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Butter with a knife
Butter in a commercial amount (250 g) in a butter dish

Butter ( Middle High German  buter , Old High German  butera over Latin Butyrum of ancient Greek βούτυρον boútyron , cow's milk cheese ") is a mostly from the cream of milk produced fat spread . Butter is mainly made from cow's milk, but there is also butter made from sheep's milk and goat's milk .

In Alemannic the butter is called Anken , also called Anke in Upper Rhine , which comes from Indo-European via Middle High German (der) anke and Old High German anko ; an Ostalemannic name is lard .

In a figurative sense, some vegetable products are also referred to with the word component “butter” or “fat”, for example the vegetable fats cocoa butter and shea butter or peanut butter .

Chemical composition

Typical triglyceride in the fat portion of butter with the blue marked saturated fatty acid residue of palmitic acid, the green marked monounsaturated fatty acid residue of oleic acid and the red marked residue of butyric acid. The triple acylated glycerine ( marked black ) can be seen in the center.

According to an EU regulation , butter must consist of at least 80 percent milk fat . A water content of 16 percent must not be exceeded in order for the milk product to be sold as butter. Other ingredients of butter are the milk components lactose , minerals , cholesterol , phospholipids , proteins , fat-soluble vitamins , lactic acid and flavorings .

Butter is characterized by a comparatively high content of glycerides from oleic acid and short-chain saturated fatty acids (e.g. butyric acid ). The calorific value is about 3100  kJ (about 740  kcal ) per 100  g .

Feeding the cows affects the ingredients of the butter. If the cows get a lot of green fodder, the butter contains more omega-3 fatty acids. Corn and concentrate feed lower the levels of omega-3 fatty acids. A high proportion of green fodder also affects the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in butter.

Butter flavor

More than 230 different flavorings have been found in butter . The aroma is essentially only determined by the three substances diacetyl , δ-decalactone and butyric acid.

Structural formulas and smells of the most important flavorings in butter
Butanedione - Butanedione.svg
Diacetyl - buttery
Structural formula δ-decalactone.svg

δ-decalactone - peach and coconut-like
Butyric acid skeleton

Butyric acid - cheesy, rancid, sweaty

There are various influencing factors on the butter flavor. It is influenced by animal feeding, time of year, manufacturing process and storage conditions.


When and where butter was first made is not known. What is certain is that it happened in connection with the introduction of cattle breeding . The oldest representation is a Sumerian mosaic from around 3000 BC. Chr.

It is not always clear whether the older mentions refer to butter in the current sense. So the butter mentioned in the Tanach could simply be thick milk .

Already in ancient times was the Greeks and Romans butter known. However, they did not use it for consumption, as olive oil was too dominant there . It was used for medical purposes.

Hortus sanitatis , Mainz 1491 Fig. For the chapter Butirum - Butter

Since the Middle Ages , butter has developed into an important commodity that was transported in pots and barrels, also by sea (if the shelf life could be guaranteed by suitable measures during transport).

In earlier times, the preliminary stage of creaming, necessary for butter production, was carried out in cool ice cellars , well insulated with peat , which were always refilled with natural ice in winter. The milk was stored for a few days in lattices made of wood, clay or tinplate (at 12 to 15 ° C if possible). So there were regionally different procedures z. B. Holstein, Gussandsche, Dutch or Frisian, Swedish or Schwarzsche, the Reimers method and the American mass framing. In all of these methods (except for the Dutch and Schwarzschen) the layer height was between 3.5 and 15 cm.

With the Dutch method, the layer was 40 to 50 cm, with two or three stripes. The American bulk process had a layer thickness of 10 to 15 cm; the tubs held 100–500 liters of milk. The temperature reached 15 to 18 ° C, mostly with water cooling. These variants were revolutionized by the Schwarz process , in which the layer height was 40 cm. The tinplate containers held 40-50 liters, packed well in ice, and the contents were skimmed in twelve hours. In twelve hours, about 74% of the milk fat was obtained as sweet cream.

At that time, a new method of creaming was developed (with small inclined transverse walls and with only 1 cm distance between the chambers for faster cream formation), but this was no longer used due to the now emerging (almost industrial) creaming by centrifuge.

