Hapaxanthe plant

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Hapaxanthe ( old Gr . Ἅπαξ hápax "once" and ἄνθος anthos "blossom", "flower") also called monocarpic or semelpare plants , are plants that bloom only once in their life , fruit and then die off completely. In contrast, perennial or pollakanthe plants bloom several times in their life cycle.

Hapaxanthe plants themselves differ as follows:

  • Annual or annual species cover the entire development from seed germination to seed maturity within one vegetation period .
  • Biennial or bienne species cover the entire development from seed germination to seed maturity within two summers and one or two winters. The seeds germinate in the first autumn and then survive the winter as a rosette or seedling plant . The development is not completed until the following summer. Example: turnip
  • Perennial or plurienne species are hapaxanthic plants that are older than two years and sometimes need many years to reach flowering maturity, whereby they exhaust themselves through the formation of flowers and fruit that they then die off completely. Examples: Some agave species and many bamboo species (subfamily Bambusoideae ) are perennial hapaxanth - depending on the species, the latter may remain in the vegetative state for many years or decades before all stocks of the same species suddenly bloom in the same year. The Talipot palm ( Corypha umbraculifera ) even needs about 30 years to flower. Finally, among the bromeliads , Puya raimondii is the most impressive example of such a perennial hapaxanthene plant: Puya raimondii takes about 50 to 70 years to form the largest inflorescence of all known plant species. Another bromeliad plant, Tillandsia ferreyrae , does not form children either . Most of the other bromeliads, however, are not hapaxanthic plants.


  • Peter Sitte, Hubert Ziegler, Friedrich Ehrendorfer, Andreas Bresinsky: Textbook of botany for universities. Founded by Eduard Strasburger. G. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1998 (34th edition), ISBN 3-4372-5500-2 .

Individual evidence

  1. Werner Rauh : Bromeliads - Tillandsias and other bromeliads worthy of culture . Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-8001-6371-3 .