Real hops ( Humulus lupulus ), illustration
Real hops were named Medicinal Plant of the Year 2007.
The wild form of real hops grows preferentially in nitrogen-rich locations with higher soil moisture, for example in alluvial forests , but also on the edges of forests and in bushes on drier areas. It rarely forms larger populations, but mostly occurs in small groups. In Central Europe it is a species of the plant-sociological order Prunetalia, but also occurs in societies of the Alno-Ulmion or Alnion associations. In the Allgäu Alps, it rises in the Tyrolean part near Elbigenalp to an altitude of 1036 meters.
The hops usually sprout in large numbers from a thick rhizome . They are thin, rough stems with anchor-like climbing hairs that have amazing adhesive power. These shoots are also known as vines and grow an average of 10 cm per day. As with all perennials , there is no continuous lignification of the plant. Hops is a legal Winder , the aerial shoots are annual and die after seed maturity. With a height of two to six meters, the wild form is smaller than the cultivated varieties 4–8 m; the inflorescences are also significantly smaller. Wild hops can be found almost everywhere in Central Europe, with smaller gaps in the Alpine foothills . The hop is a dioecious plant. The male inflorescence is a panicle , the female a cone-like spike .
In parks and gardens, the perennial creeper chokes off other, sometimes quite large, plants. Because of its widely ramified root system, through which the wild hops also reproduce, it is difficult to remove them.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 20.
Wild hops as a food plant
The young hop shoots are very suitable as a delicacy with a fine resinous taste when they are cooked briefly, either in steam (for the still very tender ones) or in salted water (2–4 minutes). When harvesting, you can find out the correct length (approx. 10 to 25 cm) by running your fingers up the stem and bending it slightly. It then breaks off at a certain point and that is the right place, because the shoot is still tender enough from there upwards.
The cultivars of real hops are cultivated for agriculture. The most important German growing areas are the Hallertau in Bavaria , the Elbe - Saale growing area in the federal states of Saxony , Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt , the Schussental between Tettnang and Ravensburg in Baden-Württemberg and the region around Spalt in Middle Franconia . The ears of wheat are called umbels in the hop industry and are used in beer brewing. However, the young shoots are also edible in spring and the seeds in autumn.
Fertilization by the pollen of male plants reduces the wort yield, shortens the harvest window (because overripe hop cones taste awful) and makes processing in the brewery more difficult. That is why the fields are completely pistillat (botanically feminine). The cones have the on the hidden surface sepals ( calyxes ) and bracts ( bracts ) resin beads from which one the yellow lupulin can win. It acts as a flavoring and preservative. A fundamental distinction is made between the bitter hop varieties and the aromatic hop varieties . The latter are characterized by the fact that their bitterness potential is significantly lower in concentration than that of bitter hops. For the brewing process mainly the so-called "α-acids", i. H. α-lupulinic acid or humulone and their derivatives, of importance; the "β-acids" β-lupulinic acid ( lupulon ) and its derivatives are important for the flavor aromas. The α-acid content of aroma varieties is around 3–9% compared to 12–20% for bitter varieties, but aroma varieties have significantly higher concentrations of highly aromatic ingredients such as essential oils or polyphenols .
Hops added early in the brewing process and boiled for a long time increases the hop yield, which is a chemical conversion of the α-acids into iso-α-acids; this makes the spice more bitter. When added later, a rather mild beer is created. Factors such as the type of hop product (pellets, extracts, etc.) or the strength of the boil and the extract content of the wort also influence the hop yield.
Hops originally gained their importance from the fact that their bitter substances when brewing beer contributed significantly to the durability of the brew due to their bactericidal effectiveness. The antiseptic power of hops was already described in 1153 AD by Hildegard von Bingen with the words “putredines prohibet in amaritudine sua” (its bitterness prevents putrefaction).
The oldest written sources on hop growing come from the early Middle Ages. It is said that hop growing was first mentioned in 736 AD near Geisenfeld in the Hallertau; concrete sources exist for the years 768 ( St. Denis Monastery north of Paris), 822 ( Corvey Monastery ) and 859 to 875 ( Freising Monastery ). Hops were first mentioned as a brewing additive in 1079. In the High Middle Ages , Wollin , Breslau , Troppau , Brüx , Wismar , Braunschweig and Lübeck were added as the main cultivation areas.
