Cloudberry from "Pictures ur Nordens Flora",
|Bercht. & J. Presl|
According to today's molecular genetic studies, this order includes plants that differ morphologically in many ways.
There are woody plants in the order Rosales: trees and shrubs , annual, perennial to perennial herbaceous plants . But there are no aquatic plants and no parasites in this order. The leaves are often divided. There are always stipules present.
The flowers are usually five-fold, often hermaphroditic and radial symmetry . Originally there is a flower cup ( hypanthium ), but this is missing in some families. The stamens are originally five, but especially in the Rosaceae there are numerous due to secondary polyandry. The number of carpels per flower is very variable: everything is possible from very many to a single one. There are animal-pollinated and wind-pollinated taxa . At most there is little endosperm .
- Hemp plants (Cannabaceae)
- Olive family (Elaeagnaceae)
- Mulberry family (Moraceae)
- Buckthorn Family (Rhamnaceae)
- Rose family (Rosaceae)
- Elm family (Ulmaceae)
- Nettle family (Urticaceae)
After evaluating morphological and molecular genetic studies, new family relationships emerged for the order of the Rosales (see also Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Sytsma et al. 2002). It turned out that the six or seven families and 2600 species of the earlier order Urticales also belong to the order Rosales and that the family boundaries have shifted somewhat.
The result is the following cladogram :
- The order of the Rosales on the AP website. (engl.)
- Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall, Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences. In: American Journal of Botany. Volume 89, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1531-1546, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.89.9.1531 .
- Andreas Bresinsky , Christian Körner , Joachim W. Kadereit , Gunther Neuhaus , Uwe Sonnewald : Textbook of botany . Founded by Eduard Strasburger . 36th edition. Spectrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8274-1455-7 . , Rosales : pp. 888-891.
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Group : An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, doi : 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
- Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall, Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F , and ndhF sequences. In: American Journal of Botany. Volume 89, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1531-1546, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.89.9.1531 .