In the village steam dairy that emerged in Germany around 1880 through the invention of the milk centrifuge ( Lefeldt ) and steam engine, the cream was ripened in the cream ripener with the addition of the acid alarm (bacterial culture) and optionally, depending on the season, cold or heat (i.e. hot water, water, ice water or Cooling brine via double wall or swivel arm). The Buttermeier put the cream, which had been centrifuged out of the raw milk the day before, heated to around 95 ° C and then quickly cooled down, into the butter churn the next morning through a churn . After about 35 minutes, he recognized the right moment of buttering by the sound and the polished sight glass. The resulting overpressure and the buttermilk could be drained. Before the churns later received an integrated system of kneading rollers, the butter had to be kneaded separately on a table (after washing and possibly salting).

With the advent of the industrial revolution in the 19th century and the spread of steam dairies, which many decades later concentrated into large dairies , butter production was also industrialized. This was accompanied by increasing industrialization of agriculture, year-round stable housing, milking machines , seasonally independent availability of concentrate, improved medical care for cattle, etc.

Before the advent of refrigeration technology, butter was coated with cheese in some places to protect it from spoilage. In Italy, for example, the burrata was used for this . The also Italian burrino served the same purpose and is still made with a core of butter.

The development of artificial refrigeration technology in the 19th century meant another breakthrough. Butter could now be transported more easily and stored for much longer without going rancid . This also had an impact on the manufacturing processes. In 1881 the first cold store with refrigeration machines was built, and in 1913 the first refrigerator for domestic use.

Today, the seamless cold chain from milk production to butter production, transport and trade to the consumer has become standard in industrialized nations .

Butter, clarified butter and margarine in comparison from left to right

The industrial revolution gave butter a serious competition with margarine . A cheap spread of fat was needed for masses of poor factory workers who could not afford butter and to feed the military . In 1869, the chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès developed on behalf of the French Emperor Napoleon III. the first butter substitute based on milk, water and kidney fat. A significant margarine industry was developing by the turn of the century.

In addition to its low price , margarine is now also marketed for health benefits. It is emphasized that it has a lower cholesterol content compared to butter . However, its health-promoting effectiveness has not withstood scientific tests, as margarine, unlike butter, contains hydrogenated fatty acids.

For dietary purposes, the industry also offers butter products with a reduced fat content, such as three-quarter fat butter, semi-fat butter or milk spreads.

production method


Although butter can in principle be obtained from any fatty milk, it is not always easy to obtain. Milk from mares and donkey mares is hardly suitable, but milk from cows, sheep and goats is good.

Butter making

Butter spinner
The Irrel farming tradition shows the buttering in the open-air museum Roscheider Hof

In the past, butter was made by letting milk stand for two days. The cream that settles on its own during this time is then skimmed off. He then had to intervene for some time before at about 7 to 8 ° C by hand buttered was.

The physical ripening of the cream is used for partial recrystallization and optimal distribution of the milk fat and enables the buttering of unleavened cream. Organic cream maturation after adding a starter culture (only with mildly acidified and sour cream butter) gradually lowers the pH value and creates a certain aroma through various microorganisms ( e.g. Streptococcus lactis , Streptococcus cremoris ).

During the buttering process, the cream is whipped. This destroys the fat globules in the milk fat . The fat layer breaks open and the fat it contains comes out. Now the fat can stick together. Parts of the fat layers, water and some milk protein are included. The liquid fat-in-water emulsion becomes a solid water-in-fat emulsion. By far the largest part of these fat-free components ( milk serum ) comes out as buttermilk . The butter itself is finally kneaded into a homogeneous, pliable mass, which is then shaped and packaged.


The color of the butter is influenced by two factors: indirectly by the type of cow feed and directly by added coloring agents.

Butter churn, 19th century, used worldwide

The typical yellow color arises naturally from the fact that cows eat fresh grass in the pasture. Like the yellowish-red carrots that give it its name, this contains carotenoids , with the green of the chlorophyll covering the yellow of the carotenoids. Since carotenoids are fat-soluble, they accumulate in milk fat and thus also in butter. This causes the butter to turn yellow. If the cows are given simple, non-enriched concentrate and hay, such as B. in winter or all year round in modern agriculture, the butter tends to be white in color.

So that the modern consumer receives butter of the same color all year round, in Germany an amount of beta-carotene adapted to the respective feed conditions is added either to the cream in the dairy or to the feed of the cows, produced synthetically or with the help of microorganisms, whereby genetic engineering processes allowed are. It is also possible to feed carrots. Even earlier, the butter was colored yellow by the sap of marigold and the marsh marigold - now known to be quite poisonous . The main purpose of the yellow color was and still is to hide the yellow color which is typical of butter that is no longer fresh.

