|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||75 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||192.18 km 2|
|Residents:||249,406 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1298 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0531, 05300 , 05303 , 05307 , 05309 , 05341|
|License plate :||BS|
|Community key :||03 1 01 000|
|LOCODE :||DE BWE|
|City structure:||19 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1
|Lord Mayor :||Ulrich Markurth ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Braunschweig in Lower Saxony|
Braunschweig ( Low German Brunswiek , Ostfälisches or Braunschweiger Platt: Bronswiek ) is a city in the southeast of Lower Saxony . With 249,406 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019), it is the second largest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover . The independent city is part of the metropolitan region of Hanover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg, which was founded in 2005 . Around 337,000 people live in the Braunschweig conurbation ( agglomeration ).
Braunschweig's origins go back to the early 9th century. Thanks to Heinrich the Lion in particular , the city quickly developed into a powerful and influential trading metropolis that belonged to the Hanseatic League from the middle of the 13th century . Braunschweig was the capital of the state of the same name until it was absorbed in the newly created state of Lower Saxony in 1946. Braunschweig was the seat of an administrative district until 1978, and an administrative district between 1978 and 2004. This was then replaced by a government representative and in 2014 by today's regional representative for south-east Lower Saxony.
Today the Braunschweig region is an important European location for science and research: In 2015, 9.5 percent of the gross domestic product was invested in research. Braunschweig has been the most intensive region in terms of research and development within the European Union since 2007 . In 2010, for example, the 15 leading EU regions in terms of spending on research and development as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) were above the target of three percent set by the Lisbon Strategy , only three of these 15 regions exceeded five percent, with Braunschweig in the lead 5.83 percent, followed by western Sweden with 5.40 percent and Stuttgart with 5.37 percent. The Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft awarded Braunschweig the title “City of Science” for 2007.
Braunschweig lies in the north German lowlands on the dividing line between the loess bordes of the northern Harz foreland and the geest plates beginning in the north of the city . In detail, four natural areas meet in the area of the core city: the hill country east of Brunswick , the Brunswick-Hildesheimer Lössbörde that extends to the south - west, the Burgdorf-Peiner Geestplatten to the north-west and the east Brunswick flatland that extends north-east towards Wolfsburg. The Oker , which runs in a south-north direction, forms a natural boundary with the Börßum-Braunschweiger Okertal and the partly fragile, formerly swampy soils.
The river is dammed in the south by a weir and flows around the city center to the west and east in two flood ditches that were created for better defense in the Middle Ages and reunite in the northwest of the city. The water level in the urban area is regulated by two further weirs. Other bodies of water are the Wabe and Mittelriede , which flow into the Schunter in Braunschweig .
The urban area extends over an area of 192 km², enclosed by a city boundary with a length of 98 km. The north-south extension is 19.1 km and the west-east extension 15.7 km. The inner city area is located at an average height of 70 m above sea level . The highest point is the Geitelder Berg with a height of 111 m above sea level; the deepest point is an old Okerschleife with 62 m above sea level in the northwest.
In a clockwise direction , starting in the northeast, borders the following municipalities in Braunschweig: Teaching ( district Helmstedt ) Cremlingen , Sickte ( Samtgemeinde Sickte ) and Wolfenbüttel (all Wolfenbüttel ), Salzgitter ( Independent City ), Vechelde and Wendeburg ( district of Peine ) and Schwülper , Vordorf and Meine (all of the municipality in Papenteich , Gifhorn district ).
Bremen (170 km)
Celle (65 km)
Uelzen (90 km)
Gifhorn (25 km)
Salzwedel (95 km)
Wolfsburg (30 km)
Minden (140 km)
Hanover (70 km)
Magdeburg (100 km)
Berlin (230 km)
Hildesheim (45 km)
Göttingen (110 km)
Wolfenbüttel (10 km)
Goslar (55 km)
Bernburg (Saale) (115 km)
Halle (Saale) (190 km)
* Distances are rounded road kilometers to the town center.
