Nettle family


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Nettle family
Great nettle (Urtica dioica), illustration

Great nettle ( Urtica dioica ), illustration

Systematics
Eudicotyledons
Nuclear eudicotyledons
Rosids
Eurosiden I
Order : Rose-like (rosales)
Family : Nettle family
Scientific name
Urticaceae
Yuss.

The nettle family (Urticaceae, Germanized "Urticaceen" (pronounced: Ur-ti-ka-ze-en)) form a family in the order of the rose-like (Rosales) within the flowering plants (Magnoliopsida). The family contains about 54 to 56 genera with about 2625 species . It has a worldwide distribution, only in arctic climates it does not occur. Some species are used in different ways. The nettles ( Urtica ) are a well-known plant genus, mainly because the leaves are equipped with nettle hairs , the contents of which ( acetylcholine , histamine , serotonin ) cause burning itching when touched, but also in other genus of the Urticeae tribe: Nanocnide , Girardinia and Dendrocnide has this property. All over the world, the caterpillars of many butterfly species feed on species of this family.

description

Illustration of Parietaria officinalis .
Flower diagrams of Urtica :
A male, B female flower.

Appearance and leaves

The species of this family grow as annuals to perennial herbaceous plants or woody plants such as vines , half-shrubs , shrubs and rare trees (for example Cecropia ). Some species, for example in the genus Pilea, are succulent . Few species grow as epiphytes , for example in the genus Pilea . The vegetative parts of the plant can be covered with stinging hairs depending on the genus (tribe Urticeae) . Thorns are rarely present. Some species contain a watery milky sap . They can be evergreen or deciduous.

The more rarely opposite, mostly alternate and spiral or two-line arranged leaves are usually divided into petiole and leaf blade. The leaf blades are usually simple, rarely composed (for example Cecropia or Elatostema ). The leaf margin is smooth, serrate or serrated. Under the epidermis , cystolites are embedded on the top and / or underside of the leaves , which can only be recognized when the leaves have dried. Usually there are two stipules that can be free or fused.

Inflorescences, flowers and pollination

They are monoecious ( monoecious ) or dioecious ( dioecious ) separate sexes; some species are polygamomonözisch , then in addition to unisexual also hermaphrodite flowers occur. Mostly in lateral, rarely in terminal, mostly branched zymous , panicle , spike or racemose inflorescences are - often in clusters - many flowers together, female inflorescences can also be head-shaped. There are mostly bracts present, which in some species completely envelop the flower.

The mostly unisexual flowers are usually radial symmetry , rarely zygomorphic and (two to six) usually four to five-fold. Bracts may be present or absent. If there are bracts, then it is only one, two- to six-fold, circle. There are two to six stamens in male and hermaphrodite flowers . The stamens are often bent inwards in the flower buds. The dust bags often open "explosively" lengthways. The pollen grains are mono- or polycolporate. In the female and hermaphrodite flowers (mostly) only one carpel is present, which is mostly on top. The female flowers can have staminodes . There may be a simple stylus, or the heady, awl, brush or thread-like scars are sessile.

The pollination is usually by the wind (anemophilous) or by insects (entomophilous).

Fruits and seeds

Dry, achena-like nut fruits or fleshy stone fruits are formed; they are always lonely. Often there are long-lasting bloom cladding sheets on the fruits that enlarge until they are ripe. The seeds contain endosperm and a straight embryo with two ovate-elliptical or circular cotyledons ( cotyledons ).

Sets of chromosomes

The basic chromosome numbers are x = 7-14.

Systematics and distribution

It has a worldwide distribution, only in arctic climates it does not occur. In the Neotropic there are around 16 genera with around 450 species. A number of species are invasive plants in many areas of the world .

The family name Urticaceae was first published in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera plantarum ... , p. 400.

Molecular genetic studies showed that the six or seven families of the earlier order Urticales also belong to the order Rosales . The six or so genera ( Cecropia , Coussapoa , Pourouma , Myrianthus , Musanga , Poikilospermum ) with around 180 to 200 species of the former Cecropiaceae CCBerg family are now part of the Urticaceae.

