from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chocolate is a food and luxury product , the main components of which are cocoa products and types of sugar , and in the case of milk chocolate, milk products as well . Chocolate is enjoyed in its pure form and processed as a semi-finished product. The word is derived from the name of the first cocoa-containing drink, the xocóatl or xocólatl [ ʃokolaːtɬ ] ( Nahuatl : xócoc 'bitter', atl 'water'; so 'bitter water' or 'cocoa water') of the Aztecs in Mexico . It was a mixture of water , cocoa, vanilla and cayenne pepper .

Different types of chocolate


Typical Mexican chocolate (pressed chocolate mass with sugar and cinnamon )
The chocolate factory Johann Maria Farina in the 3rd Cologne address book in 1797, chocolate production started in 1750
The coat of arms of the French city of Noisiel with cocoa blossom and fruit. Noisiel was the headquarters of the
Menier chocolate factory

The cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao) was probably first discovered around 1500 BC. Used by the Olmecs who lived in the lowlands of the Mexican Gulf coast. The Maya then cultivated cocoa around 600 AD .

The Aztecs gave the cocoa drink mixed with cold water the name: xocolatl . With the help of a wooden whisk, known today in Spanish as "Molinillo", the liquid was whipped until it was frothy. According to the Maya tradition, the cocoa plant was of divine origin. In honor of the cocoa god Ek Chuah , a festival with animal sacrifices and the distribution of gifts was celebrated in April. Similar celebrations are documented in Mexico. There, the seeds of the cocoa plant were prepared exclusively as a drink. However, this drink was reserved for adult men of the nobility. Cocoa was considered an intoxicating food and was therefore - according to the Aztecs - unsuitable for women and children. It was preferred to be drunk by warriors, priests or people intended for sacrifice. Both Hernán Cortés and a member of his expedition, Bernal Díaz del Castillo , reported that the Aztec King Montezuma consumed beverages containing cocoa in large quantities. The cocoa bean was sometimes used as a means of payment . Moctezuma II had an enormous number of this currency, cocoa. They were only suitable as a means of payment if they were of perfect shape, had a uniform color and came from certain parts of Mexico. The purchasing power of cocoa beans at the time is illustrated by the following example: For a good slave you had to pay around 100 good cocoa beans. Overall, great importance was attached to the quality of the cocoa. The cocoa from Xoconochco , today's state of Chiapas, was particularly popular . From this area one had to pay the usual tribute in the form of very good quality cocoa to the ruler.

Christopher Columbus brought the first cocoa beans from America without being able to do anything with them at the time. In 1528, Hernán Cortés brought cocoa to Europe . However, the chocolate was inedible unprocessed. Only after adding honey and cane sugar did it become a drink with growing popularity. Chocolate was first drunk as a drink at the Spanish court in 1544. The first chocolate café opened in London in 1657, and in 1673 the Dutchman Jan Jantz von Huesden first served chocolate in Bremen in public . Only in the 18th / 19th In the 19th century, large quantities of cocoa beans were traded in Bremen. Since cocoa, honey and cane sugar were expensive, only the wealthy could initially afford chocolate. Three factors made cocoa a mass product: First, the pressing of the cocoa and the subsequent grinding into cocoa powder, second, the use of cheaper cocoa from Amazonia, the forastero (predominant today) and the sugar industry that emerged from the beginning of the 19th century . The invention of pressing and grinding goes back to the patent of the Dutchman Coenraad Johannes van Houten from 1828. By pressing, he split the cocoa butter from the cocoa, which is now a common process for the production of cocoa powder as a component of drinks and desserts.

The use of cocoa and chocolate as both food and medicine is documented for Latin America and Europe. Chocolate has been recommended as generally invigorating, easily digestible and as an aphrodisiac . Up until the 19th century, chocolate was sold in pharmacies as a "tonic".

