Perennial plant

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As a perennial or perennial , also perenne plant or perenne ( lat. Perenne perennis, "throughout the year continuously") are in the botany plants referred to several years old and it several times, generally annually, blossom and bear fruit.

Perennial plants are also referred to as multiple- flowering , pollakanth (from ancient Greek πολλάκις pollákis , German 'often' and ἄνθος anthos 'blossom', 'flower'), polycarp or iteroparous - in contrast to the hapaxanthen , monocarpic, which only bloom and fruit once in their life or semelparen plants.

Definition of terms from the colloquial "multi-year period"

While in everyday language mostly all plants that are older than one year are referred to as biennial or perennial , in botany these names are reserved for species that are two or more years old, but only bloom once and fruits, i.e. hapaxanth .

Classification of perennial plants

In the case of perennial plants, a distinction is made between wood plants ( trees , shrubs , lianas ) with woody trunks and branches and perennial plants with herbaceous, not woody stems. However, Fischer (2005) only counts perennial plants among the perennials and contrasts them with woody ones.

More for endurance essential characteristics drought resistance and wind resistance . In middle and higher latitudes (at least from a geographical latitude of 30 °) the plants must also be frost hardy .


Collective term Botanical Horticultural Characteristics

( once giving birth )

In botany also:
( once blooming )
( once fruiting )

(summer) annuell
( annual )
annual only one continuous vegetation period until flowering and seed formation, then withering herbaceous
bienn / winter annual ( two years ) biennial two vegetation periods separated by a cold or dry period until flowering and seed formation, then withering
( perennial )
perennial More than two vegetation periods separated by cold or dry periods until flowering and seed formation, then withering herbaceous ( perennial ) or woody ( subshrubs , shrubs , trees , vines )

( repeatedly giving birth )

In botany also:
Pollakanth ( multiple flowers )
( multiple fruiting )

( persistent )
multiple flowering and seed formation without subsequent death

Special case of
"annual grown plants" :
perennial or perennial, but not hardy , therefore de facto only surviving one vegetation period in a temperate climate


  • Manfred A. Fischer, Wolfgang Adler, Karl Oswald: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol . 2nd, improved and enlarged edition. State of Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz 2005, ISBN 3-85474-140-5 .
  • Rudolf Schubert , Klaus Werner, Hermann Meusel (eds.): Excursion flora for the areas of the GDR and the FRG . Founded by Werner Rothmaler. 13th edition. tape 2 : vascular plants . People and knowledge, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-06-012539-2 .


  1. ^ Josef M. Stowasser, Michael Petschenig, Franz Skutsch The little Stowasser. Hölder / Pichler / Tempsky, Vienna 1980, ISBN 3-209-00225-8 .

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