Related families within the order Rosales:

 Rosales 

Rosales s. st.


 ex-Urticales 

Ulmaceae


   

Cannabaceae


   

Moraceae


   

Urticaceae






Cecropia glazioui with compound leaves
The Australian nettle ( Dendrocnide moroides ) should not be touched.
Habit and leaves of Laportea grossa , they should not be touched.
Pipturus argenteus grows as a tree.
Bobblehead ( Soleirolia soleirolii ) is used as a houseplant.
Flowering great nettle ( Urtica dioica )

The tribes were published in 1830 by Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré in HLC de Freycinet's Voyage autour du monde… executé sur les corvettes de SM l'Uranie et la Physiciene . The family is divided into six tribes with a total of about 54 to 56 genera:

  • Boehmerieae Gaudich. : with about eight genera: Boehmeria , Nothocnide , Pipturus , Pouzolzia .
  • Cecropieae Gaudich. : with about six genera: Cecropia , Coussapoa , Pourouma , Myrianthus , Musanga .
  • Elatostemeae Gaudich. (Syn .: Lecantheae Wedd. ): With about six genera: Elatostema , Lecanthus , Procris .
  • Forsskaoleae Gaudich. : with only one stamen. All types without stinging hairs. With about five genera: Forsskaolea .
  • Parietarieae Gaudich. : with about eight genera: Gesnouinia , Parietaria , Soleirolia .
  • Urticeae Gaudich. : all species with stinging hairs: with about six genera: Dendrocnide , Girardinia , Laportea , Nanocnide , Urea , Urtica , Poikilospermum .

Today there are about 54 to 56 genera in the Urticaceae family (in alphabetical order):

