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Closed and opened garlic bulbs (Allium sativum)

Closed and opened garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum )

Order : Asparagales (Asparagales)
Family : Amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae)
Subfamily : Leek family (Allioideae)
Tribe : Allieae
Genre : Leek ( allium )
Type : garlic
Scientific name
Allium sativum

Garlic ( Allium sativum ) is a species of the genus leek ( Allium ). Originally native to Central Asia to northeastern Iran, it is now a global form of culture. It is used as a spice and medicinal plant.


Garlic plant

The garlic is a perennial, herbaceous plant and reaches heights of 30 to 90 centimeters. The flat, bluish green, pointed and linear, bare leaves with a leaf sheath are up to 15-30 millimeters wide and 50-80 centimeters long. A 5–7 centimeter large onion is formed as a permanent organ , which is surrounded by a thin, white or reddish, papery, dry shell ( tunic ). It consists of about five to twenty buds on the leaves (toes, claws). Such a toe is composed of the vegetation cone surrounded by a fleshy, thickened lower leaf and the protective, tough bract. Three to five of these toes are then surrounded by a dry onion leaf (lower leaf), which together form the tunic.

The plant has perennial bulbs that reproduce exclusively vegetatively ; On the one hand, daughter onions, the so-called toes, form around the onion, and on the other hand, a stalk forms in some of the population in summer, which forms a package of significantly smaller brood bodies (also called bulbils).

The taste of the toes is very hot and aromatic, the juice of the toes has a sticky consistency. A stem with a round handle sprouts from the center of the onion . The leaf sheaths of the leaves form a long pseudostem , the short, real stem is only at the bulb base.

The stem-round, very long (50-100 centimeters) and upright inflorescence stem has an almost spherical shark-gold inflorescence with a few flowers. Alongside the mostly barren flowers develop at an acute, papierigen leaf hat ( spathe about ten to twenty round) bulbils (bulbils). The long-stalked, greenish, white or pink, reddish, hermaphrodite flowers are threefold with a simple flower envelope . The six tepals and the stamens , with elongated appendages at the base, stand in two circles. The ovary is on top.

Three-lobed capsule fruits with blackish, sculpted seeds are seldom formed.

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 16.


The original distribution area of ​​garlic stretches from Central Asia to northeastern Iran . In addition, it is planted or wild in many countries.


Structural chemical formula of alliin, an ingredient in garlic
Black watering can mold on a malt agar with an inhibition zone around freshly squeezed garlic

In addition to storage carbohydrates (especially fructans ) , the garlic bulb also contains sulfur-containing compounds such as the odorless alliin and its precursors, gammaglutamylalkylcysteine, an adduct with thiamine (allithiamine), adenosine and alliin lyases. These enzymes only come into contact with alliin when the cells are damaged (for example when the toes are squeezed or pressed), the compound being broken down and the actual active ingredients allicin and other secondary products being formed and converted to hydrogen sulfide by the red blood pigment . Allicin is the starting material for several other sulfur-containing compounds that are formed especially when garlic is heated. These include diallyl disulphide , diallyl thiosulphonate and, above all, ajoene, which has the property of preventing the aggregation of platelets and thus has an antithrombotic effect.

Similar to onions , discoloration can also occur after cutting garlic. This is green. The color is created by reactions of the amino acids with the sulfur compounds. The dyes are completely harmless to health.

The smell of the physical vapors from people who have eaten it comes from the breakdown products of sulfur-containing ingredients such as alliin , which is converted to allicin . The alliin content in fresh garlic is 0.5 to 1% (or 5 to 14 mg / g). The sulfur-containing breakdown products are released into the air through the alveoli .


The first publication of Allium sativum took place in 1753 in Species Plantarum , 1, pp 296-297. Synonyms for Allium sativum L. are, for example, Allium pekinense Prokh. , Allium controversum Schrad. ex Willd. , Allium longicuspis rule .

Allium sativum belongs to the Allium section in the subgenus Allium within the genus Allium .

