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Kneading a pizza dough

Dough is a soft, coherent mixture of flour and liquid (water and / or milk) that is created by the action of mechanical energy (kneading, beating or stirring) and can be shaped. Typical examples are cake and bread doughs . As a food, dough is not consumed raw, but heated (dry-baked, "baked out" in edible fat or cooked in water or steam) and receives its final consistency, taste and appearance .


The word comes from the Middle High German teic , but is possibly also based on the Gothic deigan , which means “kneading” or “forming (from) clay”.

Intermediate product in the manufacture of baked goods

Flour, sugar, almonds, butter, eggs for cookie dough

Flour and liquid (mainly water , milk ) are processed into a homogeneous mixture by stirring, whipping and kneading. These doughs can usually be processed further by hand or with machines. In wheat flours, the gluten ensures an elastic consistency. Other ingredients could be, for example: table salt , leavening agents for loosening and / or other foods such as fat ( butter or margarine ) and eggs . After a biological, chemical or physical loosening of the dough and a subsequent baking process, the actual structure of the finished baked goods with crumb and crust is formed. The characteristics are determined by the ingredients and the processing used during dough production and baking (temperature profile).

You can divide these doughs according to:

  • the ingredients: heavy dough (a lot of fat and sugar) or light dough (little to no fat or sugar)
  • the type of leavening agent: yeast, baking powder or sourdough
  • the type of end product: puff pastry , shortcrust pastry , bread dough, cake batter and so on

Many doughs are now offered as semi-finished products chilled or frozen, e.g. B. strudel dough , pizza dough, yufka dough .

Differences between masses and doughs

Masses and doughs differ significantly, but even professionals often refer to masses as dough.

Differentiation between masses and doughs
feature Dimensions dough  
raw materials Eggs, sugar, starch powder, fat Flour, water or milk
Manufacturing Stir, whip Kneading or stirring (shortcrust pastry)
consistency soft, frothy malleable (dough pieces keep their shape)
Loosening Air, steam or baking soda Yeast, water vapor (for puff pastry ),
potassium carbonate (for gingerbread dough)
species Biscuit mass, Viennese mass, sand mass,
meringue mass , macaroon mass , fire mass
Yeast dough , Danish pastry , puff pastry,
shortcrust pastry , gingerbread dough

In the proteins of the flour dough to (for example gluten ) network, this is achieved by mixing with an aqueous liquid, kneading, detents blank (with swelling) and roll out is reached or upon heating (from choux ). The finest "smooth" flours are used to promote networking .

In the case of masses, the aim is to prevent the flour proteins from crosslinking and thereby making the mass and the finished baked goods tough or elastic. The mass and the baked goods should remain airy and crumbly. Coarse, "handy" flours are used for this. Fat, eggs, sugar and other ingredients prevent or slow down the crosslinking of the flour proteins in the dough. Or all solid ingredients are mixed first and all liquid and both amounts are gently stirred together. When egg white is beaten into foam with subsequent addition of sugar and acidification, the protein molecules are also cross-linked; Once the crosslinking is complete, fatty ingredients can be mixed in without the foam breaking. An added sugar binds liquid in the egg foam, which is then no longer available for the flour protein crosslinking.

Masses in the baking or confectionery trade are stirred or whipped (flour is added at the end). They are made with piping bags, painted on or poured into molds. Typical examples are meringue , hip (pastries) and sponge cake bases . In practice, traditional names that do not comply with these rules have been used. For example, liquid or viscous masses such as pancake batter and batter are commonly referred to as dough.

Cheese masses before maturing, sausage masses before filling or meat masses before shaping ( pies , meatballs ) are often referred to as dough. In pottery , the starting material is sometimes referred to as dough. The analogy to baking here is burning .

Loosening of yeast dough

Stretch test of a dough - the stretchability depends on the quality of the glue
Schematic representation of disulfide bridges within a peptide chain of a protein .
Raised bread dough in a loaf pan

Loosening of the dough is necessary so that the volume increases and pores form inside the dough. Only the formation of pores enables the baked goods to be baked through in the specified baking time. Prerequisites for good pore formation and volume increase are an elastic dough structure and sufficient gas or water vapor formation.

Formation of a dough framework

The purpose of kneading dough is to achieve an elastic structure and the desired baking properties by loosening the dough. Only if there is a balanced relationship between elasticity and elasticity resistance will the dough have the optimum consistency for an increase in volume due to fermentation gases. This is directly related to the proteins in the dough , also known as gluten proteins . Proteins are made up of amino acids such as cysteine , which in turn differ in the structure and composition of their side chains . The side chains can react with each other in redox reactions : while atmospheric oxygen is reduced to water , the thiol functions of the cysteines can oxidatively form disulfide bridges with one another . This reaction leads to a crosslinking of the proteins with one another so that the desired properties of the dough can be developed. The in flour contained glutathione is another protein, but reacts identical. However, in flours rich in glutathione, free thiol functions can be blocked by glutathione. This reaction prevents the proteins from interlinking and thus deteriorates the quality of the resulting dough. To prevent this, vitamin C is added to baking agents. This initially forms dehydroascorbic acid through oxidation with atmospheric oxygen , which then oxidizes glutathione. Dehydroascorbic acid itself is reduced back to vitamin C. In this way, the glutathione can be removed so that the crosslinking of the glue proteins is not disturbed. This increases the baking quality of the dough.

Gas formation through biological loosening

Various types of loosening are used in the production of baked goods, depending on the desired product. The most common types of loosening are likely to be loosening with baker's yeast or sourdough, which are used in the manufacture of bread and rolls.

During the loosening by yeast cells and / or microorganisms in the sourdough, sugars in the dough are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) if the fermentation temperature and duration are sufficient . The fermentation gas forms the pores in the dough. The alcohol partially combines with other substances, which leads to typical flavors of the bread. An optimal proofing time - depending on the respective end product - leads to a large volume of baked goods and a characteristic appearance.

When the dough pieces are "shot" into the oven at the end of the proving time, there is a further increase in volume ( oven shoot ):

  1. Before the temperature in the dough reaches 40–50 ° C, another significant gas formation takes place. Then the yeast cells die.
  2. the fermentation gases continue to increase in volume in accordance with Gay-Lussac's gas law .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b Ternes, Täufel, Tunger, Zobel: Food Lexicon . Behr's Verlag, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-89947-165-2 .
  2. ^ Josef Loderbauer: The baker's book in learning fields . Verlag Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-582-40205-9 , p. 430 .
  3. a b c d e f America's Test Kitchen Guy Crosby: perfection [sic!]. The Science of Good Cooking , Volume 3 Baking; translated by Michael Schickenberg; Verlag Stiftung Warentest; Berlin; 2016; ISBN 978-3-86851-431-5 .
  4. Jakubke, HD & Jeschkeit, H .: Amino acids, peptides, proteins . Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1982, ISBN 3-527-25892-2 , pp. 101 .
  5. Roth, K .: Our daily bread; Thanksgiving . In: Chemistry in Our Time . tape 41 , no. 5 , 2007, p. 400-409 , doi : 10.1002 / ciuz.200700438 .

Web links

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