The botanical meaning of the term perennial plant differs significantly from its meaning in everyday language, but also in horticultural parlance.
Perennial plants are popularly all plants that are older than two years, regardless of how often they bloom and fruit, whereby two-year-old plants are often counted among the perennial.
- In the botanical jargon, however, perennial plants (synonym plurienne plants ) are only those that are older than two years, but only bloom and fruit once and then die. Collective term hapaxanth .
- Plants that are also older than two years, but bloom and fruit more than once , usually annually, are called perennial plants (synonym perennial plants ). The age at which flowering and fruiting begins depends on the respective plant species. Collective term: pollakanth .
- Plants eventually, the only two (separate in our region through a cold spell from each other) growing seasons for life, are biennial plants (synonym bienne plants called).
( once giving birth )
( annual )
|annual||only one continuous vegetation period until flowering and seed formation, then withering||herbaceous|
|bienn / winter annual ( two years )||biennial||two vegetation periods separated by a cold or dry period until flowering and seed formation, then withering|
( perennial )
|perennial||More than two vegetation periods separated by cold or dry periods until flowering and seed formation, then withering||herbaceous ( perennial ) or woody ( subshrubs , shrubs , trees , vines )|
( repeatedly giving birth )
( persistent )
|multiple flowering and seed formation without subsequent death
Special case of
- Manfred A. Fischer, Wolfgang Adler, Karl Oswald: Excursion flora for Austria, Liechtenstein and South Tyrol . 2nd, improved and enlarged edition. State of Upper Austria, Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz 2005, ISBN 3-85474-140-5 .
- Rudolf Schubert , Klaus Werner, Hermann Meusel (eds.): Excursion flora for the areas of the GDR and the FRG . Founded by Werner Rothmaler. 13th edition. tape 2 : vascular plants . People and knowledge, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-06-012539-2 .