There are two varieties of garlic ( Allium sativum ):

  • Allium sativum var. Sativum , the actual cultivated garlic
  • Allium sativum var. Ophioscorodon (Link) Döll (Syn .: Allium ophioscorodon Link ), sometimes also called Snake Garlic or Rockenbolle (Rocambole)
Fresh onion with partial onions ("toes")
The split spathe reveals the bulbils
Brood onions
Inner stamen widened below with thread-like appendages

Schmeil-Fitschen classified the two varieties as subspecies (subsp.) In 2003 and referred to Allium sativum var. Ophioscorodon as "pearl onion".

The two varieties of Allium sativum differ in the following characteristics:

  • Allium sativum var. Sativum : mostly low inflorescence shafts, straight or initially curved like a whip; Leaves with a rough edge, elongated onions.
  • Allium sativum var. Ophioscorodon : higher inflorescence shafts , curved in a serpentine manner at the beginning, leaves with a smooth edge, rounded, ovoid bulbs.

Both varieties are grown with numerous varieties for autumn and spring planting. If the climate is favorable (wine-growing areas) in Central Europe, they can occasionally also be found wild.


Use in the kitchen

Garlic cloves
Nutritional values ​​per 100 g
protein 6.0 g
carbohydrates 23 g
fat 0.1 g

Garlic is known and widely used as a spice and vegetable in large parts of the world. In many countries, cloves of garlic are available fresh or pickled in brine or in oil. It enjoys a special status in the cuisine of the entire Mediterranean region and large parts of Asia. It is found in dishes with a pronounced garlic taste , such as the Italian spaghetti aglio e olio , the Spanish prawns al ajillo , garlic bread, various spicy sauces or dips such as aioli and tzatziki , but it also generally enhances the taste and is therefore used in a wide variety of roasts, braised dishes. , Fish or stews added.

In some areas of Austria , garlic is also referred to as the “ poor man's vanilla ” or “the poor woman's”. The “ vanilla roast ” known there is therefore not seasoned with vanilla but with garlic.

Proper storage of a "hand supply" can in a placed near the kitchen work area garlic pot done.

Black garlic

black garlic
Garlic sprouts from the jar

Black garlic is fermented garlic. It is cooked under lock and key at a defined heat and humidity. Sugar and amino acids are converted into dark, nitrogen-containing organic compounds that turn the garlic black. The fermentation gives the garlic a soft, somewhat sticky consistency, the taste becomes sweet and is reminiscent of plum compote , liquorice and balsamic vinegar mixed with garlic flavor .

Garlic sprouts

In Spain , garlic sprouts or garlic sprouts are used in some dishes instead of garlic cloves , for example in Tortilla Española . Green garlic sprouts have a mild, characteristic taste and look like fine green beans . In Spain, garlic sprouts in jars are available in stores.

Green Garlic / Garlic Green

Garlic green is the name given to the above-ground parts of the plant of young, sprouted garlic, in which the onion is not yet fully developed.

Use as a medicinal plant

Garlic has an antibacterial effect and is said to prevent the formation of thrombi . A large number of studies have shown that the ingredients lower blood lipid levels and could therefore have a preventive effect against atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels.

A reduction in LDL cholesterol could not be proven, but meta-analyzes showed that garlic significantly lowers overall cholesterol levels .

Meta-analyzes of statistical surveys of preventive nutrition as well as animal experiments suggest a preventive or alleviating effect against colon cancer .

In Germany, garlic was voted Medicinal Plant of the Year 1989.


Basically, there is the option of planting garlic in the ground in autumn or spring, as it is persistent and hardy. Earlier harvest is possible when planting in autumn, and the yield is higher then.

Garlic should be pinned at a distance of 20 cm. Harvest can take place when a third of the leaves are withered.

The caterpillars of the leek moth ( Acrolepiopsis assectella ) eat up to 25 mm thick corridors in the garlic leaves, which leads to the death of the plant. The white rot is caused by a mold . Most other pests are driven away by the smell of garlic; this can also be exploited in a targeted manner by using garlic as a natural repellent next to other crops.

Economical meaning

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO, around 28.5 million tons of garlic were harvested worldwide in 2018 . The People's Republic of China alone generates over 75% of global production.