As the oldest existing chocolate factory in Germany which is Halloren chocolate factory in Halle (Saale) considered, which emerged from a company founded in 1804 by Friedrich August Miethe confectionery. From 1828 his son Johann Friedrich Miethe produced what is known as steam chocolate in Potsdam with the help of a steam engine . The Jordan & Timaeus chocolate factory was founded in Dresden in 1823 . The first milk chocolate was made here in 1839 . In 1839, Franz Stollwerck (1815–1876) founded his shortbread bakery in Cologne, which he and his five sons expanded into the large company Franz Stollwerck & Sons. Gebrüder Stollwerck AG later developed into the largest chocolate producer in Germany. In 1863 Heinrich Fassbender founded his chocoladerie on Mohrenstrasse in Berlin, where he made the finest pralines and truffles. He soon became a purveyor to the royal court. In 1890 Wilhelm Rausch opened his first confectionary in Berlin. In 1999 both companies merged to form Fassbender & Rausch GmbH - now Rausch GmbH. Another important chocolate manufacturer was Joseph Emile Hachez from Bremen; he started chocolate production in 1890.

In Switzerland, the first chocolate factory was founded in 1819 by François-Louis Cailler in Vevey . He was followed by the Swiss companies Philippe Suchard (1824), Lindt , Jean Tobler (1830; Toblerone ) and Rudolf Sprüngli (1845). The first Swiss milk chocolate was launched on the market in 1875 by Daniel Peter and Henri Nestlé . In 1879 Rodolphe Lindt developed a process for conching chocolate. This was the first time that chocolate became a luxury product without the addition of sugar, honey or roasted hazelnuts . The conching process and milk chocolate contributed significantly to the reputation of Swiss chocolate .

The chocolate was sold in the chocolaterie . Most of these were sales outlets directly at the production facility. Nowadays, chocolateries can be found as café-chocolateries in cities. Rausch describes its shop - the Rausch Schokoladenhaus - on Berlin's Gendarmenmarkt as the “largest chocolate house in the world”.

Origin of the name

The word chocolate goes back to the Aztec xocolatl 'cocoa drink ', which can probably be explained as a compound of xocolia 'make bitter' and atl 'water'. It has been adopted as the loan word chocolate in Spanish . The Spanish word got into German through Dutch mediation.

The word cocoa goes back to the Aztec root cacaua , which is the basis of the Aztec word cacahuatl , cocoa bean. It found its way into European languages through the Spanish loan word cacao .

The scientific name for the cocoa tree is Theobroma cacao L. Theobroma means 'food of the gods'.


A cross-section of cocoa pods with the ripe cocoa beans inside

Manufacture of chocolate

Chocolate roller around 1900
Stollwerck five-roller mill from 1873

The industrial production of chocolate is technically demanding, so it is difficult to give a recipe for the production of high-quality chocolate on a small scale. First, cocoa beans are processed into cocoa mass . If the cocoa mass is to be turned into chocolate, it is mixed with sugar , possibly also cocoa butter and milk products (today almost exclusively in dry form, for example as milk powder ) and spices. This chocolate mass is then finely ground in rolling mills, so that the sugar crystals in particular are reduced to an average size of 10-20 micrometers. The main goal is to eliminate the grittiness of the chocolate mass in the mouth caused by large particles. Heinrich Stollwerck, son of Franz Stollwerck and mechanical engineer, received the imperial patent for his five-roller mill in 1873. This construction provided a finer grinding result and processed twice to four times the amount in the same time. The chocolate mass is now heated and rubbed in the so-called conches ( concha , Spanish for “shell”, former form of the device). This was originally done in flat, tub-shaped containers with rotating and oscillating rollers. Conching took up to 90 hours. Modern technology made it possible to shorten this process considerably, reducing the moisture, opening up the aroma and removing undesired aroma components (especially acetic acid). Apart from cocoa butter, no cocoa ingredients are used for white chocolate .

In order to influence the viscosity of the mass, soy lecithin is usually added in an amount of a maximum of 0.2%. In the EU , according to Directive 2000/36 / EC - which was implemented in Germany by the Cocoa and Chocolate Ordinance - only non-lauric fats from some tropical plants are permitted as vegetable fat in addition to cocoa butter , and this only up to a maximum of 5%. The following types of oil are permitted:

This directive harmonises European law, as individual member states were also previously allowed to replace part of cocoa butter.

One kilo of chocolate causes around 3.5 kilos of CO 2 equivalents . The water consumption is 10,000 liters per kilo of chocolate.