As of November 1981, the city area was divided into 22 city districts in accordance with the then applicable Lower Saxony municipal code (NGO) . Their number was reduced to 21 after ten years (through the merger of Lehndorf-Lamme-Kanzlerfeld and Watenbüttel-Ölper-Völkenrode to Lehndorf-Watenbüttel), after another ten years to 20 (through the merger of Südstadt-Rautheim and Mascherode to Südstadt-Rautheim- Mascherode) and again after ten years to 19 (through the merger of Wabe-Schunter and Bienrode-Waggum-Bevenrode to Wabe-Schunter-Beberbach). As a result of a reorganization of the Lower Saxony state electoral districts, from whose constituency number the first digit of the city district number is derived, the official city district numbers were also changed. The current 19 boroughs are:
- 112: Wabe-Schunter-Beberbach
- 113: Hondelage
- 114: Folk ailment
- 120: Eastern ring area
- 131: downtown
- 132: Viewegsgarten-Bebelhof
- 211: Stöckheim-Leiferde
- 212: Heidberg-Melverode
- 213: Südstadt-Rautheim-Mascherode
- 221: West City
- 222: Timmerlah-Geitelde-Stiddien
- 223: Broitzem
- 224: Rüningen
- 310: Western ring area
- 321: Lehndorf-Watenbüttel
- 322: Veltenhof boast
- 323: Wenden-Thune-Harxbüttel
- 331: North City
- 332: Schunteraue
A district council is elected for each district - with a number of, depending on the number of inhabitants, a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 19 members defined in the city's main statute, each of whom has elected a district mayor and his deputy as chairman. In addition to the general representation of the interests of their respective district and the promotion of those positive developments within the Brunswick city as a whole within the remit of the District Councils decisions on them by (the NGO replaced) Niedersächsische Communal Constitution Act (NKomVG) and the main statutes matters assigned to the own sphere of activity and Citizens' surveys in the municipality. In addition, the district councils have the right to urban land and on other issues of its own and the transferred sphere of resolutions by the Council and the Management Committee to be heard by the central administration officials carried out citizens' assemblies to demand to submit proposals to make suggestions and express concerns.
For voting in political elections , the city is divided into 169 general electoral districts and 36 postal voting districts. In municipal elections , the electoral area for the election of the city district councils consists of the area of the respective city district, for the election of the representative (city council) and the direct election of the main administrative officer (lord mayor) from the entire city area, which is divided into eight electoral areas. The municipal electoral areas are:
In the case of state elections in Lower Saxony , the urban area is divided into the three state electoral districts Braunschweig-Nord , Braunschweig-Süd and Braunschweig-West , with the special feature that the municipality of Vechelde , located in the district of Peine, belongs to the Braunschweig-Süd constituency . In the case of federal elections , the Bundestag constituency of Braunschweig is congruent with the city area, which is also not further subdivided in European elections - with the exception of the division into electoral districts for voting.
- 01 city center ( old town , castle and sack )
- 02 Hagen
- 03 Altewiek
- 04 Hohetor
- 05 New Town
- 06 Old university district
- 07 At the Hagenring
- 08 Prince's Park
- 09 Vieweg's garden
- 10 Bürgerpark
- 11 Wilhelmitor-South
- 12 Wilhelmitor-North
- 13 Petritor East
- 14 Petritor West
- 15 Petritor North
- 16 North Station
- 17 New university district
- 18 Gliesmarode
- 19 Riddagshausen
- 20 main cemetery
- 21 Central Station
- 22 Bebelhof
- 23 Zuckerberg
- 24 At the South Seas
- 25 garden city
- 26 Hermannshöhe
- 27 Rothenburg
- 28 vineyard
- 29 Alt-Lehndorf
- 30 Lehndorf settlement
- 31 Oil per wood
- 32 Chancellor Field
- 33 federal agencies
- 34 Völkenrode
- 35 Watenbüttel
- 36 oil per
- 37 Black Mountain
- 38 Veltenhof
- 39 port
- 40 Rühme -West
- 41 Boasting East
- 42 Vorwerkiedlung
- 43 Siegfriedviertel
- 44 Different settlement
- 45 Kralenriede
- 46 Bienrode
- 47 Querumer Forest
- 48 across
- 49 Poplar Mountain
- 50 nature reserve
- 51 Broken mast
- 52 Lindenbergsiedlung
- 53 Südstadt
- 54 Heidberg
- 55 Melverode
- 56 Broitzem
- 57 Geitelde
- 58 styles
- 59 Timmerlah
- 60 lamb
- 61 Turning
- 62 Harxbüttel
- 63 tuna
- 64 Waggum
- 65 Bevenrode
- 66 Hondelage
- 67 Dibbesdorf
- 68 National ailments
- 69 Schapen
- 70 Rautheim
- 71 Mascherode
- 72 Stockheim
- 73 Leiferde
- 74 Rüningen
The largest statistical districts in terms of population are 08 Prinzenpark with 13,802 inhabitants (5.59% of the city's inhabitants), 66 Hondelage with 861.8 hectares (4.49% of the city's area); the smallest districts are 50 nature reserves with 27 inhabitants (0.01%) and 04 Hohetor with 34.4 hectares (0.18%).