The following table gives an overview of the 10 largest producers of garlic worldwide, who produced a total of 92.2% of the harvest.

Largest garlic producers (2018)
rank country Quantity
(in t )
1 China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China 22.273.802
2 IndiaIndia India 1,721,000
3 BangladeshBangladesh Bangladesh 461.970
4th Korea SouthSouth Korea South Korea 331.741
5 EgyptEgypt Egypt 286.213
6th SpainSpain Spain 273.476
7th United StatesUnited States United States 260,340
8th UzbekistanUzbekistan Uzbekistan 254.857
9 RussiaRussia Russia 211,981
10 MyanmarMyanmar Myanmar 207.094
Top 10 overall 26,282,474
Worldwide 28,506,473


In 2018, the garlic acreage was 209 hectares. The harvest this year was 1119 tons.


Garlic cultivation in Switzerland only made a marginal contribution to consumption, but increased in the 2010s. While 2 hectares were cultivated in 2010, the built-up area in 2018 was 14 hectares and a harvest of 37 tons. Although attention is now paid to regionality even with garlic , well over 95% - 3224 tons - are still imported. However, the growth trend in Switzerland continues (as of 2019).

Cultural history

Garlic stand in the Basque Country, 2008


Garlic has been known as a food and medicine since ancient times. Herodotus claims that the workers at the pyramids were given a daily ration of onions, garlic, and radish. This is evident from a hieroglyphic inscription that his travel guide had "translated" for him. In Numbers, Israelites who emigrated to the desert remembered the fish, cucumber, melons, leeks, onions and garlic they ate in Egypt. A paste of garlic, oil and salt was used against leprosy . Eating garlic on the eve of the Sabbath made unclean ( taḳḳanot ), either because garlic was considered an aphrodisiac or because it could be doused with potentially unclean water when it was harvested.

From the fragments of the Eupolis we know that garlic was sold in the market in Greece. Pliny describes the cultivation. Romans and Greeks also knew about the healing power of the plant. The writing De materia medica by the ancient doctor Pedanios Dioscurides from the first century recommends garlic in detail for a variety of uses in medication.

middle Ages

Garlic has been widely used in monasteries since the Middle Ages. In the Capitulare de villis , presumably issued by Charlemagne at the end of the eighth century , garlic (in Chapter 70) is named among the useful plants to be cultivated. The recommendations of Dioskurides remained authoritative for the entire Middle Ages , where bite wounds from dogs or snakes, hair loss, toothache, skin rashes, lung problems or menstrual disorders were treated with them. A rather magical procedure for toothache relief is mentioned in the circa instans in the middle of the 12th century, which recommends pounded garlic bulbs on the artery. Garlic ( garleac ) was also used in Anglo-Saxon medicine .


Garlic was used in Turkey, Jerusalem, the Arabs, Greece and Egypt as a means of defense against the " evil eye ", but there is no exact date on which it was used. In Persian folklore, garlic is used in numerous forms.

Common names

The German name “Knoblauch” is derived from the Old High German word “ klioban ” (= “split”); In the Middle Ages , garlic was named after this word chlobilou or chlofalauh , referring to the “split” appearance of its toes (see the term “claws” in animals today).

Other names for garlic, some of which are only used regionally, are or were: Chlobaloch ( Old High German ), Chlobeloch (Old High German), Chlobelouch (Old High German), Chlofolouch (Old High German), Chloviloich (Old High German), Chlovolouch (Old High German), Chnobeloch (Old High German), Chnobeloch Chnobleich (althochdeutsch) Clovalouch , Clovelouch , Gruserich ( North CHF ), Klobelouch ( medium high German ), Kloblauch (medium high German), Kloblouch (medium high German), Kloflok ( middle Low German ), Kluflock (middle Low German), boy Lach (medium high German), Kniuwleng ( Transylvania ), Knobel ( Swabia ), Knobelouch (Middle High German), Knoblech ( Canton Aargau , Canton Graubünden ), Knoblecht ( St. Gallen ), Knobleig (Transylvania), Knoflak ( Göttingen ), Knuewelek ( Luxembourgish ), Knuflak (Göttingen), Knufflóek (Middle Low German), Knuflock ( Pomerania , Mecklenburg , Bremen ), Knuftlók (Middle Low German), Kruftlók (Middle Low German) and Look ( Altmark ).