Tempering (precrystallizing) chocolate

solid and liquid chocolate

There are two temperature control processes for production .

Traditional tempering

Before chocolate is processed from the liquid state and solidified, it must be tempered, i.e. In other words, it is cooled until the fat content in the chocolate forms the first solidification crystals . A distinction is made between six different solidification crystals of chocolate, although these differ in appearance, taste and melting temperature. The crystal shape 5 is the desired shape for consumption. Crystal form 6 is characterized by the white, fibrous appearance of chocolate that has melted and solidified again. With this undesirable crystal form, the melting point is above the temperature that leads to a pleasant melting effect on the tongue when consumed . For the production of these solidification crystals, a defined cooling and then a heating of the chocolate mass is necessary. When the chocolate is reheated, low-melting crystals are melted so that only high-melting crystals are in the liquid chocolate. The chocolate then solidifies during subsequent cooling in a crystal structure that is formed from these high-melting crystals. The heat treatment of the liquid chocolate is called tempering in the technical language , the chocolate is called precrystallized. Dark couverture is tempered to 31 to 32 ° C, whole milk couverture to 30 to 31 ° C and white couverture to a final temperature of around 28 to 30 ° C. There are qualitative differences in the various temperature control processes. For a good gloss, long shelf life and fine-grained breakage of the end product, it is important that the temperature control machine forms fat crystals in a high-melting crystal form, that these crystal agglomerates are present in small dimensions and that they are homogeneously distributed throughout the mass.

Seed crystallization

As an alternative to the tempering process described above, the chocolate mass can also be crystallized using seed crystallization. In a separate process step, high-melting crystal shapes are produced in pure cocoa butter in a shear crystallizer by shearing in conjunction with defined heating / cooling and then added to the chocolate mass. The crystals created in the chocolate mass grow around the high-melting seed crystals.

Temperature control

The degree of tempering and pre-crystallization, i.e. the proportion (quantity) of solidified fat crystals, is decisive for the production process. Too low a proportion (under-heating) results in too long solidification times during final cooling and can result in poor gloss and poor storage life. Too high a proportion of solidification (excessive heating) results in an increased viscosity of the chocolate mass to be processed and can result in lower contraction during final cooling and poor gloss.

Solidification curves of chocolate (pre-crystallized chocolate as a broken line)

Since cocoa butter consists of a glyceride mixture with different melting points, the melting curve of chocolate does not result in a stopping point, but a melting range. When chocolate cools down, another characteristic of cocoa butter becomes noticeable. Cocoa butter is very slow in the formation of crystallization nuclei, it can be very supercooled before it solidifies. Although the melting range of the crystal form is approx. 34 ° C, completely melted (i.e. not precrystallized) mass can be brought to temperatures below 20 ° C before it noticeably solidifies if it is cooled without moving. The solidification of this chocolate takes place very slowly. The following diagram shows the cooling curve of an untempered chocolate (continuous line).

Pre-crystallized chocolate solidifies at a higher temperature and in a much shorter time. The entire latent heat is released. This changes the cooling curve considerably. Self-heating of the chocolate during the solidification phase is possible. After solidification, there is another drop in temperature. A typical cooling curve for pre-crystallized (tempered) chocolate is shown as a broken line in the diagram.

In a further production step, the mass is filled into molds or prepared as a coating for chocolate bars and then cooled. This chocolate mass can then be poured into appropriate shapes such as bars, spheres, hollow molds or eggs. The possible addition of nuts or other hard ingredients to the mass takes place shortly after tempering. These pieces must be included in the temperature control calculation.


Finally, the liquid mass is poured into preheated molds. Air bubbles are removed by vibration . As they cool down, the boards contract, which makes it easier to “dismantle”. The usual weight for a bar of chocolate is 100 grams. The bar usually has predetermined breaking points in the longitudinal and transverse directions so that it can be easily broken into bite-sized pieces of chocolate.

Production of filled chocolate

There are three common methods of making filled chocolate.