Cultivation and harvest
Every year in spring from the end of March, hops are cultivated in the scaffolding of so-called hop gardens.
The plant is propagated vegetatively via cuttings , which are also called fechser .
Two or three shoots are placed around a wire as a climbing aid and grow to the usual scaffolding height of seven meters in Germany by the end of July. Newer and rediscovered varieties require different, mostly lower scaffolding heights and thus alternative, sometimes more advantageous equipment, which, however, requires a change and ultimately noticeably inhibits their assertiveness. When the ears of the female plant are ripe, the hop vines are cut off just above the ground and torn from the scaffolding during the roughly three-week harvest time (last August and first decades of September). While harvesting used to be done by hand, today picking machines are used for this. Then they are driven to the farm. There the cones are separated from the hops by picking machines. The soft and moist cones are in the kiln dried until it contains only about 11 percent moisture, then pressed and cooled. Often hops are processed into pellets (small, pressed cylinder pieces). In this way, the hops, packed airtight, have a longer shelf life. If it is packed too warm or not airtight, it quickly loses its volatile aromas and up to 35 percent of its brewing value in a year.
95 percent of the hops are mostly used in the form of hop pellets for beer production. It gives the beer its distinctive aroma and typical bitterness. The hops ingredients also have a calming , preserving and foam- stabilizing effect . Only the umbels of the female hop plants are used for brewing . One to four grams of hops are needed for one liter of beer. With the green hop pils, the hops are processed directly from the harvest without drying.
Occasionally, hops are used to enrich the flavor of some liqueurs and schnapps, and hop lemonade is now also produced.
A small proportion of the hops harvested are used for medicinal purposes, mainly as a sedative .
Hops are also used in many old libraries as protection against moisture and vermin . Hop cones are laid out behind the books. They regulate humidity , and their essential oils keep insects away. The cones must be changed every few years.
For some years now, the harvest of hop asparagus has been gaining in importance again. During a two to three week period in March and April (depending on the weather), the white, freshly sprouted shoots of the hops are dug out of the ground and offered regionally as a specialty. The very short season and the time-consuming harvest, because it is done by hand, make the hop asparagus one of the most expensive vegetables grown in Germany.
The value-determining components of the hop umbel are a resin fraction (hop bitter substances) and an essential oil , the hop oil. It also contains raw fibers (15%), proteins (20%) and mineral components (8%), polyphenols ( tannins ) (2–5%).
|salary||based on hop cones||related to hop glands|
0.3 - 1%
|1 - 3%|
The female inflorescences are the so-called hop cones Lupuli strobulus (2.5 - 5 cm), which carry the dry-skinned bracts . These in turn are covered by glandular hairs the size of a grain of sand, which contain the yellow to reddish resin. The resin is located in the hop glands Lupuli glandula ( hop flour, hop dust , lupulin), which are obtained by tapping or shaking the hop cones . The hop resin is divided into two resin fractions, the hop glands contain about 50-80% hexane- soluble soft resin and, on the other hand, the hexane- insoluble hard resin . In the early 19th century the resin was extracted with water, ethanol, steam or carbon disulfide . With increasing research into the constituents of the resin and its lipophilic components, more effective solvents such as acetone , chloroform, alcohol or hexane were used from then on . Because of the fear of harmful solvent residues, supercritical carbon dioxide was then used.
The extraction of the resin provides the crystallizable, oxidation-sensitive hop bitter acids:
- Humulones (α-hop bitter acids) with a bitter taste, and the structurally related ones
- Lupulones (β-hop bitter acids) that are not bitter.
The hop acids make up about half of the resin. They are very unstable and only contained in fresh hops, but not in stored goods. During the spice boiling (beer production), but possibly also during the pharmaceutical drug extraction, strongly bitter iso-compounds, the isohumulones, arise due to the ring narrowing. During the storage of the drug, various compounds are formed from the hops bitter substances through oxidative degradation, including 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol , for which sedating effects were found in animal experiments. The resin also contains chalcones (xanthohumol), 0.5-1.5% flavonoids and 2-4% tannins . The yellow colored xanthohumol - for which a chemopreventive effect has been proven - occurs specifically in hops and is an analytical lead substance; During the brewing process, however, this is largely converted into isoxanthohumol .