Allium oleraceum , Allium sativum , Allium scorodoprasum , Allium ursinum and Allium vineale


Historical illustrations


  • Eric Block: Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge 2010, ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9 .
  • Kurt Heyser: The allium species as a medicine in the use of occidental medicine. In: Kyklos , 1, 1928, pp. 64-102.
  • Heinrich P. Koch, Larry D. Lawson: Garlic. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species . Second edition. Williams & Wilkens, Baltimore 1996, ISBN 0-683-18147-5 .
  • Ted J. Meredith: The complete book of garlic - a guide for gardeners, growers, and serious cooks. Timber Press, Portland 2008, ISBN 978-0-88192-883-9 .
  • Avril Rodway: Herbs and Spices. Tessloff, Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-7886-9910-8 .
  • Johanna Schaal: Garlic - a very special bulb. Seehamer, Weyarn 1998, ISBN 3-932131-49-5 .
  • Lutz Nover, Elmar W. Weiler: General and molecular botany. Thieme, 2008, ISBN 978-3-13-147661-6 , p. 194.
  • R. Lieberei, Ch. Reisdorff: Useful plants. 8th edition. Thieme, 2012, ISBN 978-3-13-530408-3 , pp. 22, 341 f.
  • Theod. Frid. Lud. Nees from Esenbeck : Genera plantarum florae germanicae. Vol. II, 1843, pp. 201–207, online at Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB).