The wrong assumption is widespread that the practice of butter coloring has to do with the fact that the quality of the butter also differs in color when the cows are fed with different levels of fat. It is assumed that autumn and winter milk are low in fat and thus only result in whitish butter; a yellow color was therefore supposed to simulate a higher fat content. However, this is not correct, because even butter with a particularly high fat content can be white when fresh, since the color of the butter is related to the colorants it contains, but not to the fat content. On the other hand, the fat content of the butter does not even come close to correlating with that of the feed or milk. How fat a butter is depends more on the manufacturing process. (Only a larger amount of butter can be obtained from milk with a higher fat content.)

Butter coloring is handled differently in different countries. In Italy , for example, butter is usually pure white.

Today's industrial butter production

Milk and butter products

Today butter in Germany can only be made from pasteurized cream. The milk is skimmed in centrifuges ( separators ) in a few seconds, the cream is then pasteurized, i.e. briefly heated and cooled, and then stored for around 20 hours to mature. In the butter-making machine, which consists of a beater, a drum and a kneader, the cream is now whipped, the butter is separated and kneaded. The butter is then shaped and packaged in a molding machine. Buttermilk is a by-product of buttering (corresponds to cream without the milk fat). More than 20 liters of milk are required for one kilogram of butter. Due to the high milk consumption, butter is a food that causes a particularly large number of greenhouse gases ( CO 2 equivalents ) per kilo during production . The water consumption is also particularly high at over 13,000 liters per kilo. In addition to raw milk cheese , raw milk butter is still made from unpasteurized milk on alpine pastures .


  • Sour cream butter is made from microbially acidified milk, heavy cream or whey cream. With the help of specific lactic acid bacteria (mesophilic acid starters), aromatic substances ( diacetyl ) are created, which give the sour cream butter its typical taste. The pH must not exceed 5.1.
  • Sweet cream butter can be made from milk, cream, or whey cream . In contrast to sour cream butter, it is made without the addition of lactic acid bacteria. Their taste is fresh, creamy and mild. The pH value must not be below 6.4. It is ideal for adding sauces, as it flakes out less quickly when heated than sour cream butter and binds the sauces well.
  • Mildly soured butter is made from sweet cream into which lactic acid bacteria cultures or lactic acid are kneaded after buttering. Mildly acidified butter is a butter with a pH value between 6.3 and 5.1.
  • Salted butter is butter mixed with different types of salt. For this purpose, coarse and fine sea ​​salt or rock salt is added in different concentrations.

There are butter fats with a reduced fat content.

The butter traded in Germany is mostly made from cow's milk. However, butter can also be obtained from the milk of other animals. So goat butter and sheep butter occasionally appear in stores . Butter can even be made from breast milk. Outside of Germany, butter is made from buffalo milk (buffalo butter) or from yak milk (yak butter) , for example . According to German law, butter that does not come from cattle must be labeled with the respective animal species (e.g. goat butter ).

Three to six percent of all fatty acid esters in butter can be assigned to the trans fatty acids .

EU marketing standards

For the European Union , the traffic terms for fats intended for human consumption are defined as binding. The common term requirement is that they can be spread at 20 degrees Celsius ( spreadable fats ). In the EU internal market may put a fat directly or indirectly (eg via restaurants) only to end-users as butter placed on the market , if the product is more than 16% water, between 80% and 90% milk fat and not more than 2% non-fat milk solids contains.

In addition, milk fats with a lower fat content are defined, which, however, may not simply be referred to as "butter", but must be labeled as:

  • Three-quarter fat butter (and / or since 2016: reduced-fat or light ) with 60 to 62% milk fat content. Small amounts of sorbic acid may be added for preservation. Edible gelatine, citric acid and other edible acids as well as emulsifiers are also allowed. Coloring with β-carotene is common.
  • Semi-fat butter (since 2016 additionally or only: light , or reduced-fat ) has a milk fat content of 39 to 41%. Additions like three-quarter butter are permitted. Coloring with β-carotene is also common here.
  • Milk fat X%: (since 2016 also allowed light or reduced fat ) any milk fat that does not fall into the aforementioned groups, where X denotes the milk fat percentage in percent (e.g. "milk fat 50%" contains 50% milk fat).

