Hemp plants

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Hemp plants
Female inflorescence called "hop cones" of hops (Humulus lupulus)

Female inflorescence called " hop cones" of hops ( Humulus lupulus )

Nuclear eudicotyledons
Eurosiden I
Order : Rose-like (rosales)
Family : Hemp plants
Scientific name

The hemp plants (Cannabaceae) are a family of plants in the order of the rose-like (Rosales). The eleven genera with around 170 species are distributed almost worldwide.

The most important useful plants of the hemp family are in the two genera hemp ( cannabis ) and hops ( humulus ).


Illustration of the European nettle tree ( Celtis australis )

Appearance and leaves

They are perennial herbaceous plants or woody plants: shrubs and trees ; some species are climbing plants . Some species contain resin .

The arrangement of the leaves on the stems or twigs is opposite or alternating and is screwy or two-line. The stalked leaves have a very diverse leaf blade from simple to palmate lobes to divided. They always have a sawn leaf edge. Stipules are always present, they may or may not be fused together.

Inflorescences, flowers and fruits

They are mostly dioecious ( dioecious ), rarely single ( monoecious ) separate sexes. The branched, dense inflorescences with bracts end in a zymotic part inflorescence .

The unisexual flowers are radial symmetry and five-fold. Often part of the bracts is reduced. There are five sepals : in male flowers they are free, in female flowers they are partially fused. Petals are often missing. In the male flowers there is only one circle with five fertile stamens. In the female flowers are two carpels to syncarp, Upper permanent ovary grown. The very short style ends in two long scars. The pollination is usually by the wind ( anemophily ).

They often form stone fruits or, less often in cannabis and humulus, nut fruits .

Ingredients and sets of chromosomes

The ingredients are alkaloids and flavonols .

The basic chromosome number is usually x = 10.

Trema orientalis inflorescences and leaves


The valid first publication of the family name Cannabaceae took place in 1820 by Ivan Ivanovič Martinov in Tekhno-Botanicheskīĭ Slovar… , p. 99. The publication of Cannabidaceae by Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher did not take place until 1837 in Genera plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita . The type genus is Cannabis L.

Position in the order of Rosales

For a long time the Cannabaceae family consisted only of the two genera Cannabis and Humulus within one order Urticales. Molecular genetic studies showed that the six or seven families and 2600 species of the earlier order Urticales also belong to the order Rosales . It turned out that the subfamily Celtidoideae with the genera Aphananthe , Celtis , Gironniera , Pteroceltis and Trema are not closely related to the subfamily Ulmoideae. Instead of the Ulmaceae, the genera of the Celtidoideae belong to the Cannabaceae.

Although the Celtidoideae contain more genera and species, the family is not called Celtidaceae, but rather Cannabaceae for priority reasons . The following synonyms for Cannabaceae Martinov result: Cannabidaceae Endl. , Celtidaceae Engl., Lupulaceae Schultz Sch., Nom. illegal.

Related families within the order Rosales:


Rosales s. st.









Template: Klade / Maintenance / Style


The hemp family (Cannabaceae) today contains around (nine to) eleven genera with around 170 species:

  • Aphananthe Planch. (Syn .: Homoioceltis flower , Mirandaceltis Sharp ): The approximately five species occur in Eastern Asia, Madagascar, Mexico and the Pacific islands, two of them in China.
    • Aphananthe aspera (Thunb.) Planch. : From Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam and from central to southern China.
  • Cannabis L. , hemp : There are only one to three species that are believed to have originally been native to Central Asia.
  • Celtis L. , hackberry trees (Syn .: Momisia F.Dietr. , Sparrea Hunz. & Dottori ): The approximately 60 to 100 species are distributed from the tropics to temperate areas.
  • Chaetacme Planch. (Syn .: Chaetachme Planch. , Orth. Var.): The only four species are common in West Africa.
  • Gironniera Gaudich. (Syn .: Helminthospermum Thwaites , Nematostigma Planch. ): The approximately 6 species are distributed in Southeast Asia , on the Pacific islands and on Sri Lanka .
  • Humulus L. , hops (Syn .: Humulopsis Grudz. , Lupulus Mill. ): The only two to three species are common in the northern hemisphere.
  • Lozanella Greenm. (formerly in Ulmaceae ): The only two species occur from Mexico to Bolivia.
  • Parasponia Miq. : The approximately 5 species occur on Pacific islands. The roots havea symbiosis with Rhizobium to fix nitrogen ; apart from legumes ,it is the only group of plantsthat fix nitrogen with these organisms, otherwise actinomycetes are the symbionts.
  • Pteroceltis Maxim. with the only species Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim : It thrives on limestone along rivers at altitudes between 100 and 1500 meters only in China.
  • Trema Lour. (Syn .: Sponia Comm. Ex Decne. ): The 15 or so species are common in the tropics and subtropics.


  • Hemp ( Cannabis sativa ):


  • The Cannabaceae family according to the current system on the AP website. (Sections Description and Systematics)
  • Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall & Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences. , in American Journal of Botany , 2002, 89, pp. 1531-1546: Online.

Individual evidence

  1. Cannabaceae at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed July 30, 2013.
  2. ^ SJ Wiegrefe, KJ Sytsma & RP Guries: The Ulmaceae, one family or two? Evidence from chloroplast DNA restriction site mapping. In: Plant Systematics and Evolution , 210, 1998, pp. 249-270.
  3. KK Ueda & Kosuge H. Tobe: A molecular phylogeny of Celtidaceae and Ulmaceae (Urticales) based on rbcL nucleotide sequences. In: Journal of Plant Research , 110, 1997, pp. 171-178.
  4. a b Cannabaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  5. Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall & Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F , and ndhF sequences. , In: American Journal of Botany , 2002, 89, pp. 1531-1546: Online.
  6. The Cannabaceae family according to the current system at the AP website.
  7. Nitrogen fixation in the plant taxa.
  8. Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin & Alan Whittemore: Pteroceltis Ulmaceae , p. 9 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Deyuan Hong (eds.): Flora of China , Volume 5 - Ulmaceae through Basellaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2003. ISBN 1-930723-27-X

Web links

Commons : Cannabaceae  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files