The city of Braunschweig lies in the transition area between the maritime climate in the west and the continental climate in the east. The proximity to the North Sea is also a decisive climate factor. The mean annual temperature is 8.8 ° C, and around 600 to 650 mm of precipitation fall per year. The mean temperature in July is 17.5 ° C, in January 0.2 ° C.
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Braunschweig
The Brunswieker Platt was spoken in Braunschweig up to the middle of the 20th century and is still used today. It is a regional variant of the dialect of Lower Saxony , officially named as Ostfälisch . From around the 17./18. In the 19th century it was increasingly replaced by Standard German. The dialect high German of the Braunschweig region is called Braunschweigisch and is characterized in particular by the “clear A” (long pronunciation of the letter A, but it sounds a bit like an open O ). In general, the High German spoken in the Braunschweig-Celle-Hanover region is considered to be the purest nationwide, as Low German had the best supply of sounds in this area of Lower Saxony to reproduce the standardized written German .
Nevertheless, there are many phonetic peculiarities that have made Braunschweig an independent dialect. So one speaks z. B. from "Tüsch", "Füsch" and from "Köache", "Höasch" or "Köaschen" - means table, fish, church, deer and cherries. Brunswick also tends to have a very open, short u, which comes close to o: "Gorke", "korz", "Korve", "Borg", "Worst" (for nhd. Cucumber, short, curve, castle and sausage). Diphthongs are “smoothed out”, but generally not completely: “Broo u nschwaa i ch”. The colloquial language that dominates the city today is inconspicuous, only slightly colored standard German.
The use of the spelling of the "unhappy [n] Verification German 'Braunschweig' from 'Brunswiek'" is first documented for 1542. Internationally, the historical form Brunswick with the Middle Low German stretch-c has also been preserved.
According to the latest state of place name research from 2018 by Herbert Blume et al. it seems likely that the original form “Brūnes-wīk” may go back to the (pre-) migration period and the meaning “settlement above an edge, on a higher bank” (meaning “on a bank section above the river Oker” “) Is. The linguist and name researcher Werner Flechsig had already pointed out the possibility in 1954 that it could be a settlement created by slash and burn . At the beginning of the 2000s, Jürgen Udolph also presented his interpretation of the meaning of the name, in which, like Flechsig before, he also came to the conclusion that the original component of the place name can be traced back to a slash and burn at the later settlement location.
Prehistory and Saxon settlement
The oldest finds in the Braunschweig region , the so-called Schöninger spears , are around 300,000 years old. But also in the urban area itself, especially in the area surrounding today's Wenden district, finds from the Neolithic , Bronze and Iron Ages were made, which indicate a very early first settlement.
In Germanic times, today's Braunschweiger Land was probably the settlement area of the Cherusci and Angrivarians , or possibly the Elbe Germans . However, these were all gradually subjugated, driven out or joined the Sachsenbund . The Saxons were the dominant power in the region from around 500 AD. Since that time, there are also evidence of Saxon settlements. It is unclear whether a village already existed at the site of today's Braunschweig, which was destroyed in the course of the Saxon Wars .