Web links

Wiktionary: garlic  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Garlic ( Allium sativum )  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  2. Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Allium sativum - data sheet at World Checklist of Selected Plant Families of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Last accessed on September 23, 2016.
  3. Netzeitung : Researchers reveal the secret of garlic. ( Memento from May 21, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  4. MK Jain, C. Scanzello, R. Apitz-Castro: Effect of garlic - truth and poetry. In: Chemistry in Our Time . 22nd year 1988, No. 6, pp. 193-200.
  5. Eun Jin Lee, Yohannes H. Rezenom, David H. Russell, Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Kil Sun Yoo: Elucidation of chemical structures of pink-red pigments responsible for 'pinking' in macerated onion (Allium cepa L.) using HPLC– DAD and tandem mass spectrometry . In: Food Chemistry . tape 131 , no. 3 , April 1, 2012, p. 852-861 , doi : 10.1016 / j.foodchem.2011.09.059 .
  6. Jungeun Cho, Eun Jin Lee, Kil Sun Yoo, Seung Koo Lee, Bhimanagouda S. Patil: Identification of Candidate Amino Acids Involved in the Formation of Blue Pigments in Crushed Garlic Cloves (Allium sativum L.) . In: Journal of Food Science . tape 74 , no. 1 , January 1, 2009, p. C11-C16 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1750-3841.2008.00986.x .
  7. TM Lukes: Factors Governing the Greening of Garlic Puree . In: Journal of Food Science . tape 51 , no. 6 , November 1, 1986, pp. 1577-1577 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1365-2621.1986.tb13869.x .
  8. ^ Sano, T .: Green pigment formation in ground garlic . In: Univ. of California, Berkeley (Ed.): MS thesis .
  9. ^ Theodor Dingermann, Rudolf Hänsel, Ilse Zündorf (eds.): Pharmaceutical Biology: Molecular Basics and Clinical Applications . 1st edition. Springer Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-540-42844-5 , p. 61.
  10. ^ A b Allium sativum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  11. ^ Karlheinz Senghas, Siegmund Seybold: Flora of Germany and neighboring countries. A book for identifying vascular plants that grow wild and often cultivated. Founded by Otto Schmeil , Jost Fitschen. 92nd revised edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2003, ISBN 3-494-01328-4 .
  12. ^ Pablo F. Cavagnaro, Alejandra Camargo, Claudio R. Galmarini, Philipp W. Simon: Effect of Cooking on Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Antiplatelet Activity and Thiosulfinates Content . In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry . tape 55 , no. 4 , February 2007, p. 1280-1288 , doi : 10.1021 / jf062587s .
  13. a b Black Garlic (PDF)
  14. Hedda Thielking: Goods sales customer: garlic. Retrieved on August 24, 2020 (German).
  15. K. Ried, OR Frank, NP Stocks, P. Fakler, T. Sullivan: Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2008; 8: 13. PMID 18554422 .
  16. Christoph D. Gardener, Larry D. Lawson, Eric Block, Lorraine M. Chatterjee, Alexandre Kiazand, Raymond R. Balise, Helena C. Kraemer: Effect of Raw Garlic vs Commercial Garlic Supplements on Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults With Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. In: JAMA Internal Medicine . 167/4/2007, pp. 346-353. PMID 17325296 .
  17. KM Reinhart, R. Talati u. a .: The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: Nutrition research reviews. Volume 22, Number 1, June 2009, pp. 39-48, doi: 10.1017 / S0954422409350003 , PMID 19555517 (review).
  18. K. Ried, OR Frank u. a .: Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: BMC cardiovascular disorders. Volume 8, 2008, p. 13, doi: 10.1186 / 1471-2261-8-13 , PMID 18554422 , PMC 2442048 (free full text) (review).
  19. SN Ngo, DB Williams et al. a .: Does garlic reduce risk of colorectal cancer? A systematic review. In: The Journal of Nutrition. Volume 137, Number 10, October 2007, pp. 2264-2269, PMID 17885009 (review).
  20. Vegetables Online: Garlic from fried onions .
  21. a b Spring cultivation of garlic is not possible with all varieties or origins. 'Gardos' and 'Ljubasha' with good yields and big toes . Bavarian State Institute for Viticulture and Horticulture
  22. a b c Crops> Garlic. In: FAO production statistics for 2018., accessed on March 2, 2020 .
  23. Garlic: Seasoning from Switzerland. In: February 3, 2019, accessed June 2, 2019 .
  24. Silvia Schaub: The stinky toes are at home. In: . June 2, 2019, accessed June 2, 2019 .
  25. Silvia Schaub: The stinky toes are at home. In: . June 2, 2019, accessed June 2, 2019 .
  26. Herodotus, Historien, 2.125.
  27. Numbers 11.5