More than 150 individual substances are known to occur in hop oil, among which mono- and sesquiterpenes (e.g. myrcene , humulene and β- caryophyllene , farnesene ) and various fatty acid esters should be emphasized. Depending on the proportion of the main terpenes, a distinction is made between myrcene and humul-rich hop varieties. They largely determine the beer aroma.
Hops contain small amounts of estrogen-active substances , among which the most potent than the flavonoids belonging hopeine (8-prenylnaringenin) was identified. Hop cones are also said to have an antimicrobial and tuberculostatic effect.
Pharmaceutically used drugs are the hop cones ( Lupuli flos , strobuli Lupuli , strobulus Lupuli ) where it is dried, whole female is inflorescences, and hop glands ( Lupuli glandula , hop powder, lupulin ), which screened from the seed heads glandular hairs. Hop glands are a greenish-yellow sticky powder that smells aromatic and tastes bitter spicy. They are obtained by knocking out the hop cones. In pressed form, the hop glands are used as hop hash (lupu hash), incense or for smoking.
Preparations made from hop cones are used as a light sleep aid and sedative. Hop extracts are commercially available as finished medicinal products, often mixed with other herbal sedatives such as valerian . Their effectiveness has been confirmed by Commission E of the BfArM .
Which ingredients are responsible for the effect has not yet been fully clarified. First of all, the bitter substances in hops should be mentioned. The combination of the substances humulone and lupulone during storage, processing and / or in the human body results in 2-methylbut-3-en-2-ol , which is probably responsible for the calming effect. The compound also has an antibacterial effect. The corresponding preservative effect plays an important role in beer brewing . The bitter substances also stimulate gastric juice secretion, which is why hops are used in folk medicine for loss of appetite and digestive problems.
In aromatherapy , hop blossoms are used as "aroma pillows" or hop extracts as bath additives. An estrogenic effect of hops is mainly due to the content of hopein (8-prenylnaringenin). The substance acts as an agonist on the estrogen receptor .
Fresh hop cones can cause allergic reactions if they come into contact with the skin (hop-picking disease).
There are several hundred hop varieties worldwide, although not all of them are currently of economic importance.
83.3% of the varieties grown on German hop fields are varieties from the Hüll Hop Research Center . In 2019, 44 hop varieties were commercially cultivated in Germany - and the trend is still increasing.
Most important bitter varieties
- Hallertau Magnum
- Hallertau Taurus
- Hallertau Mercury
Most important aroma varieties
- Hallertau Mittelfrüher
- Hersbrucker late
- Hallertau tradition
- Spalter Select
- Mandarina Bavaria
- Northern Brewer
Aromatic hops are among the highest quality and most expensive types of hops, because they contain a much more pronounced spectrum of aromas than is the case with the bitter hops usually used. During the brewing process, aroma hops develop an extraordinary aroma intensity that gives the beer even more "body". It makes it spicier, more aromatic and full of character. However, aroma hops have a lower yield of bitter substances, which also play an important role in the brewing process. You therefore need a significantly larger amount. This is why this type of hops is - also from an economic point of view - the highest quality that can be used for brewing beer. The higher hop addition brings more xanthohumol into the wort or the beer, although bitter varieties have a higher xanthohumol content. Many breweries still only use bitter hops. For a long time, the finest aromatic hop varieties were the old local varieties “Hallertauer Mittelfrüher”, “Spalter”, “Tettnanger”, “Hersbrucker Spät” and the Bohemian “Saazer”, which are, however, very sensitive to fungal diseases and pests.
New hop varieties
In Tettnang and Hallertau, new varieties have been cultivated since 2013, which have been marketed for several years as Special Flavor Hops ( varieties of hops with natural fruity flavors that have been bred since 2006). In the meantime, however, these new breeds are listed and used as completely normal aroma varieties; the most important of these modern cultivars are
- Mandarina Bavaria (fruity aroma with a particularly strong mandarin note)
- Hüll Melon (distinctive honeydew melon and strawberry notes)
- Polaris (intense fruity aroma with a note similar to that of a "glacier ice candy")
- Hallertau Blanc
- Bramling Cross
- English Fuggle
- First gold
- Whitbread Golding
In historical comparison, the world harvest in 1928 was 60,300 tons; 14,900 tons of this came from the USA, 12,300 tons from Great Britain, 9,430 tons from Czechoslovakia and 8,370 tons from the German Empire .