City foundation and the Middle Ages
The river Oker , which flows through the city , had a great influence on the founding and development of the city . This has been the border between the dioceses of Halberstadt and Hildesheim since around 800 AD and promoted the development of the city through a ford that is important for trade . The settlements of Brunswik and Dankwarderode were probably built on both sides of the Oker in the 9th century. According to the legend of the Braunschweigische Reimchronik , the first settlement in the area of what is today Braunschweig is said to have been founded in 861. The seriousness of this source is now doubted by experts, which is why the year 1031 is considered the first documentary evidence of the existence of a settlement. The basis for this is the consecration certificate of the Magni Church .
The rulers of Braunschweig had been the Brunones , descendants of Brun (o) (the legend after the city's founder) since the 10th century . Via Richenza von Northeim , niece of Brunonen Ekbert II. , And their daughter Gertrud von Süpplingenburg , the city of Braunschweig and the entire Duchy of Saxony went to Heinrich the Lion , Duke of Saxony and Bavaria in 1142 .
Under Heinrich's influence, Braunschweig developed into a powerful city, which he expanded into his residence . So he had the Dankwarderode Castle expanded and the Brunswick Cathedral built. Heinrich chose the lion as his heraldic animal and had its bronze image set up in front of the cathedral on Burgplatz around 1166. Since then, the Braunschweig lion has been the city's symbol and heraldic animal .
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg also goes back to Heinrich the Lion and was part of the land of the Guelphs . It was named after the two largest cities, Braunschweig and Lüneburg . As early as 1267/1269 the duchy was divided into the principalities of Lüneburg and Braunschweig . The city of Braunschweig remained the common domain, but also the residence of the Braunschweig line of the Welfs. The Jewish community , which developed in the early 14th century, comprised around 150 people in 1350.
Braunschweig gained its urban independence in 1432 after the sovereigns had relocated their residence to nearby Wolfenbüttel due to increasing tensions with the Braunschweig urban population . Along with Paris and Ghent, Braunschweig was considered to be one of the most restless cities in late medieval and early modern Europe, as constitutional conflicts repeatedly broke out through revolutionary civil unrest, the Braunschweig classes .
Braunschweig developed economically thanks to its favorable location on the Oker, which was navigable from Braunschweig. As a result, Braunschweig developed into an important trading city, which led to membership in the Hanseatic League from the middle of the 13th century . After Braunschweig received the mint as a pledge in 1296 and as property in 1412, the coin denial and the renewal of the bracteate pfennigs , which had a negative impact on trade , were eliminated through its own coinage, the so-called Eternal Penny .
After the resolution of the Hanseatic Congress in 1494, the Hanseatic League was now divided into four (quarters) power blocks instead of three (thirds). Alongside Magdeburg, Braunschweig developed into a suburb of the Saxon city union and thus led the so-called "Saxon Quarter" and thus the Hanseatic cities between the Weser and Elbe. In 1669 Braunschweig was one of the last nine cities remaining in the Hanseatic League. From an economic point of view, Braunschweig was not only a trading city, but also a production location, primarily for cloth, metal goods and agricultural products. The Braunschweiger Mumme beer was internationally known then and is still today .
Originally a ducal bailiff was at the head of the city of Braunschweig, but the office was given to citizens as early as the 12th century . There was a council in the three soft areas of Altstadt , Hagen and Neustadt in the first half of the 13th century. The three councils merged into a single council in 1269. The composition of the council varied several times in the course of history, in 1386 it had 105 members, from 1614 only 56. The current administration was incumbent on a committee of the council, the " narrow council ", which from 1386 had 25, from 1614 15 members.
Early modern age
In 1671 a force of the Guelph princes conquered the city and put it back under the rule of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel . This ended the era of the independent, almost imperial city of Braunschweig. In 1753 the residence was moved back to Braunschweig in the newly built Braunschweig Palace . More than 4,000 people followed the ducal family and also moved to Braunschweig, which at the same time led to the decline of Wolfenbüttel.