  28. Gittin 69a, 329, after K. Codell Carter: Causes of Disease and Death in the Babylonian Talmud. In: Medizinhistorisches Journal , Volume 26, No. 1/2, 1991, p. 103, JSTOR 25804034 .
  29. Solomon Zeitlin: Taḳḳanot 'Ezra . In: Jewish Quarterly Review , New Series 8/1, 1917, p. 62, JSTOR 1451402 .
  30. Solomon Zeitlin: Taḳḳanot 'Ezra . In: Jewish Quarterly Review , New Series 8/1, 1917, pp. 66 f., JSTOR 1451402 .
  31. Eupolis Fr. 304
  32. Stewart Flory: Who read Herodotus' Histories? In: American Journal of Philology 101/1, 1980, p. 19, JSTOR 294167
  33. Christopher Hobbs: Garlic - The Pungent Panacea . In: Pharmacy in History 34/3, 1992, p. 159, JSTOR 41111461 .
  34. ^ Dioscurides, De materia medica , Book II, chapter 152.
  35. Konrad Goehl : Observations and additions to the 'Circa instans' . In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015 (2016), pp. 69-77, here: p. 74.
  36. Barbara Brennessel, Michael DC Drout, Robyn Gravel: Reassessment of the Efficacy of Anglo-Saxon Medicine . In: Anglo-Saxon England , 34, 2005, pp. 183-195, JSTOR 44512361 .
  37. Siegfried Seligmann: The Evil Eye and Related . tape 2 . Georg Olms Verlag, 1985, ISBN 978-3-487-41422-5 , pp. 73 ( ).
  38. ^ Peyman Matin: Apotropaic Plants in the Persian Folk Culture. In: Iran and the Caucasus , Volume 16, No. 2, 2012, pp. 189-200, JSTOR 41723237 .
  39. ^ M. Huss (Ed.): Dictionary of Luxembourgish dialect . 1906.
  40. Carl Jessen : The German folk names of plants . Verlag von Philipp Cohen Hannover 1882, p. 19; Text archive - Internet Archive .
  41. Theophrastus of Eresus : Natural history of the plants . 4th century BC Chr. Edition. Kurt Sprengel . Friedrich Hammerich, Altona 1822, Volume I, pp. 254–255 (Book VII, Chapter 4 / 11–12) Translation (digitized version ) , Volume II, p. 259–260 Explanations (digitized version )
  42. Pedanios Dioscurides . 1st century: De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Translation. Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, p. 234 (Book II, Chapter 181): Skordon (digitized version )
  43. Pliny the Elder , 1st century: Naturalis historia book XX, chapter xxiii (§ 50–57): Alium (digitized version ) ; Translation Külb 1855 (digitized version )
  44. Galen , 2nd century, De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , Book VIII, Chapter 18/27 (based on the edition Kühn 1826, Volume XII, p. 126): Scorodum. Allium. Scorodroprasum (digitized version )
  45. First printing: Rome 1481, Chapter 73: Scordeon (digital copy )
  46. Avicenna , 11th century: Canon of Medicine . Translation and adaptation by Gerhard von Cremona , Arnaldus de Villanova and Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556, Volume II, Chapter 74: Alleum (digitized version ) ; Volume II, Chapter 630: Scordeon (digitized version )
  47. Constantine the African , 11th century: Liber de gradibus simplicium . Pressure. Opera . Basel 1536, p. 382: Allium (digitized version)
  48. Circa instans 12th century print. Venice 1497, sheet 188r – 188v: Allium (digitized)
  49. ^ Pseudo-Serapion 13th century, print. Venice 1497, sheet 145v (No CCCXXXI): Alleum & Scordeon (digitized)
  50. ^ Pseudo-Macer . Edition: Ludwig Choulant. Macer floridus de virtutibus herbarum… Leipzig 1832, Chapter V (p. 34–36): Allium (digitized version)
  51. ^ German Macer . After: Bernhard Schnell, William Crossgrove: The German Macer. Vulgate version. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2003, p. 330 (Chapter 5): Allium. Knoblouch. --- Cpg 226 , Alsace, 1459–1469, sheet 181v – 182r (digital copy ) . Transcription: (.v. Allium means garlic It is hot and print (It is eaten well or coated with where the natural or tarant stung (Sin smell spoils all handworms that carry poisoned) (Garlic is pounded with honey and vff geleyed where the dog bites it helps (whoever jne sudet with eats himself and yne must vnd ​​dz inside that distributes the spindleworm and all other worms in the book (garlic with its beefs in baumoley boiled heals where poisonous animals have bitten and kneaded leg and glider (with The same ointments are used to pound the blisters and puff up (Ypocras says that the smell of garlic puffs up secundinas that is the hutlen because the kint in mother lip jnn liget (what we missed out on so she won the child / who should be poked into a hole) Stul vnd should cover them with garlic and you can also enjoy them / (garlic boiled with milk and pressed or eaten raw it helps lung wee dut (Eyn meyster is called dyodes who speaks who is looking for the water that he has the garlic nucze with the Centaurien when it distributes the evil fuchtickeit (Pytagoras the master says garlic pushed with Coriander and with a win and the pressed and enjoyed a search for the is called nanfrasis that is loin sick and helps those there swer edemen / The same on it also gives way to the book (garlic boiled with bones and dynne [Lexer II, col. 1440: tinne ... forehead ...] smeared with it, helps whom The main we düt (garlic with smalcz smoked and left warm in the ore who it siret it helps to (leaving garlic with smalcz smalcz and consumed helps against the cough) (garlic rough or the boiled consumed makes hot stymme bright (garlic pushed with old smalcz vnd vff all hand swelled geleyt it back // (Which way ready [as a traveler] the garlic nuczet of the endarff neither strange water nor air shoes