One-shot process

In the one-shot process , the chocolate is dosed via an external ring nozzle and the filling is dosed at short intervals via a filling nozzle located inside the ring nozzle. The advantage of this process is that only one cooling process is required. Disadvantages of the one-shot technique are, above all, the high level of technological effort required to dose chocolate and filling in the same operation and the changed contraction behavior of the article produced when it is cooled. In addition, it is often not taken into account that by far not every chocolate or filling compound is one-shot capable, so that when switching to this technology, existing recipes usually become obsolete or at least have to be adapted.

Turning procedure

The turning method is older . In the case of medium-sized and large production plants with an output of more than 500 kg / h, as a rule - if the expensive one-shot technique is not used - initially only the chocolate is dosed into the mold. Then the mold is turned over, so that only part of the still liquid chocolate mass remains on the walls of the mold. After cooling, the resulting chocolate shell is finally provided with the desired filling and, after a further cooling process, the so-called lid (which is actually the bottom of the praline or bar) is dosed. Such conventional systems have to cool the praline or bar after the sleeve, the filling and the lid have been dispensed.

This process is also suitable for the production of hollow chocolate bodies which are to contain a filling that remains liquid or toys. In most cases, two halves are cast, then put together and welded by briefly heating. The hollow body can be colored inside and out by pouring and turning it several times. If a filling that remains liquid is provided, one of the halves has a hole through which the filling and then a stopper made of chocolate can be introduced afterwards. To make Santa Clauses and Easter Bunnies, chocolate is first filled into one half of the mold. Immediately afterwards the second half of the mold is put on. As a rule, the two halves of the mold adhere to one another through magnetic force. Then the connected shapes are subjected to two overlapping, rotary movements until the chocolate has solidified. In fully automatic production systems, this process is carried out in the cooler in order to accelerate the solidification of the chocolate.

Cold stamping

In medium and small systems, the process of cold stamping is also widespread for sleeve formation . A cooled stamp is pressed into the mold after the chocolate has been dispensed. As a result, the dosed chocolate is formed into a sleeve and solidified at the same time. Then the filling can be dosed into the chocolate shell and - after another cooling process - the praline or bar can be covered. There are two main reasons why the cold stamping process can only be used economically for the production of smaller quantities. On the one hand, the energetic expenditure is quite high in order to cool the warm chocolate in an adequate time in such a way that the sleeve produced remains stable. On the other hand, care must be taken to ensure that no air humidity can condense on the cold stamp, since the chocolate sleeves just produced could then be pulled out of the mold when the stamp is lifted again.

Immersion process

A special method for making chocolate sleeves is to immerse a chilled stamp in a bath of liquid chocolate for a few seconds. After being lifted out, the finished chocolate sleeves adhere to the stamp and are then detached from it by compressed air. This dipping process is also used to cover stick ice cream with chocolate.


In 2018, chocolate with a total value of 24.7 billion euros was traded worldwide. Germany was the most important international export country in terms of export value, ahead of Belgium and Italy.

# country Exports (in € million)
1 GermanyGermany Germany 4,208
2 BelgiumBelgium Belgium 2,603
3 ItalyItaly Italy 1,751
4th NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands 1,707
5 PolandPoland Poland 1,470
6th United StatesUnited States United States 1,417
7th CanadaCanada Canada 1,221
8th FranceFrance France 1,202
9 United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 816
10 SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 731

Market situation

Commodity prices

The chocolate manufacturers purchase their raw materials at fluctuating raw material prices . World market prices for the two most important raw materials, sugar and cocoa, were roughly as high in 2018 as a decade earlier (in euros).

  • The sugar price in the EU fell from 730 euros per tonne (2013) to 320 euros (October 2018) and was thus at the price level of the world market.
  • At the end of 2018, cocoa prices were roughly at the same level as at the end of 2008. The monthly average price for cocoa beans [Cocoa ( ICCO )] was 1.93 euros per kilogram (November 2018); In the last ten years (2008–20018) it has fluctuated between EUR 3.13 (November 2015) and EUR 1.60 (January 2018).


In Switzerland there were export subsidies on chocolate until January 1, 2019 in order to stabilize the milk price. Due to a requirement by the World Trade Organization (WTO), the “Chocolate Law” was repealed accordingly at the end of 2018.