In deviation from the basic idea of ​​the common market, the EU member states are permitted to have national regulations on quality classes for spreadable fats , provided they do not discriminate against products from other member states.

Quality classes (EU)


Demonstration by a buttermaker on the occasion of a festival, on the front left a butter mixer

Butter from Germany is divided into commercial classes according to the Butter Ordinance (ButtV) , provided it comes from a dairy and is to be labeled as commercial class butter when it is marketed . For this purpose, dairy is defined as a dairy company with an average milk turnover of 500 liters or more per day. Commercial grade butter may only be made directly from cow's milk, cream or whey cream if this has been pasteurized; only water and table salt may be used for this, and only the types of sour cream, sweet cream or mildly soured butter may be used. A butter test is carried out to monitor the quality . The manufacturing companies are obliged to take samples and dispatch the samples at their own expense. This butter test will be

  • sensory properties (appearance, smell, taste, texture)
  • Water content
  • Spreadability
  • pH value and microbiology (through laboratory testing)

judged. The first three criteria are assigned points from 1 to 5, with 1 being awarded for low quality and 5 for high quality. The points are then used to assess the commercial grade of the butter. In addition, there is a random check of the quality of butter of a commercial class in dairies, molding centers and in the food trade. If the butter test has been passed, the products can be advertised with the quality mark with eagle.

(German quality butter

Quality mark for German brand butter

The "German branded butter" class is awarded for the highest quality butter. It may only be made from milk from cows or cream obtained directly from it. In the monthly butter test, at least four out of five possible points must be achieved in each tested category. Special butter wrappers are to be used for packaging .

Butter from other EU member states that meet the other requirements of this commercial class may be marketed as "branded butter" with reference to its origin.

German dairy butter

In their production, z. B. unlike the branded butter, whey cream can also be used. For the “German dairy butter” class, the butter test every two months is sufficient. At least three out of five possible points must be achieved in each examined category.

Other markings

Butter from a production facility may only be placed on the market under the name Landbutter ; this name does not designate a commercial class and is also not subject to its additional quality checks. Under certain conditions it can be produced as a raw milk product (i.e. the cream is not pasteurized):

  • the raw milk must be obtained under defined hygienic requirements
  • the delivery must be reported to the competent authority
  • only specific lactic acid bacteria are used for acidification

This butter must then bear the note "made with raw milk".


Butter production in Fügen

In Austria, butter is made almost exclusively from cow's milk. Butter made from goat or sheep milk is just a rarity here.

Quality levels

  • Tea butter or simply butter is considered the highest quality level (quality class 1) . It has a mildly sour taste in sour cream butter or creamy in the case of sweet cream butter. Only milk or milk cream may be used to make tea butter.
  • Table butter follows with quality class 2 . It may have slight odor or taste defects.
  • The simplest level (quality class 3) is cooking butter. It can have more pronounced odor or taste defects and is used not only for cooking but also for the production of clarified butter , whereby water and fat-free dry matter are largely removed.

The term "tea butter" for the highest quality level has existed since the end of the 19th century. In accordance with the orthography of the time , the original spelling was “Theebutter”. As the terminus of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus , the Austrian food book, it is documented as a literal translation from German in several other languages ​​of the former Habsburg monarchy: Czech čajové máslo , Slovak čajové maslo , Hungarian teavaj , Slovenian čajno maslo and Croatian čajni maslac . The exact origin of the term is unclear, but it probably goes back to the custom of afternoon tea in the English style, which was regarded as an expression of a particularly fine way of life and to which tea biscuits and butter were served in fine tea china . Comparable names for particularly high-quality foods are, for example, tea bakery and tea sausage . There are also many other anecdotal or folk etymological derivations in circulation . The abbreviation “tea” is said to have stood for “ Te schener e rzherzöliche” butter (after a dairy in Teschen ), a variant of this is the claim that in 1890 an imperial table used butter with the inscription TEA for “Teschen Archduke Albrecht” is said to have found what the tea butter would have come from based on the English word tea . There is no historical evidence for this; rather, these explanations only came up in retrospect. However, in allusion to the word Teebutter the Austrian brand name was Thea for in Vienna- since 1923 Atzgersdorf produced margarine .

In Austria, the butter is mainly used unsalted. Salted butter can contain up to 2% salt. Unmarked butter is always unsalted.