After the city lost its independence in 1671, there was only one council consisting of 16 senators, which had to be confirmed by the duke. The council was headed by a mayor.
After the Peace of Tilsit (1807) and the creation of the Kingdom of Westphalia by Napoleon Bonaparte , the city and duchy of Braunschweig were occupied by the French and Braunschweig was the capital of the newly designed Oker department . It was now the "Maire constitution", with a " Maire " (mayor) at the head of the city.
During the Wars of Liberation in 1813 Braunschweig troops under the leadership of Johann Elias Olfermann entered the city and restored the old Duchy of Braunschweig for Duke Friedrich Wilhelm . This was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in the following year and the city was initially assigned to the Wolfenbüttel district directorate .
The old constitution with the council, which was now called "City Court", was reintroduced. After the judiciary and administration were separated in 1825, the council was called magistrate . As early as 1813, the mayor had the title of “city director”, and since 1848 Braunschweig has had a lord mayor .
In 1825 the city was given the status of a city directly connected to the state. In 1833 it became the seat of its own district directorate (from which the district of Braunschweig later emerged), before it again became directly regional in 1850. From 1870 the city finally belonged to the Braunschweig district administration. In 1871 the duchy became a federal state of the German Empire .
The 7th German Fire Brigade Day took place in Braunschweig from September 6th to 8th, 1868 .
When Guelph Duke Wilhelm died in 1884 without a legitimate heir, a “Regency Council” initially took over the affairs of state in Braunschweig. It was not until 1913 that the Hohenzollern and the House of Hanover were reconciled , and Ernst August , the last Welf , ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig until the abdication in 1918 .
The Braunschweig – Calvörde postal route ran through Braunschweig in the 18th and 19th centuries .
As in the rest of the German Empire , towards the end of the First World War there was an economic, social and political crisis in Braunschweig , which led to the November Revolution in Braunschweig . After the workers 'and soldiers' council under August Merges forced the abdication of the last duke, Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg , on November 8, 1918 , the council took over political leadership and proclaimed the "Socialist Republic of Braunschweig" under the leadership of President Merges .
The situation in the city of Braunschweig came to a head when the Spartakists called a general strike on April 9, 1919. The strike meant that the trains were no longer dispatched and the important east-west traffic was blocked. The result was a backwater that caused traffic chaos throughout Germany. From April 11th, public life in the city came to a standstill. In order to restore law and order, the imperial government imposed a state of siege on the city and the Free State of Braunschweig . On April 17th, 10,000 Freikorps troops under General Georg Maercker entered the city and took it over peacefully. After the formation of a new government under Prime Minister Heinrich Jasper , the troops left Braunschweig again in May. Almost a year after the Freikorps troops had withdrawn, the Kapp Putsch took place in Berlin on March 13, 1920 , which failed after just 100 hours, but also had political and social effects in Braunschweig; u. a. There was a general strike in 141 Braunschweig companies and incidents similar to civil war with injuries and deaths. In the end, the Jasper government resigned and there were new elections. The new Prime Minister was Sepp Oerter of the USPD. As a result of the hyperinflation of 1922, there was unemployment, poverty, unrest and political crises in Europe and around the world, of which Braunschweig was not spared.
Some Braunschweig artists became known worldwide through their turn to constructivism , including Thilo Maatsch , Walter Dexel and Rudolf Jahns . In September 1924, the collector Otto Ralfs founded the Society of Friends of Young Art (GFJK) in the city . a. Lyonel Feininger and Paul Klee belonged. Wassily Kandinsky designed the signet for this artists' association. The GFJK. dissolved itself under pressure from the National Socialists in 1933.
time of the nationalsocialism
From 1923 the National Socialist German Workers' Party gained more and more influence and already moved into the Braunschweig Landtag with a member in 1924 . 1931 occurred in the presence of Adolf Hitler at a rally of about 100,000 SA ists before the Braunschweig palace . Although the population of the city of Braunschweig tended to be proletarian , the NSDAP managed to participate in government in the Free State of Braunschweig as early as 1930 , which was responsible for the naturalization of Adolf Hitler . In the time of National Socialism , the head of the city was appointed by the NSDAP.
