Ornamental plants are cultivated , by the men to edification, Erfreuung the senses (including the sense of smell) and for earmarked plantations cultivated be. Ornamental crops are cultivated by gardeners specializing in ornamental plant cultivation (flowering potted plants, leaf and green plants, cut flowers, bedding and balcony plants), tree nurseries (ornamental trees, shrubs, perennials) and perennials ( ornamental perennials) .
Ornamental plants are a hobby of many people. They often deal with individual groups of plants. Examples are cacti , orchids, bulb flowers or fuchsias. There are associations ( plant societies ) for the respective groups , in which interested parties can exchange information and plant material.
Ornamental plants can generally be divided into the following categories:
Flowering potted plants
Plants that are cultivated for their floral decorations (small selection; large selection under: houseplant):
- Cyclamen ( Cyclamen persicum hybrids )
- African violets ( Saintpaulia ionantha )
- Orchids (Orchidaceae) - however, only some genera, species and varieties are suitable for indoor culture.
Green or leafy plants
- Delicious window leaf ( Monstera deliciosa )
- Indoor palms ( Arecaceae , a few different genera and species are suitable for indoor culture.)
- Zimmertanne ( Araucaria excelsia )
Representatives of both groups are both in soil culture as well as in hydroponics found.
Carnivorous plants are kept as houseplant primarily because of their exceptional food intake.
Bedding and balcony plants
These are often only one or two years old (but there are also woody representatives such as subshrubs), are used in window boxes, borders, pots and beds and are usually also cultivated for their flowers or inflorescences.
- Pelargoniums , often incorrectly called geraniums , ( Pelargonium-Zonale-Hybrids ), ( Pelargonium-Peltatum-Hybrids ), ( Pelargonium-Grandiflorum-Hybrids )
- Fuchsias ( Fuchsia cultivars )
- Petunias ( funnel flowers )
- Fan flower ( Scaevola aemula )
- Chrysanthemums ( Chrysanthemum , Dendranthema )
- Carnations ( Dianthus )
- Roses ( pink hybrids )
Bulbous and bulbous plants
- Snowdrop ( Galanthus )
- Crocuses ( crocus )
- Tulip ( tulipa hybrids )
- Daffodil ( Narcissus pseudonarcissus )
- Hyacinth ( Hyacinthus orientalis )
- Knight 's Star ( Hippeastrum Vitatum Hybrids )
- Klivie ( Clivia miniata )
- Sedges ( Carex sp. )
- Bearskin Grass ( Festuca gautieri )
- Fountain grass ( Pennisetum sp. )
- Pampas grass ( Cortaderia selloana )
Ornamental trees are trees that are planted in parks , all types of gardens , cemeteries , but also as flower beds in order to beautify them. They are differentiated from crops because they do not provide any benefits such as vegetables or edible fruits. Ornamental trees often also bear berries, but these are not edible. The term ornamental trees refers to deciduous and coniferous trees of all sizes and types.
History of ornamental plants
Plants were cultivated by humans as early as the Neolithic . However, this only served for agriculture and thus for food acquisition, the cultivation of plants purely because of their attractive appearance was only pursued at a later time. One of the oldest cultivated ornamental plants is the rose . Their decorative flowers were also initially used as food, but people began to create rose gardens for decorative purposes very early on. The first gardens were created in China around 2,700 BC. Chr.
Many ornamental plants that were introduced to Europe originally served as crops in their countries of origin . Ornamental plants, which were supposed to please the eyes and smell in the Middle Ages, were often used in perfume and cosmetics manufacture. In the gardens of the Renaissance and the Baroque , the exotic plants were used as eye-catchers. Numerous historical ornamental plants are now being replaced by new breeds. In favor of large-flowered and new varieties, somewhat more inconspicuous but more robust varieties such as the gold poppy , the zinnia or the almond rose are disappearing .
In Germany, since the 2000s, there has been increasing noticeable development and optimization of the cultivation of ornamental plants towards sustainable and ecological production. Garden academies exist in eight federal states with the common goal of supporting environmentally friendly horticulture. These are integrated into state test and research facilities or chambers of agriculture.
Works of art created for decoration, such as painting, weaving and architecture, often show depictions of plants and (above all ornamental) forms derived from the plant world (e.g. in building sculpture or book illumination). Their depiction is partly associated with myths and legends.
- Federal Association of Ornamental Plants
- Educational gardens for research and viewing of outdoor ornamental plants (Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University)
- Ornamental plant cultivation department at Leibniz University Hannover
- Information about the organic cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants
- Poisonous ornamental plants
- Interesting facts about ornamental plants and the cultivation of ornamental plants
- Christina Becela-Deller: Ruta graveolens L. A medicinal plant in terms of art and cultural history. (Mathematical and natural scientific dissertation Würzburg 1994) Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1998 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 65). ISBN 3-8260-1667-X , p. 103.
- Archive link ( Memento from July 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Hermann Josef Roth: The sculptural depictions of plants in the Middle Ages in Cologne Cathedral. Frankfurt am Main 1990 (= European University Writings, Series XXVIII: Art History. Volume 117), especially pp. 1–13.
- Charles M. Skinner: Myths and legends of flowers, trees, fruits, and plants. Philadelphia / London 1911; 7th edition 1925.