Other names

Some other names are also common, but they are also subject to certain quality requirements:

  • Country butter (made from raw cream) must at least correspond to the table butter quality level
  • Farmer's butter and alpine butter (made from raw or heated cream)
  • Cheese butter and dairy butter (made from raw or pasteurized cream).

If the cream has not been heat-treated, this must be noted on the packaging as a note such as "made with raw milk" or "from raw cream".

  • Summer butter: The cream from which this butter is made is only obtained during the green fodder season and processed into sour cream butter.
  • With barrel butter, only one barrel full of cream is turned into butter by whipping . Therefore, with this more complex process, only 1500 to 2000 kilograms of butter can be produced per batch in around three hours. Afterwards, barrel butter has to be washed once or twice in order to separate the remaining buttermilk residues from the butter grain.
  • The name Primina refers to a type of tea butter that can only be made from sour cream. Only "summer cream" is used for better spreadability.

Swiss marketing standards

The quality requirements in the Swiss milk and cheese industry are regulated by the ordinances of the FDHA ( Federal Department of the Interior ) on food of animal origin. The quality levels have become established in a similar way to those in neighboring countries, whereby the first two qualities of preferred and cooked butter must not show any sensory difference, i.e. they are only classified based on the degree of freshness. As traditionally there is less cream in the summer months when there are many cows on the alp, a large part of the butter produced is stored. However, if there is an insufficient supply of Swiss butter on the market, the butter import quota can be increased.

Quality grades

  • Preferred butter (fat content at least 82%). May only be made from fresh sweet or sour cream (pasteurized or unpasteurized) and may only be put on the market without prior storage. Salted preferred butter is used less; it contains about 1% (at most 2%) table salt .
  • Cooking butter (camp butter) or "the butter". Frozen preferred butter, stored no longer than 9 months. Base product for the production of other butter products, further subdivided according to fat content. Cooked butter is often used in baked goods.
  • Cheese butter. Made from pasteurized milk and sirten cream .
  • Frying butter ("boiled" butter). Drained butter suitable for high temperatures.

Butter products

In addition to pure butter, there are numerous products on the market that contain butter as a main or secondary component.

Clarified butter

Clarified butter is clarified butter obtained from butter by removing water, milk protein and milk sugar.

Fractionated butterfat

Through crystallization, the butter is broken down into a high and a low melting part. It is used, for example, as drawing fat ("drawing butter") or to improve the consistency of semi-fat butter.

Butter mixes

Numerous butter mixes are available commercially. The following list does not claim to be complete. All of these can also be made by yourself. There are also numerous other recipes for butter mixes. Butter mixes are a popular addition to fried and grilled food instead of sauce, are used to refine cooked and steamed foods or to season and add soups and sauces. They are used for fish and meat as well as for vegetables, eggs, noodles and rice.

  • Herbal butter is butter mixed with herbs. As a snail butter is called a special herb butter, which is used for snails.
  • Pepper butter is seasoned with green pepper .
  • Garlic butter is made from butter and crushed garlic .
  • Truffle butter contains pieces of truffle and is one of the most expensive butter products. Finished truffle butter, however, often gets its aroma from artificial aromas.
  • Lobster butter is a mixture of butter and lobster meat.
  • Anchovy butter is made from butter and finely chopped salted anchovies or anchovy paste.
  • Café de Paris butter contains a variety of herbs and spices as well as cognac and anchovies.
  • Salt butter is lightly salted sweet cream butter
  • Chocolate butter is a butter mixture with chocolate and sugar. She will u. a. made in the Netherlands (Chocoladeboter).

Other butter products

Since butter is more expensive than other fats, particularly vegetable fats, these are often substituted for it. The butter taste can nowadays by artificial flavors z. T. be imitated. Artificial flavors are also used in so-called " light products ", which do not use butter or clarified butter because of their high energy content.

  • Butter biscuits are sweet or salty biscuits with a significant amount of butter, e.g. B. Bamberg croissants or the Scottish shortbread . The latter can contain 30% butter.
  • Lard pastries are baked floating in clarified butter, e.g. B. Berliner . However, vegetable fats are often used for this.
  • Cake and other doughs: Recipes often mention butter. In the case of finished products, however, vegetable fats are also used here. This also applies to the well-known puff pastry and Danish pastry .

The largest butter producers

In 2014 5.172 million tons of butter (from cow's milk) were produced worldwide. The 15 largest producers together produced 74% of it. The values ​​for Switzerland and Austria are shown for comparison.

