Backen (from Middle High German bake , also bachen , "bake") is a cooking method in which dough (dough, a dough mixture or food with breading ) is cooked. The baking temperature in an oven or pan is usually between 150 and 250 ° C, which often causes browning (due to a Maillard reaction ).
During baking, the heat in the dough (CO 2 from yeast fermentation or leavening agents , incorporated air, foaming gases or liquid vapors) expands, which initially loosen the dough (see loosening agents ), and then the dough is solidified as the baking process continues. When baking bread, this creates the crumb and the crust as a surface.
For example, cakes of all kinds and bread doughs as well as pies , casseroles , soufflés , puff pastry dishes , pizzas and cookies are baked . The baked goods sold before Christmas , which are commonly known as Christmas cookies or cookies, are very varied in terms of shape, taste and ingredients.
Baking meat, fish and vegetables in a batter has the advantage that the food remains juicy in the batter because it is hermetically sealed. Flavorings can hardly escape and a carbohydrate supplement is already given.
A bread or cake can be “Klitschig” (also called spintig in Bavaria) if the baked goods are not completely baked through. This can be caused by a baking time that is too short or a baking temperature that is too low. In the professional bakery, however, many more causes of such baking errors are known , e.g. B. through the diverse possibilities of poor relaxation through so-called instinctual errors.
In Austria, "baking" means on the one hand the dry cooking of baked goods (bread, rolls, cakes, confectionery) and on the other hand deep-frying , i.e. cooking in a larger amount of fat or oil ( French fries , breaded meat or breaded vegetables). With fried chicken ( fried chicken ) one thinks in Austria exclusively breaded chicken parts.
A baker pushes bread into the oven, 1568
Baking flatbread in a communal communal oven, 2011 in Morocco
Baking bread in a wood-burning stone oven, 2007 in the USA
Baking bread in a modern rack oven , 2013 in Finland
Baking sponge cakes in a household oven
- Josef Loderbauer: The baker's book in learning fields . Verlag Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-582-40205-9 .
- Philip Pauli (ed.): Textbook of the kitchen. 13th edition. Pauli Fachbuchverlag, Neuhausen 2005, ISBN 3-9523024-0-6 .