Types of chocolate

There are a multitude of varieties and qualities, shapes and flavors. A distinction is made between dark chocolate (also called dark chocolate, dark chocolate or gentleman's chocolate), milk chocolate and white chocolate . A chocolate with a higher fat content for baking and glazing is called and traded as couverture .

Medium composition of types of chocolate (per 100 g)
Type sugar Cocoa butter Cocoa mass Milk powder
bitter chocolate 47 g 04 g 48 g -
milk chocolate 48 g 18 g 12 g 22 g
White chocolate 46 g 28 g - 26 g

In addition to the basic classifications, mostly as described on the basis of the mixture or the production process, distinctions are also made when selling fine chocolates according to the cultivation area of ​​the cocoa bean. Quality terms such as the " Premier Cru " known from wine are also used. In addition to the real chocolate described above, a fat glaze is used for chocolate chip cookies or in some cases for industrially produced ice cream , which does not fall under the term chocolate because it does not contain cocoa butter.

Since 2017, pink-colored chocolate products have been offered under the name “Ruby”, the different color of which is due to selection from previously known cocoa bean varieties and, according to an assumption by the consumer center, largely dispensing with fermentation and stabilized by citric acid .

Chocolate and couverture products

Truffle pralines

Chocolates (bars for direct consumption as well as couvertures ) with high demands on the purity and quality of the cocoa used (often sorted by origin) are produced by manufacturers in many countries. One of the last variations is chocolates, to which aromas and spices such as chilli , cinnamon , hemp , black pepper or even thyme have been added to the base. Air chocolate is a special form that contains numerous small air bubbles. Nuts are freshly made in pastry shops .

Chocolate is not only enjoyed pure (as a bar), it is the starting point for pralines and confectionery ( truffle , nougat , marzipan or other pralines). Chocolatiers appreciate the fine couvertures with a high cocoa butter content and selected fine cocoa ( couvert : "coated / coated"). There are thousands of combinations such as champagne-cream-truffles that many smaller specialists offer. A “crunchy” chocolate, a “creamy” filling with a “tender” melt and little sugar, but cream and fresh butter, are some of the quality-determining characteristics. High-quality (and well-known industrial) manufacturers can be found in Switzerland , Belgium , but also in Germany and recently also in Austria and Eastern European countries . Of course, only chocolates that are sold fresh on the day and that are available in many confectionary and good pastry shops can be of particularly good quality.

The products have a limited shelf life and are relatively sensitive to heat due to the high fat content. A distinction is made between consumer products and premium products, so the price is very different. The best-known form are the "hedgehog" truffles - round balls with small spikes that are reminiscent of the earth truffle .

Drinking chocolate

Real hot chocolate - in contrast to the "by stirring cocoa or slightly soluble preparations containing cocoa beverage powder may typically milk or water and chopped chocolate, with the addition of sugar and -" in milk beverages produced thickening agents such as corn flour , guar gum or locust bean gum , produced the Melting and emulsifying the cocoa butter in the aqueous phase works better after heating.

Chocolate and health

At the beginning of the 19th century, chocolate was sold in pharmacies as a tonic. There is no evidence that chocolate is physically dependent or addictive . Even the references to mood-enhancing effects of various ingredients in chocolate are insufficient to explain the effect, so that psychological causes must also be taken into account.


100 grams of dark chocolate
nutrient contain
Carbohydrates (sugar) 54 g
Fats 27 g
Fiber 9 g
Protein (protein) 6 g
water 1 g
Minerals per 100 g
element contain Daily requirement element contain Daily requirement
potassium 400 mg 2-3 g magnesium 300 mg 300-400 mg
phosphorus 280 mg 1 g chlorine 100 mg 3-5 g
Calcium 100 mg 1 g sodium 12 mg 2-3 g
iron 3 mg 15 mg copper 1 mg 1.5 mg
nickel 0.26 mg 0.2-0.5 mg zinc 0.2 mg 15 mg
fluorine 0.05 mg 1 mg Iodine 0.005 mg 0.2 mg

Nutritional physiology

Chocolate consists to a large extent of fat and sugar. In addition to other ingredients, chocolate contains sucrose ( table sugar , a disaccharide ), which makes the glycemic index (GI) of chocolate comparable to that of rye bread and, at 65, is in the mid-field, which means that it causes blood sugar levels to rise and fall more steadily and more slowly than it does fast-digesting starchy or sugary foods such as glucose is the case.