In Germany there are six larger hop growing areas that produce a total of 18,598 hectares (as of 2016). The following figures indicate the proportion of the total area in Germany:
- Hallertau 83.3% (Bavaria)
- Elbe-Saale 7.5% (Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt)
- Tettnang 6.5% (Baden-Württemberg). See also Tettnang Hop Trail .
- Gap 2.0% (Bavaria, Middle Franconia)
- other German growing areas in total less than 1%
- former growing areas
- The hop growing area of the Upper Palatinate around Schmidmühlen , documented since the 15th century, existed until the 1930s. The reason for the cessation of cultivation was the copper fire that first appeared there in 1867 , which forced many hop farmers to give up.
- The cultivation of hops for areas and places in the former Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Braunschweig (Hannoversches Wendland, Braunschweig, Peine, Hanover, Schladen, Alfeld), in the Duchy of Oldenburg (Ammerland), in Schleswig-Holstein (before 1867 belonging to Denmark) has been handed down. , in Mecklenburg (Rostock, Parchim, Grabow, Neubrandenburg) and in parts of Brandenburg-Prussia (Altmark, Bukkow near Berlin, Guben, Posen, West and East Prussia).
In Austria with a total of 248 hectares of cultivation area (as of 2016) there are three cultivation areas:
While significantly more hops were grown up to 1939, today only 23% of the country's needs can be met domestically.
In Switzerland there is a total of 18 hectares of cultivation area, only around 10% of the country's needs can be covered by domestic production in 20 agricultural businesses.
- In the Zürcher Weinland , especially in the municipality of Stammheim ,
- in the Fricktal , canton Aargau,
- in Wolfwil , Canton Solothurn and
- at the Ittingen Charterhouse in Thurgau , Warth-Weiningen municipality .
With 21,433 hectares (as of 2016), around a quarter of the world's acreage in North America is in the US states of Idaho , Oregon and Washington; 4,054 tons of alpha acid were obtained from the 2016 hop harvest.
Hop growing of international importance also takes place in the People's Republic of China (2,508 ha), in Poland (1,524 ha), in Slovenia (1,528 ha), in the Ukraine (369 ha) and in England (928 ha). Other European countries with low, but sometimes regional, hop growing importance are France (453 ha, which are mainly cultivated in Alsace ), Spain (534 ha mainly around the city of León ), Romania (282 ha), Belgium (155 ha, especially in the area of Poperinge , West Flanders Province ) and Slovakia (137 ha). In addition, hops are grown on around 412 hectares in New Zealand , most of which is exported. As a result of New Zealand's breeding efforts, these high quality varieties fetch comparatively high prices. In Australia it is 488 ha and in South Africa 402 ha. (All data as of 2016.)
Diseases and pests
On the damage caused by fungal diseases include the True and the downy mildew and the Hopfenrußtau. Earth flea beetles and spider mites are animal pests. The hop aphid or hop aphid or Phorodon humuli are among the other pests in the event of mass infestation .
For many years, hops have been regarded as one of the most widely price-fluctuating goods (around 1 in 10), a fact that makes both hop growing and hop purchasing into economically risky undertakings.
The Barth-Haas-Group is the world market leader as a supplier of hops and a manufacturer of hop products .
Cultural traditions are also linked to hop growing such as B. the choice of a hop queen.
- Latin Middle Ages: Hildegard von Bingen 12th century --- Konrad von Megenberg 14th century --- Herbarius Moguntinus 1484 --- Garden of Health 1485 --- Hortus sanitatis 1491 --- Hieronymus Brunschwig 1500
- Modern times: Otto Brunfels 1532 --- Otto Brunfels 1537 --- Hieronymus Bock 1539 --- Leonhart Fuchs 1543 --- Mattioli / Handsch / Camerarius 1586 --- Nicolas Lémery 1699/1721 --- Onomatologia medica completa 1755 --- William Cullen 1789/90 --- Jean-Louis Alibert 1805/05 --- Hecker 1814/15 --- Kümicher 1830 --- v. Schlechtendahl 1838 --- Pereira / Buchheim 1846/48 --- v. Hasselt / Henkel 1862 --- August Husemann / Theodor Husemann 1871 --- Bentley / Henry Trimen 1880 --- Theodor Husemann 1883
Herbarius Moguntinus 1484
Garden of Health 1485
Hortus sanitatis 1491
Otto Brunfels 1537
Leonhart Fuchs 1543
Hieronymus Bock 1546
- Karl Borde (Ed.): Hop . German Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-331-00110-4 .