Shortly after the so-called “ seizure of power ” by the National Socialists in 1933, under the Klagge cabinet , numerous acts of violence against political opponents, Jews and other unpopular groups of people took place. An early example of organized repression against Jews is the “ department store storm ” of March 11, 1933. After the Stahlhelm Putsch of March 27 and the Rieseberg murders of July 4, 1933, the exiled SPD politician Hans Reinowski published a documentary under the title Terror in Braunschweig . Klagges' goal was to build a National Socialist model state and thus to consolidate his own position. To this end, he brought important National Socialist institutions such as the German Aviation Research Institute and an SS Junker School to the city and also built and expanded the Free State of Braunschweig into an armaments center for the German Reich from 1933 to 1945 . Companies important to the war were, among others, the Lower Saxony engine works , the aircraft works in Braunschweig , the Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt , the MIAG , the Luther works and the Vorwerk Braunschweig . Furthermore, Büssing NAG , the Schuberth-Werke , Franke & Heidecke and Voigtländer , but also the Braunschweig canning industry .
These businesses attracted thousands of new workers who needed cheap housing quickly. Based on the Nazi honorary title of German cities , Braunschweig gave itself the title of "German settlement city". Parallel to the expansion of industry, "National Socialist model settlements" emerged, such as the "Dietrich-Klagges-Stadt" (today garden city ), the Lehndorf settlement , Mascherode-Südstadt , Schunter and Wabetalsiedlung.
As the war progressed, however, the number of employees in the factories fell not only because workers were drafted into military service (and fell or were wounded), but also because of civilian casualties due to the effects of the war. Since the armaments industry grew at the same time and released more war-relevant material, a “supply” of workers had to be brought in. As in the rest of the Reich, where around six million civilian forced laborers , around two million prisoners of war and more than 700,000 concentration camp prisoners had to work for the German war economy at the end of 1944 , this also happened on a smaller scale in the city and country of Braunschweig. There were 802 camps of all kinds here. Among other things, foreign workers were recruited, but mostly forced laborers had to do the work. These forced laborers mostly lived in camps that were close to the production facilities in the city. There were two satellite camps of Neuengamme concentration camp in the city: the Schillstrasse concentration camp and the SS riding school concentration camp . In addition, there were numerous other camps, such as the “Camp Schützenplatz” or the camp Ackerstrasse, Frankfurter Strasse , the “Voigtlander camp ” or the maternity home for Eastern workers . There were also several camps outside the city, some of which existed until shortly before the end of the war. The highest number of forced laborers was reached in autumn 1944: around 43,000 civilian forced laborers, including around 15,000 women, had to work together with around 8,800 concentration camp inmates. At the truck manufacturer Büssing NAG alone, under Director General Rudolf Egger-Büssing , 1,300 concentration camp inmates, 1,200 of whom were Jews, had to work. Most of these forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were so-called Eastern workers , the majority from the Soviet Union and Poland.
During the Second World War , Braunschweig was the target of numerous Allied bombing attacks, with around 90 percent of the inner city and 42 percent of the entire city being destroyed. The most devastating was the bombing raid on Braunschweig on October 15, 1944 , when the 233 Lancaster bombers of No. 5 Bomber Group Royal Air Force (RAF) sparked a raging firestorm for two and a half days by dropping around 200,000 phosphorus , incendiary and high-explosive bombs . More than a thousand people were killed in this attack. Throughout the war, around 3,500 people were killed in bombing attacks, with almost half of the dead being prisoners of war, slave labor and concentration camp inmates.