Most types of chocolate have a physiological calorific value between 2,100 and 2,500 kJ per 100 grams (= 500 to 600 kcal ). Milk chocolate is in the middle with 2,300 kJ per 100 grams (= 550 kcal). This corresponds to about a quarter of the daily energy intake of an adult.

In a Turkish study, milk and dark chocolate varieties common on the local market were examined for their cholesterol content and fatty acid profile. The fat content consisted mainly of stearic acid (39%), oleic acid (26%) and palmitic acid (26%). The fatty acids mentioned are considered to be nutritionally harmless. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was 70/30. The average cholesterol content was 1.14 mg / kg, a very low value compared to food of animal origin.


According to a study published in 2007 by the journal Ökotest , dark chocolates of South American origin in particular had an increased cadmium content , which can lead to cadmium poisoning if consumed continuously .

During investigations in a clinic of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel in 2009, traces of the mold toxin ochratoxin A were found in harmless concentrations in all the samples of dark chocolate examined .

Positive effects

Structural formula of theobromine

Unsweetened cocoa powder contains 1 to 3 percent theobromine , which is chemically similar to caffeine . It has a mild, permanent stimulating effect on the organism and is slightly mood-enhancing. In contrast to dogs , cats and horses , this proportion is harmless to humans . Other ingredients that are associated with the mood-enhancing effect of chocolate include the basic molecular skeleton of the amphetamine phenylethylamine , the serotonin precursor tryptophan , a natural antidepressant , and the cannabinoid anandamide , the latter a derivative of arachidonic acid . However, the amount of anandamide it contains is far too small for a noticeable effect, although chocolate also contains substances that delay degradation. The mood-enhancing effect of chocolate cannot be conclusively explained by the ingredients alone, but also includes psychological influences.

Chocolate, especially dark chocolate with a high cocoa content, can greatly increase the level of heart-protecting antioxidants in the blood for a few hours. However, this positive effect is neutralized when milk is consumed at the same time . This fact leads to the assumption that the benefits of other antioxidant-rich foods, such as fruits and green vegetables , could also be negated by the simultaneous consumption of milk. The antioxidant that is effective in chocolate and cocoa is a flavonoid called epicatechin .

In addition to the cocoa content, chocolate also contains N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amide , which has a growth-promoting effect on skin cells and thus supports wound healing, treats skin damage, prevents wrinkles and reduces the risk of gastric ulcers. There is evidence that the cocoa contained in chocolate has a caries-inhibiting effect. (The sugar naturally promotes caries.) According to a study published in the FASEB Journal in 2004 , the theobromine contained in (dark) chocolate may be an active ingredient for the relief of coughing attacks . However, according to the researchers, the theobromine concentration in chocolate is far too low for the delicacy to be an effective "cough suppressant".

Antihypertensive effect

Regular consumption of chocolate can reduce blood pressure and the risk of heart attack and stroke. The polyphenols suspected for the effect can also be found in other foods (e.g. apples). The study results are not yet sufficient to provide nutritional recommendations in favor of chocolate containing cocoa.

According to an American study carried out on 2291 pregnant women from 1996 to 2000, the consumption of dark chocolate can reduce the risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women. The number of women with corresponding symptoms was directly and negatively dependent on the level of the theobromine contained in the chocolate in the serum.

Legends and fallacies

It is controversial whether chocolate can cause blemishes. A much-cited study by J. Fulton from 1969, financed by the "Chocolate Manufacturers' Association of the USA", came to the conclusion that - contrary to popular belief - there was no connection between chocolate consumption and the occurrence of acne . However, a later analysis of the conduct of the study revealed numerous shortcomings. A more recent study from 2011 found indications of a connection between acne vulgaris and the consumption of chocolate.