- Hans Kohlmann, Alfred Kastner: The hops . Hop publishing house, Wolnzach 1975.
- Joachim Friedrich Tresenreuter: Economic and legal treatise on the hops . Lochner, Nuremberg 1759. (digitized version)
- Martin Biendl, Christoph Pinzl: Medicinal plant hops. Applications - effects - history . German Hop Museum, Wolnzach 2007.
- Ingrid and Peter Schönfelder : The new handbook of medicinal plants. Franckh-Kosmos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2004, ISBN 3-440-09387-5 .
- K. Hiller, MF Melzig: Lexicon of medicinal plants and drugs. 2nd Edition. Spectrum Academic Publishing House, 2010, ISBN 978-3-8274-2053-4 .
- Real hops. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Humulus lupulus L. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- Distribution in the northern hemisphere according to Eric Hultén
- Thomas Meyer: Data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia )
- Association of German Hop Growers. eV
- HVG Hopfenverwertungsgenossenschaft eG
- Trade journal "Hopfen Rundschau International" (German-English).
- Real hops . In: Erowid . (English).
- Magnus Rath: Hops , useful plants and other interesting botany things from the University of Marburg.
- Hop. in the medicinal plant lexicon of the Phytopharmaka cooperation.
- The Barth Report 2010 - 2018
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas. 8th edition. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , p. 320.
- Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert : Flora of the Allgäu and its surroundings. Volume 1, IHW, Eching 2001, ISBN 3-930167-50-6 , p. 429.
- Meret Bissegger: My wild plant kitchen . Photos by Hans-Peter Siffert. 3. Edition. AT Verlag, Aarau / Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-03800-552-0 , p. 42.
- Association of German Hop Growers eV
- Real Lexicon of Germanic Antiquity . Volume 15, ISBN 3-11-016649-6 , keyword “hops”, p. 111 ff.
- Landshuter Wochenblatt: Hops: Cultivated plants with tradition and "Green Gold" , September 7, 2016.
- beerjack.de: hops
- sudhang.de: Frequently asked questions
- Lisa Takler: Volatile compounds and antimicrobial effects of selected resins and balms from A – J. Diploma thesis, Univers. Vienna, 2015, pp. 84–93, online . (PDF; 3.18 MB), from updata.univie.ac.at, accessed on November 1, 2016.
- Markus Fischer, Marcus A. Glomb: Modern food chemistry. Behrs Verlag, 2015, ISBN 978-3-89947-864-8 , p. 372 ff.
- T. Dingermann, K. Hiller, G. Schneider, I. Zündorf: Schneider drug drugs. 5th edition. Elsevier, 2004, ISBN 3-8274-1481-4 , p. 203.
- E. Teuscher: Biogenic drugs. 5th edition. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1997, ISBN 3-8047-1482-X , p. 184.
- E. Steinegger, R. Hansel: Pharmakognosie. Springer-Verlag, 1992, ISBN 3-540-55649-4 , p. 286.
- C. Gerhauser, A. Alt, E. Heiss u. a .: Cancer chemopreventive activity of xanthohumol, a natural product derived from hop . In: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics . tape 1 , no. 11 , September 2002, p. 959-969 , PMID 12481418 ( aacrjournals.org [PDF; accessed September 25, 2010]).
- Entry on xanthohumol. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on March 3, 2012.
- A. Forster, A. Gahr, M. Ketterer, B. Beck and S. Massinger: Xanthohumol in beer - possibilities and limits of an enrichment. In: Monthly for Brewing Science 55 (9/10): 184-194, 2002. ( PDF ; 58 kB)
- Rudolf Hänsel, Konstantin Keller, Horst Rimpler, Georg Schneider: Hager's handbook of pharmaceutical practice . Drugs E-O , 5th edition, Springer, 1993, ISBN 978-3-642-63427-7 , p. 451.
- European Medicines Agency , Committee for Herbal Medicinal Products : Assessment report for the development of community monographs and for inclusion of herbal substance (s), preparation (s) or combinations thereof in the list Humulus lupulus L., flos (PDF; 282 kB) of July 11, 2008.
- Hop varieties according to growing areas at hopsteiner.de
- According to the Barth / Haas Report 2017/18, Herkules is the hop variety with the largest cultivation area in Germany
- Ludwig Narcissus: demolition of the brewery. 7th edition. Wiley-VCH, 2004, ISBN 3-527-31035-5 .