  52. ^ Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Physica , Book I, Chapter 79: Allium . Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1162 (digitized version ) - translation: Marie-Louise Portmann, Basel 1991: Allium has the right warmth and grows from the strength of the rope and has "quick" from the beginning of the night until the daytime begins and when it is morning. It is more healing for the healthy and the sick than porrum. It should be eaten raw, because whoever cooks it creates spoiled wine, that is, "seiger", because its juice is tempered and has the right warmth. It is also useful for the eyes because, because of its warmth, the blood around the eyes is drawn up strongly, after which they become pure. When eaten in moderation, the blood in humans is not warmed excessively. But when the allium is old, its healthy and correct fruit perishes. But when it is properly measured by other food, it returns to its powers.
  53. ^ Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century: Book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, p. 384 (V / 5): Knoblauch (digitized)
  54. Galangal spice treatise 13th / 14th century. Latin: Clm 4374 , without location, 1401 (digitized version) - Alemannic: Cpg 620 recipe collection, Northern Bavaria, around 1450 (digitized version)
  55. Nikolaus Frauenlob 15th century --- Cpg 583 , South-West Germany (Mattighofen), 1482–1486, sheet 26v (digitized version ) . Transcription ( categorized text parts in bold): To whom the hawpt we thuett Man sal knoblach to push and spread with the juice sal man dÿen slaff Or you sal garlic and pon cook with each other and with the water sal the slaff with coat and anoint whom Dy oren we thondt Man Safft sal Knoblach with pepper whale ze bumps so vnd warm in the other or because no Träffen wetagen nit in the hilfft another since the nit we tuet Who vngesundte vnd vnraine Payn've etc . Man sal knoblach jn water whale syeden vnd so sal man dÿ vngesuntten pain offt washing that helps who the stain in the plater we thuet Man sal knoblach hewpper jn water whale boil vnczt onf the third tail and there from sal man drink iij the zepricht the stain in the plater vnd is good against dy huesten vnd rauczend stÿm help wil Man sal knoblach jn water whale syeden vncz on the third day and the food and drink from it that helps against dy huesten and who the stÿm rawczendt is poisoned by a poisoned animal Man sal knoblach jn hönig zestössen vnd onf dÿ stat put do the pis is the huncz whether but ain differently poisonous animal has poisoned the people so one zestöss allain knoblach vnd put it on the place that the man has been pissed who is worried about jm pauch man sal knoblach jn mulsa wal boil vnd sal that then drink with it that drives away the worm jm pauch vnd dÿ niss on the hawbt A good erczneÿ from knoblach Man sal knoblach with all his z ought to boil in oil and then too stözzen with the erczney sal man smear all lay schedlich matter ader schleg the poisoned Mer a erczneÿ Man sal knoblach of the morning sober food that is good for the poop airs paÿde on water and land on and the kain schedlich water does not like harm to people ze drincken --- Cpg 666 , Kurpfalz, 1478–1480, sheet 111v – 112r (digitized version ) . Transcription: K noblach has xij tuget vnd ​​is good a Whom daz we do Man sal knoblach vnd smear the slaff with the juice that helps b Whom daz we do man sal knoblach vnd pon cook together and with the water sal one the slaff coat vein ointments c Who dÿ oren we do Man sal knoblach juice pepper whale to poke vnd so warm jn daz other ore hit do no wetag jnne is there helps the other d Who has vngesunte pain vnreyne Man sal knoblach jn water wal syden vnd do with dy peine wash e Who daz rock jn the platern we do man sal knoblach main jn water syden vncz uff daz third part vnd ​​iij day do from drinking f who has a need for lungs Man sal knoblach with milk whale syden vnd dor abe drinking daz helps g Which man jme against the cough and rauczend gusts help wil Man sal knoblach jn water whale syden vnd daz eat ader dor von trincken daz helps against the cough h Who is afflicted by a gyfftigen dÿer Man sal knoblach with ho Little to bump into and put on the place because people are harmed j Which person is warm jn the pauch has Man sal knoblach jn mulsa syden vnd sal daz because jn drink vinegar that drives away the warmth in the pauch and also the nÿsse on the main k a besunder Erczney von knoblach Man sal knoblach with all his belongings jn öll wal syden vnd to push with the erczney sal man to push all schedlich stitches ver slege dy poisoned his l Who against the swell will help man sal knoblach with reynem smerbe Bump and on the wanted instead of put that drives away the swell m A special Erczney von Knoblach Man sal of the morning sober eating knoblach there is for all poison both airs on water and on land and so that drinking no too much water harms people