The largest butter producers worldwide (2014)
rank country Production
(in t )
rank country Production
(in t)
1 United StatesUnited States United States 841,565 10 United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 143,000
2 New ZealandNew Zealand New Zealand 472,000 11 NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands 140.524
3 GermanyGermany Germany 441.109 12 AustraliaAustralia Australia 116.124
4th FranceFrance France 405,300 13 UkraineUkraine Ukraine 113,517
5 RussiaRussia Russia 253,000 14th BelgiumBelgium Belgium 106.713
6th TurkeyTurkey Turkey 183,700 15th BrazilBrazil Brazil 103,500
7th PolandPoland Poland 181,000 ...
8th IrelandIreland Ireland 166,370 22nd SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 48,436
9 IranIran Iran 150.289 29 AustriaAustria Austria 34,165

See also: Milk ("world production of cow's milk") and cheeses by country of origin


In addition to butter (also called Smör ), there is also the word anken, used in Alemannic (cf. Old High German  ancho , Middle High German  anke ). In some Upper German and West Central German dialects, butter uses the masculine article, which may be due to the grammatical gender of Anken ("the" butter like "the" Anken); However, the butter reaches far beyond the area in which ankling is or was widespread and is therefore likely to have polygenetic origins.

Everything in (best) butter is a phrase and means something like: Everything is okay. It refers to earlier evidence that dishes were made with good butter instead of cheap fats. According to an often rumored story of its origins, expensive glasses were placed in warm, liquid butter in old Venice for carriage across the Alps. This solidified and thus protected the fragile goods. There is no authentic evidence for this story.

Taking the butter off the bread is a saying that says something is taken away from someone; mostly used in the form of not being able to take the butter off the bread - that is to say: not being prepared to accept reductions or restrictions caused by someone else without a fight.

Butter bei die Fisch is a phrase and means the invitation to speak plainly, to get down to business or to tackle something. The origin of the idiom is seen in the fact that fried or baked fish is often served with a piece of butter that is only placed on the hot fish shortly before eating so that it does not run. As soon as there is butter in the fish , you can eat, you finally get down to business.

The name butterfly goes back to the fact that butterflies were previously suspected of eating from "Schmetten", the milk cream (see the origin of the word Schmand ). This is followed by the names Butterflieg, Schmandlecke, Botterlicker, Molketewer, Molkendew and the English butterfly , which used to be found in northern and central Germany . This was mixed up with the popular superstition that witches turned into butterflies to steal cream or butter from the farmers or to spoil it.

The term good butter comes from the first half of the 20th century. “Good” (meaning real) butter was hardly affordable for many people and was hardly available in times of war and crisis. While simple margarine or substitute fat combinations were usually used, the use of good butter was reserved for special occasions and the cheap margarine was called butter.

Industrial butter use

In the food industry , for example, butter is used in the manufacture of biscuits and other baked goods. Here, however, butter competes with vegetable fats such as palm fat , which are much cheaper.


In some regions are sandwiches with Bütterken or butter called: kottenbutter .

Special types of butter

Related topics


  • Rudolf Brunke: General dairy farming and milk hygiene . Deutscher Bauernverlag, Berlin 1952.

Web links

Commons : Butter  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Butter  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikiquote: Butter  - Quotes