- Ludwig Narcissus, Werner Back: The beer brewery: The technology of wort preparation. 8th edition. Wiley-VCH, 2009, ISBN 978-3-527-32533-7 , p. 120.
- Outlook for the 2016 hop harvest. (No longer available online.) Bavarian Farmers' Association, archived from the original on December 23, 2016 ; accessed on December 23, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Figures for 1928 from Der Volks-Brockhaus , FA Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1935; P. 302
- Reinhard Heller: Green gold of the Altmark. Clemens Köhler, Harsum 2002, p. 9.
- Entry on real hops in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Hops , Landwirtschaft.ch
- Brockhaus Encyclopedia in twenty-four volumes, 19th completely revised edition, FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 1989, ISBN 3-7653-1100-6
- Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Physica , Book I, Chapter 61: Hops . Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1153 (digitized version ) - Translation: Herbert Reier: Hildegard von Bingen Physica. Translated into German after the text edition by JP Migne, Paris 1882. Kiel 1980, p. 45: Hops are warm and dry and have little moisture. It is not very useful to humans because it lets melancholy grow in them, makes the sense sad and weighs down the bowels. However, with its bitterness it prevents the drinks from rotting so that they stay fresh longer.
- Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century: Book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, p. 404 (V / 43): Hops (digitized)
- Herbarius Moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part I, Chapter 78: Lupulus. Hoppen (digitized version )
- Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, chapter 215: Humulus. Hoppen (digitized version )
- Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 499: Volubilis (digitized version)
- Hieronymus Brunschwig : Small distilling book , Strasbourg 1500, sheet 60v: Hopffen (digitized version )
- Otto Brunfels : Contrafayt Kreüterbůch . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1532, p. 324: Hopff (digitized version )
- Otto Brunfels: Ander Teyl des Teütschen Contrafayten Kreüterbůchs . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1537, p. 140: Hopff illustration (digitized)
- Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part II, Chapter 90: Hopffen (digitized version )
- Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 58: Hopffen (digitized version )
- Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 448r – 448v: Hopffen (digitized)
- Nicolas Lémery : Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, pp. 449-450: Lupulus (digitalisat) ; Translation. Complete material lexicon. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, column 664: Lupulus (digitized)
- Albrecht von Haller (editor): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and the art of pharmacy clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 931–932: Lupulus (digitized version )
- William Cullen : A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, p. 76: Lupulus (digitized version ) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, p. 90: Hops (digitized)
- Jean-Louis Alibert : Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Crapart, Paris, 2nd edition, Volume I 1808, pp. 148–150: Houblon (digitized version )
- August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume I 1814, pp. 255–256: Coni Humuli (digitized version )
- Caroline Kümicher: Constanzer Cookbook. W. Wallis, Konstanz 1824, 3rd edition 1830, p. 40: Hopfen (digitalisat) ; P. 224: Hop salad (digitized version)
- v. Schlechtendahl : Humulus . In: Dietrich Wilhelm Heinrich Busch , Carl Ferdinand von Graefe , Ernst Horn , Heinrich Friedrich Link , Joseph Müller (1811–1845), Emil Osann (eds.): Encyclopedic Dictionary of Medicinal Sciences. JW Boike, Berlin 1828-1849, Volume 17 (1838), pp. 155–159 (digitized version )
- Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voß, Leipzig 1846–1848, Volume II 1848, p. 189: Humulus lupulus (digitized version )
- Alexander Willem Michiel van Hasselt . JB Henkel (translator): Handbook of poison theory for chemists, doctors, pharmacists and court officials . Vieweg, Braunschweig 1862, part I General poison theory and the poisons of the plant kingdom , pp. 433–434: Humulus lupulus (digitized version )
- August Husemann / Theodor Husemann : The plant substances in chemical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological terms. For doctors, pharmacists, chemists and pharmacologists. Springer, Berlin 1871, pp. 987–988: Hopfenbitter (digitized version ) ; P. 1152: Hop oil (digitized version)
- Robert Bentley , Henry Trimen : Medicinal plants. J. & A. Churchill, London 1880, volume, No 230 (digitized)
- Theodor Husemann : Handbook of the entire drug theory. Springer, Berlin 2nd edition 1883, p. 664: Glandulae lupini (digitized version )