, 5:24 min.
  28. What is soft ice cream and what about the bacterial load in ice cream? Consumer Window Hessen. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  29. ^ Sarah Brasack: Groceries. Summer, sun, salmonella . In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger , July 5, 2010, see last paragraph.
  30. On the international conventions see: What's in the Ice Cream Aisle? Definitions of Frozen Dessert Products. In: International Dairy Foods Association (IDFA). Retrieved April 2, 2018 .
  31. Homemade banana ice cream ("Nicecream") with the juicer Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  32. Erhard Gorys : The new kitchen dictionary . dtv, Munich 2006, 10th edition, ISBN 3-423-36245-6 , p. 538.
  33. ^ Richard Hering : Lexicon of the kitchen. Pfanneberg, Haan-Gruiten 1990, 25th edition, ISBN 3-8057-0470-4 , p. 650.
  34. ↑ Share of the range in total sales of branded ice cream in 2016 . In: .
  35. ^ Ice cream market Germany 2012. ( Memento from July 16, 2013 in the web archive ). In: .
  36. Ice cream market Germany 2016 . In: .
  37. Per capita consumption in Germany. ( Memento from July 16, 2013 in the web archive ). In: .
  38. Per capita consumption in Germany . In: .
  39. SN-zak: A question of the weather and not the climate. (No longer available online.) In: Salzburger Nachrichten . April 21, 2009, formerly in the original ; accessed on April 2, 2018 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  40. 1.55 billion  gallons , US Department of Agriculture (USDA), quoted from IDFA: Just the Facts. ( Memento of August 22, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).
  41. ↑ Financial year 2007: Just the Facts: Ice Cream Sales and Trends. ( Memento of August 22, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). In: International Dairy Foods Association (IDFA) , (English).
  42. Ice cream in the Appointments of the Federal Employment Agency . Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  43. specialist for ice cream in Berufenet the Federal Employment Agency . Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  44. Craftsmen: ice cream maker . In: Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, Economic Department .
  45. Ice cream producer . In: BIC - BerufsInformationsComputer.
  46. Principles of the German food book for ice cream. As of November 29, 2016 . Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Germany), for download as PDF; accessed on April 2, 2018.
  47. Ice cream . In: Austrian Food Book , a project of the Federal Ministry for Health and Women .