The legend that chocolate or chocolate products such as nougat cream were added to bovine blood is still widespread. It is very likely that it goes back to an old Neapolitan chocolate sauce dish made from dark chocolate and cream called "Sanguinaccio" (Sangue = blood), which was originally prepared with pork or beef blood. This recipe is no longer used today and is also prohibited in Italy according to EU Directive 2000/36 / EC . It should also be noted that studies have been carried out with the aim of replacing part of the chocolate base with other substances. Such efforts were made, among other places, in the GDR to save foreign currency by using local raw materials. However, the aforementioned EU Directive 2000/36 / EC and the German Cocoa and Chocolate Ordinance stipulate which ingredients may be contained in chocolate. According to these regulations, blood is not one of them. However, almonds, hazelnuts and other nuts, whole, in pieces or ground, can be added up to 60% of the total weight of the product, which saves cocoa mass.

The stained, soft, whitish to light gray coating that deposits on chocolate products when improperly stored is often confused with mold , but has nothing to do with it, this sugar and / or fat bloom does not reduce the taste of the product and is also harmless from a health point of view .

Chocolate and pets

The theobromine in chocolate has a higher toxicity for cats , dogs , birds and horses than for humans, since their metabolism can only slowly break down theobromine. The absorption after oral intake is almost complete with a bioavailability of 77 ± 12%. The half-life in dogs varies between 6.5 and 17.5 hours; the lethal dose ( LD 50 ) is around 300 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. This corresponds to around 1.5 kg of milk chocolate for a 10 kg dog; with dried cocoa powder (theobromine content 28.5 mg / g) this is around 100 g and with dark chocolate (contains 16 mg / g) around 190 g. Fatal poisoning is mostly due to cardiac arrhythmia, hyperthermia or respiratory failure. In dogs, doses between 16 and 100 mg / kg can lead to symptoms of poisoning such as increased blood pressure or pulse rate , narrowing of the blood vessels , reduced irritation threshold of the nervous system and thus restlessness, tremors and hyperreflexia up to seizures , often vomiting and diarrhea . A dog that has ingested a large amount of chocolate should be induced to vomit and taken to the vet as quickly as possible .

Due to improper consumer habits and corresponding demand, special, chocolate-like feeds are now also on the market (such as dog chocolate ). The risk of theobromine poisoning is lower in cats because they have no taste buds for sweet substances and therefore disdain chocolate.

Other mammals such as rats and mice can - like humans - rapidly break down theobromine. However, the large amount of fat in chocolate can lead to health problems. Furthermore, pathological changes in the testes were found in a study of male rats. The test animals were given a high dose of theobromine measured on their body weight over a period of 30 days.

Chocolate consumption

The following table shows the European chocolate consumption in kilograms per capita in 2013 (with the exception of Switzerland, here the value is from 2014).

country Consumption amount
GermanyGermany Germany 12.2
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 11.7
NorwayNorway Norway 9.6
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 8.9
AustriaAustria Austria 8.8
DenmarkDenmark Denmark 7.6
FinlandFinland Finland 7.2
BelgiumBelgium Belgium 6.9
FranceFrance France 6.7
SwedenSweden Sweden 6.2
LithuaniaLithuania Lithuania 5.8
ItalyItaly Italy 3.9
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic 3.6
SpainSpain Spain 3.4
PortugalPortugal Portugal 2.9
HungaryHungary Hungary 2.7


According to the International Cocoa Organization , the following companies were the largest manufacturers of chocolate products in terms of net sales:

Companies country 2016 net sales ( US dollars )
Mars Inc. United States US $ 18,000 million
Mondelēz International Inc. United States US $ 12,900 million
Ferrero Group Luxembourg / Italy US $ 10,637 million
Meiji Co. Ltd. Japan US $ 9,850 million
Nestlé SA Switzerland US $ 9,138 million
Hershey Foods Corp. United States US $ 7,461 million
Pladis United Kingdom US $ 5,200 million
Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli AG Switzerland US $ 3,968 million
Ezaki Glico Co Ltd. Japan US $ 3,437 million
(including non-confectionery)
Grupo Arcor SA Argentina US $ 2,900 million