Individual evidence

  1. Dieter Lehmann: Two medical prescription books of the 15th century from the Upper Rhine. Part I: Text and Glossary. Horst Wellm, Pattensen / Han. 1985, now at Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 34), ISBN 3-921456-63-0 , p. 146 f.
  2. a b See Schweizerisches Idiotikon , Volume I, column 341 ff., Article Anken and Volume IX, column 937 ff., Article Schmalz ; Baden Dictionary , Volume I, page 53 f .; Dictionary of Alsatian Dialects , Volume I, page 55; Vorarlberg Dictionary , Volume I, Column 95 and Volume II, Column 976; Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland , Volume V, Map 179; German dictionary , revision, volume  2 II, column 1075 f., As well as Christoph Landolt : Anken, Schmalz, Britschi - and Butter, in: Wortgeschichten from November 27, 2015, ed. from the editors of the Swiss Idiotikon.
  3. : Verardo V, Gómez-Caravaca AM, Gori A, Losi G, Caboni MF: Bioactive lipids in the butter production chain from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area. J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Nov; 93 (14): 3625-33, PMID 23553460
  4. : Rombaut R, Camp JV, Dewettinck K: Analysis of phospho- and sphingolipids in dairy products by a new HPLC method. J Dairy Sci. 2005 Feb; 88 (2): 482-8, PMID 15653513
  5. ÖKO-TEST: Butter. Poor cow. Retrieved November 13, 2017 .
  6. Land creates life: butter production. Archived from the original on November 13, 2017 ; accessed on November 13, 2017 .
  7. ^ A b Silvia Mallia, Felix Escher & Hedwig Schlichtherle-Cerny: Aroma-active compounds of butter: a review . In: European Food Research and Technology . tape 226 , 2008, p. 315-325 , doi : 10.1007 / s00217-006-0555-y .
  8. The Great Brockhaus in twelve volumes . 18th completely revised edition, FA Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1980.
  9. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th ed., Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1885–1892.
  10. ^ Piras, Claudia: Culinaria Italia. Italian specialties. Tandem Verlag GmbH. 2007. Page 329. ISBN 978-3-8331-1049-8 .
  11. Michael Knapp: History of refrigeration technology: http://www.coolpage4u.de/geschichte1_0.htm
  12. was-wir-eat - food from A – Z - butter http://www.was-wir-essen.de/abisz/butter.php
  13. E 160a - Carotene at Zusatzstoffe-online.de
  14. Beef only in second place: These foods are the worst climate killers - ÖKO-TEST. Retrieved on May 12, 2019 (German).
  15. Jürgen Rösemeier-Buhmann: These are the 6 biggest climate sinners among food. In: Sustainable Life.ch. Retrieved October 26, 2019 .
  16. Trans fatty acids: EFSA panel reviews dietary intake and health effects. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), August 31, 2004, archived from the original on April 26, 2010 ; Retrieved October 15, 2010 (press release).
  17. Art. 75 para. 1 and Art. 78 para. 1 f) of Regulation (EU) No. 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of December 17, 2013 on a common market organization for agricultural products with Annex VII Year 2014 almost identical: Art. 115 Council Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 of October 22, 2007 on a common organization of agricultural markets and with special provisions for certain agricultural products ( Regulation on the single CMO) with Annex XV
  18. Appendix VII Part VII Section I Clause 5 Regulation (EC) No. 1308/2013. Until 2013: Art. 115 S. 2 Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007
  19. Part A No. 1 of Annex II to Part VII of Annex VII to Regulation (EC) No. 1308/2013. Until 2013, part A no. 1 of the Appendix to Annex XV to Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007
  20. new since then according to Annex VII Part VII Section II No. 3 in conjunction with Art. 232 Regulation (EC) No. 1308/2013
  21. Part IV of Annex XV of Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007
  22. § 1a ButtV
  23. § 5 ButtV
  24. §13 ButtV
  25. Section 6 (1) ButtV
  26. §10 ButtV
  27. §12 ButtV
  28. ↑ Interesting facts about butter on land creates life, accessed on November 27, 2017
  29. Stefan Michael Newerkla : Tea butter - Czech čajové máslo , Slovak čajové maslo , Hungarian teavaj , Slovenian čajno maslo , Croatian čajni maslac . In: Ilona Janyšková, Helena Karlíková (eds.): Studia etymologica Brunensia . tape 3 . NLN, Prague 2006, ISBN 80-7106-997-3 , pp. 271–284 ( online ( memento of November 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), archived from the original on November 29, 2011).
  30. Everyday things: Where does the tea butter come from? in the OÖ Nachrichten of October 23, 2010, accessed on September 5, 2018
  31. Stefan Michael Newerkla : Tea butter, tea sausage, Thea and the tea . In: ÖGL - Austria in history and literature (with geography) . 52nd year, issue 4-5a, 2008, ISSN  1013-9966 , p. 240-252 .
  32. ↑ The butter import quota is increased by 1,800 tons. In: admin.ch. Federal Office for Agriculture, August 11, 2020, accessed on August 23, 2020 .
  33. World butter production 2014 (from cow's milk) , faostat.org, accessed on July 29, 2018 ("Livestock Processed")
  34. Kluge, Seebold: Etymological Dictionary of the German Language . 24th edition, 2002.
  35. http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Butter
  36. butter f . In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: German Dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( woerterbuchnetz.de , University of Trier).
  37. Alimenta (Switzerland), March 26, 2008.