  56. Herbarius Moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part I, Chapter 7: Alleum. Garlic leek (digitized)
  57. Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, Chapter 4: Allium (digitized version) ; Chapter 358: Scordeon (digitized version )
  58. Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 14: Allium (digitized version)
  59. Hieronymus Brunschwig : Small distilling book , Strasbourg 1500, sheet 65r – 65v: Knoblouch (digitized version )
  60. Lorenz Fries Spiegel der Artzny . J. Grüninger, Strasbourg 1518, sheet 40r: Garlic (digitized version )
  61. Paracelsus - Oporinus : Scholia & Observationes quaedam perutiles in Macri Poemata de Virtutibus Herbarum, & c. quas Ioh. Oporinus (dum per triennium aut ultra Theophrasti esset Amanuensis) ex ore dictantis studiose exceperat. (Useful comments and observations on the Macer poems about the powers of medicinal plants, which Johannes Oporinus - three years or more scribe of Paracelsus - has eagerly selected from the heard.) Huser edition of the works of Paracelsus, Basel 1590, part 7, page 244–246: Allium (digitized version)
  62. ^ Otto Brunfels : Ander Teyl des Teütschen Contrafayten Kreüterbůchs . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1537, p. 33: Knoblauch (digitized version) , p. 35: Wylder Knoblauch (digitized version )
  63. Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part II, Chapter 67: Garlic (digital copy) ; Part II, Chapter 68: Waldt Knoblauch (digital copy)
  64. ^ Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 282: Knob¬lauch. Forest garlic (digitized version )
  65. ^ Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 171v – 173r: Knoblauch (digitized)
  66. Nicolas Lémery  : Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, p. 24: Allium (digitized version) ; Translation. Complete material lexicon. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, Sp. 35–36: Allium (digitized)
  67. ^ William Cullen : A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, pp. 172-177: Garlic (digitized) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, pp. 199–203: Knoblauch (digitized version)
  68. ^ Jean-Louis Alibert : Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Crapart, Paris 3rd edition 1814, Volume I, pp. 366–369: Ail (digitized)
  69. August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume II 1815, pp. 10–13: Fresh garlic (digitized version )
  70. Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voß, Leipzig 1846–48, Volume II 1848, pp. 102–103: Allium sativum (digitized version)
  71. ^ Robert Bentley , Henry Trimen : Medicinal plants. J. & A. Churchill, London 1880, Volume IV, No 280 (digitized)
  72. ^ Theodor Husemann : Handbook of the entire drug theory. Springer, Berlin 2nd edition 1883, p. 538 (digitized version)
  73. Transcription and translation of the text by Franz Unterkircher. Tacuinum sanitatis ... Graz 2004, pp. 65–66: Alea. Aleum: complexio calida in IIII °, sicca in III °. Electio: meliores ex eo, quod est modice acuitatis. iuvamentum: contra venena frigida et morsus scorpionum et viperarum et interficit vermes. Documentum: nocet oculis et cerebro. Remotio nocumenti: cum aceto et oleo. Quid generant: humorem grossum et acutum. conveniunt frigidis, decrepitis et senibus, hyeme et montanis et septentrionalibus. --- garlic. Garlic: Complexion: warm in the 4th, dry in the 3rd degree. Preferable: the best is one that is not too sharp. Use: against cold poisons and against the bites of scorpions and vipers, it kills the worms. Damage: it damages the eyes and the brain. Preventing the harm: with vinegar and oil. What it produces: coarse and sharp juices. Beneficial for people with cold complexion, for the weak and old, in winter and in mountainous and northern regions.
  74. Brigitte Hoppe. Hieronymus Bock's herbal book. Scientific historical investigation. With a list of all plants in the work, the literary sources of the medicinal indications and the uses of the plants. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1969, pp. 291-293