Feature films


  • Chocolate makes you happy . DVD . Production: NZZ , Zurich 2005 ( preview and content - “NZZ format”, first broadcast: Monday, September 19, 2005, 11 p.m.).
  • Bitter passion. How the desire for chocolate arises. Report, Germany, 2005, 40 min., Script and direction: Steffi Cassel, production: Spiegel TV , first broadcast: November 24, 2005 on VOX , table of contents and online video .
  • Luxury goods under the microscope: chocolate. (OT: How The Best Is Done. ) Documentary, USA, 2007, 54 min., Production: Treasure HD Channel, engl. Film dates and German information .
  • A journey on the Franco-German chocolate route. The "Route du Chocolat". Report, Germany, 2008, 28:40 min., Script and direction: Natascha Walters, production: SWR , series: Fahr mal hin , repetition: July 6, 2010 in SWR, table of contents and information ( map ).
  • Can sweet things be sin? The chocolate side of the east. Documentary, Germany, 2008, 43 min., Written and directed by Uta Kolano , production: MDR , film information from DW .
  • The bitter way to sweet success. About the rise of Swiss chocolate. Documentary, Switzerland, 2010, 49 min., Script and director: Christa Ulli, moderation: Kathrin Winzenried, SRF , 3sat , first broadcast: May 5, 2010, summary of 3sat.
  • Dirty chocolate. (OT: The Dark Side of Chocolat. ) Report, Germany, Denmark, 2010, 43:39 min., Script and director: Miki Mistrati, production: Bastard Film, DR2 , NDR , German first broadcast: October 6, 2010 on ARD , Summary , online video ( memento from June 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) from NDR, interview with Mistrati.
  • Dirty Chocolate II. Report, Germany, Denmark, 2012, 45 min., Written and directed: Miki Mistrati, NDR , German first broadcast: December 20, 2012 on ARD , summary ( memento from December 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), online Video ( memento from January 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) of the NDR


Chocolate museums


  • Stephen T. Beckett: Industrial chocolate manufacture and use . Blackwell Science, Oxford; Malden, MA 1999, ISBN 978-0-632-05433-6 (also known in professional circles as the Chocolate Bible ).
  • Georg Bernardini: Chocolate - The standard work. 2nd edition, Bonn 2015, ISBN 978-3-00-049141-2 .
  • Sophie D. Coe, Michael D. Coe: The True History of Chocolate . Thames & Hudson, New York NY 2019, ISBN 978-0-500-29474-1 (English, 2004 (2nd edition), 2013 (3rd edition). A German translation of the 1st edition was published in 1997 by S. Fischer : The real story of chocolate ).
  • Teresa L. Dillinger et al .: Food of the Gods. Cure for Humanity? A Cultural History of the Medicinal and Ritual Use of Chocolate . 2000 (English, published in the appendix to "The Journal of Nutrition").
  • Pierre Hermé , Nicolas Bertherat (photography): Larousse chocolate . 380 recipes . 2nd Edition. Christian, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-88472-741-6 .
  • Maricel Presilla: Chocolate, the sweetest temptation . Rolf Heyne Collection, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-89910-139-1 .
  • Klaus Roth : Chocolate: Why it tastes good . In: Chemistry in Our Time . Vol. 39, no. 6 , 2005, ISSN  0009-2851 .
  • Roman Rossfeld: From women's drink to military emergency ration. Chocolate consumption from a gender perspective. In: Berner Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Heimatkunde, ISSN  0005-9420 , 2001, 63 (1), pp. 55–65. (PDF, 3.8 MB, 12 pages).
  • Roman Rossfeld: Swiss chocolate. Industrial production and cultural construction of a national symbol 1860–1920. Hier + Jetzt, Baden 2007, 537 pp., Ill., ISBN 978-3-03919-048-5 , dissertation from the University of Zurich , 2004.
  • Henry Stubbe : The Indian Nectar or a Discourse Concerning Chocolata . The Nature of the Cacao-Nut and the Other Ingredients of that Composition Is Examined and Stated According to the Judgment and Experience of Indian and Spanish Writers . JC for Andrew Crook, London 1662.
  • Annerose Menninger: Enjoyment in the face of cultural change. Steiner, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-515-09179-4 .

Web links

Commons : Chocolate  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Chocolate  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

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This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on May 27, 2006 .