  • Aboriella Bennet : It contains only one species:
  • Achudemia flower : The three types occur in Asia.
  • Archiboehmeria C.J.Chen : It contains only one species:
    • Archiboehmeria atrata (Gagnepain) CJChen : Home is China and northern Vietnam. It grows from a subshrub to a shrub.
  • Astrothalamus C.B. Rob. : It contains only one type:
  • Australina Gaudich. : Of the only two species, one occurs in southeastern Australia and New Zealand and one in Ethiopia and Kenya .
  • Boehmeria Jacq. : It contains about 50 to 65 species mostly in the tropics and subtropics.
  • Ant trees ( Cecropia Loefl. , Syn .: Ambaiba Adans. ): The 75 to 100 species are common in the Neotropic . They mostly grow as trees. Some species cause problems in tropical countries as invasive plants .
  • Chamabainia Wight : It contains only one species:
  • Coussapoa Aubl. : The approximately 50 species occur in the Neotropic. They grow as shrubs or trees.
  • Cypholophus Wedd. : The 15 to 30 species occur in the People's Republic of China , Taiwan , Indonesia , central Malaysia , New Guinea , the Philippines and the Pacific Islands.
  • Debregeasia Gaudich. : The six or so species occur in the tropics and subtropics of eastern Asia and north-east Africa. They are shrubs or small trees.
  • Dendrocnide Miq. : The 36 to 70 species occur in southern and southeastern Asia, Australia and the Pacific islands. These shrubs or trees have stinging hairs.
  • Didymodoxa E. Mey. ex Wedd. : It contains about two species in Africa.
  • Discocnide Chew : it contains only one species:
  • Droguetia Gaudich. : The seven or so species are mainly found in Africa, for example:
    • Droguetia iners (Forsskål) Schweinfurth : Its distribution area extends to Asia.
  • Elatostema J.R. Forst. & G.Forst. : It contains about 300 species. The tropical and subtropical distribution areas are in Africa, Asia and Oceania . 146 species occur in China, 108 of them only there.
  • Forsskaolea L .: The approximately six species are found in the Canary Islands , in southeastern Spain and on the Indian subcontinent .
  • Gesnouinia Gaudich. : There are about two species only in the Canary Islands.
  • Gibbsia Rendle : The only two species occur only in the mountains of western New Guinea . They are bushes.
  • Girardinia Gaudich. : The only about two species distributed in northern Africa, Madagascar and Asia. These annual to perennial herbaceous plants have stinging hairs.
  • Gyrotaenia Griseb. : The four or so species occur only on the Caribbean islands. They are shrubs or small trees.
  • Hemistylus Benth. : The four or so species are common in the Neotropics.
  • Hesperocnide Torr. : Of the only two species, one occurs from California to Mexico and one in Hawaii . They are annual plants with stinging hairs and other hairs.
  • Hyrtanandra Miq. (Syn .: Gonostegia Turcz. And Memorialis Buch.-Ham. Ex Wedd. ): It contains about three species in Asia and Australia.
  • Laportea Gaudich. : It is distributed pantropically with 22 to 28 species. These perennial herbaceous plants to subshrubs have stinging hairs and other hairs.
  • Lecanthus Wedd. : It contains three types of tropics and subtropics of eastern Africa and eastern Asia; all three types also in China.
  • Leucosyke inches. & Moritzi : It contains around 35 species in tropical Asia and on the Pacific islands.
  • Maoutia Wedd. : It contains about 15 species in subtropical to tropical Asia and on the Pacific islands. They are shrubs or small trees.
  • Meniscogyne Gagnep. : The roughly two types are common in Southeast Asia.
  • Metatrophis F.Br. : It contains only one type:
  • Musanga C.Sm. ex R.Br. : It contains only two species in tropical Africa. They grow as trees.
  • Myrianthus P.Beauv. : It contains about seven species in tropical Africa. They grow as trees or bushes.
  • Myriocarpa Benth. : The 5 to 18 species are common in the Neotropic.
  • Nanocnide Flower : It contains only two species in temperate eastern Asia. These perennial herbaceous plants have stinging hairs.
  • Neodistemon Babu & ANHenry : It contains only one species:
    • Neodistemon indicum Babu & ANHenry : The range extends from India to the Pacific Islands. It is a perennial herbaceous plant.
  • Neraudia Gaudich. : The five to seven species arenativeto Hawaii .
  • Nothocnide flower ex Chew : The five or so species come mainly from the Indonesian archipelago, one of them in Australia.
  • Obetia Gaudich. : The eight or so species occur in tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarene Mountains . There are trees or bushes mostly with stinging hairs.
  • Oreocnide Miq. : The approximately 18 species are distributed in subtropical to tropical eastern Asia and New Guinea . They are evergreen shrubs or trees.
  • Glass herbs ( Parietaria L. ): It contains about 20 species in the subtropics and tropics.
  • Pellionia Gaudich. : The 60 to 70 species are herbaceous plants or subshrubs in subtropical and tropical Asia and on the Pacific islands.
  • Petelotiella Gagnep. : It contains only one type:
  • Phenax Wedd. : The twelve species are common in the Neotropic . They are perennial herbaceous plants or subshrubs to shrubs.
  • Gunner flowers ( Pilea Lindl. ): It contains 250 to 600 species worldwide in tropical to subtropical climates; rare in temperate climates. They are mostly perennial herbaceous plants to subshrubs, rarely shrubs.
  • Pipturus Wedd. : The approximately 40 species in occur in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Japan (Ryūkyū Islands), Malaysia in northern Australia, Madagascar, on the Mascarene Islands and on the Pacific Islands ( Hawaii , Polynesia ). They are evergreen shrubs or trees.
  • Poikilospermum Zipp. ex Miq. : It contains about 27 Asian to Australasian species; they occur from the Sino- Himalaya region via Malaysia to the Bismarck archipelago . They are shrubs or large lianas that sometimes germinate on trees and thusgrow epiphytically .
  • Pourouma Aubl. : The approximately 50 species are common in the Neotropic.
  • Pouzolzia Gaudich. (including Gonostegia Turczaninow ): It is pantropical with around 40 species.
  • Procris Comm. ex Juss. : It contains about 20 species in the warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World .
  • Rousselia Gaudich. : It contains about two types.
  • Sarcochlamys Gaudich. : It contains only one type:
  • Sarcopilea Urb. : It contains only one type:
  • Soleirolia Gaudich. : It contains only one type:
    • Bubikopf ( Soleirolia soleirolii (Requien) Dandy ): The original homeland is Sardinia and Corsica ; it is a neophyte in many areas of the world . It is a perennial herbaceous plant that is used as an ornamental plant.
  • Touchardia Gaudich. : Contains only one or more species in Hawaii.
  • Urera Gaudich. : It is distributed almost pantropically with about 87 species.
  • Nettle ( Urtica L. ): It contains about 30 to 50 species. They thrive mainly in the temperate zones of the world and in the tropics in the montane zones. These annual to perennial herbaceous plants, sometimes subshrubs, have stinging hairs.

use

Some types are used in different ways:

Many species of the nettle family are suitable for fiber production. The fibers are distinguished from other bast fibers primarily by their large individual fiber lengths . Furthermore, these are always in the loose fiber composite and not in fiber bundles as with hemp or flax . The following species are particularly suitable for fiber production: Urtica dioica , Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis , Urtica kioviensis , Urtica cannabina , Laportea canadensis , Maoutia puya , Girardinia diversifolia , Boehmeria nivea , Boehmeria tricuspis and Boehmeria tenacissima .

The (young) leaves of Girardinia , Laportea and Urtica species can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruits of Cecropia and Pourouma species are edible.

Medical effects were examined.

Some species and their varieties are used as ornamental plants (examples: Pellionia repens , Pilea cadierei , Pilea microphylla , Pilea peperomioides ).

swell

  • Description of the family of Urticaceae in APWebsite. (Sections Description and Systematics)
  • Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall, Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences. In American Journal of Botany , Vol. 89, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1531-1546, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.89.9.1531 .
  • The families of the Urticaceae in the old range and the Cecropiaceae at DELTA. (Section description)
  • Chen Jiarui, Lin Qi, Ib Friis, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear, Alex K. Monro: Urticaceae. In: Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (Eds.): Flora of China . Volume 5: Ulmaceae through Basellaceae . Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 2003, ISBN 1-930723-27-X , pp. 76 (English, in the old scope). flora.huh.harvard.edu (PDF) efloras.org (English).
  • David E. Boufford: Urticaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico . Volume 3: Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae . Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford a. a. 1997, ISBN 0-19-511246-6 , pp. 400–401 (English, in the old scope). , online (English).
  • Julisasi T. Hadiah, Barry J. Conn, Christopher J. Quinn: Infra-familial phylogeny of Urticaceae, using chloroplast sequence data. In: Australian Systematic Botany. Volume 21, No. 5, 2008, pp. 375-385, doi: 10.1071 / SB08041 .
  • David John Mabberley: The Plant Book. A portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge u. a. 1987, ISBN 0-521-34060-8 .
  • Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall, Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences. In: American Journal of Botany. Volume 89, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1531-1546, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.89.9.1531 . (Sections Description and Systematics)
  • Alex Monro: Neotropical Urticaceae . 2009 by W. Milliken, B. Klitgård, A. Baracat (eds.): Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics . accessed on April 19, 2013 (sections description, distribution and systematics)
  • Auguste von Roeßler-Lade: A Sleeping Beauty of Culture . In: The Gazebo . Issue 12, 1878 ( full text [ Wikisource ]).

Web links

Commons : Nettle Family (Urticaceae)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Alex Monro: Neotropical Urticaceae . W. Milliken, B. Klitgård, A. Baracat (Eds.): 2009 at Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.kew.org  
  2. a b c Chen Jiarui, Lin Qi, Ib Friis, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear, Alex K. Monro: Urticaceae. In: Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (Eds.): Flora of China . Volume 5: Ulmaceae through Basellaceae . Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 2003, ISBN 1-930723-27-X , pp. 76 (English, in the old scope). flora.huh.harvard.edu (PDF) efloras.org (English).
  3. Antoine Laurent de Jussieu: Genera plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita, juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratum, anno M.DCC.LXXIV. Herissant / Theophile Barrois, Paris 1789, p. 400, digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.biodiversitylibrary.org%2Fitem%2F32208%23page%2F498%2Fmode%2F1up~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D .
  4. Kenneth J. Sytsma, Jeffery Morawetz, J. Chris Pires, Molly Nepokroeff, Elena Conti, Michelle Zjhra, Jocelyn C. Hall, Mark W. Chase: Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F , and ndhF sequences. In American Journal of Botany. Volume 89, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1531-1546, doi: 10.3732 / ajb.89.9.1531 .
  5. Urticaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  6. Metatrophis margaretae in the Red List of Threatened Species of the IUCN 2010. Posted by: J. Florence, 1998. Accessed on 23/03/2011.
  7. Recognized species of the genus Urtica according to an assessment by The Plant List ; Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  8. Patent DE112005001792 : Method for opening up bast fibers. Registered on July 22, 2005 , published on February 2, 2005 , applicant: FH Kaiserslautern, inventor: Klaus Sommer, Ralf Jakobi, Dietmar Sommer.