On April 10, 1945, the Braunschweig combat commander, Lieutenant General Karl Veith, negotiated with Leland S. Hobbs , commanding general of the 30th US Infantry Division , about the surrender of the city. Veith agreed to withdraw the remaining German troops from the city, but refused to formally surrender . Thereupon the US troops continued the artillery bombardment of the city, accompanied by low-flying attacks , until the evening hours of April 11th. On this day, the then incumbent NSDAP Lord Mayor Hans-Joachim Mertens committed suicide . NSDAP Prime Minister Dietrich Klagges appointed lawyer Erich Bockler as Mertens' successor. NSDAP district leader Berthold Heilig and other national socialist greats fled from the approaching troops in the evening and night. The handover of the city of Braunschweig took place on Thursday, April 12, 1945 at 02:59 am, after which American troops occupied the badly destroyed city without a fight. Klagges was arrested on April 13, and the Allied military government moved into Veltheim's house on Burgplatz . On June 5, 1945, the British Army replaced the United States Army as a crew.
Post-war years and reconstruction
At the beginning of the Second World War, Braunschweig had 202,284 inhabitants; at the end of the war, this number had decreased by 26 percent, that is, by more than a quarter to 149,641. The city was one of the most heavily destroyed German cities. The degree of destruction in the city center (within the Okerring ) was 90 percent, the total degree of destruction in the city was 42 percent. The total volume of rubble was around 3.7 million cubic meters . The demolition took 17 years until it was officially declared over in 1963. In fact, however, it continued on a small scale for decades afterwards.
In 1946, the military government ( Control Commission for Germany ) of the British zone of occupation introduced the local constitution based on the British model. Then there was a council elected by the people. This elected the mayor from among his number as chairman and representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis. In addition, from 1946 there was a full-time senior city director, also elected by the council, as head of the city administration. A Jewish community has existed again since 1945. At first it was under the protection of the military government.
Due to the acute need for living space, reconstruction made rapid progress in the 1950s and 1960s. Since the inner city was almost completely destroyed, city planners and architects built a new, modern and above all “ car-friendly city ”, trying to implement the maxim of the “ Braunschweig School ” developed at the Technical University . For this purpose, the remainder of the urban landscape , which had grown over centuries, was significantly interfered with, which, for example, led to further demolition of still intact buildings in many places for newly constructed road aisles. More than a hundred buildings were demolished for the main station southeast of the city center, which opened in 1960 and replaced the old terminal station as a through station . For decades, these breaks were the cause of controversial discussions.
In a representative EU citizens' survey "Urban Audit" carried out in 2010, Braunschweig was certified as having a high quality of life. For example, Braunschweig ranks fifth in Germany when it comes to the satisfaction of its citizens about living in the city. Otherwise, Braunschweig scores above all for its cleanliness, the appearance of the city and public safety. The high level of public safety is confirmed by a current study from 2012, according to which Braunschweig ranks first among the 50 largest cities in Germany due to its high clearance rates and a low number of offenses. In the city ranking of Wirtschaftswoche , in which 71 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants were examined, Braunschweig turned out to be 7th place as one of the most rapidly developing cities and scored particularly well in terms of childcare and strong economic data. For the future, the Zukunftsatlas 2013 study predicts “very high opportunities” for Braunschweig, as it is home to top-level university research and a large part of VW's added value. For these reasons, too, Braunschweig is considered a “swarm city”, one of the few cities in which a particularly large number of 25 to 34-year-olds settle. There have been contacts between Braunschweig and the Israeli city of Kiryat Tivon since 1968, which resulted in a twinning between 1985 and 1986 .
COVID-19 pandemic in Braunschweig
The respiratory disease COVID-19, which appeared in Germany at the beginning of 2020 , also spread to Braunschweig. The first medically proven and officially registered case in the city was documented on March 4, 2020. The first SARS-CoV-2 death was registered on March 30, 2020.
As in the whole of Germany, the laws and ordinances issued in connection with the health crisis were implemented in Braunschweig , including exit and contact restrictions and the closure of general schools. On March 18, there was a ban on large gatherings in the city and the closure or restriction of leisure activities. Online information platforms have been set up for the population. On April 25, 2020, Braunschweig introduced the obligation to wear so-called everyday masks in shops and in local public transport .
In addition to other medical research institutions and companies from Braunschweig, such as B. the company Yumab , is the local Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI) with scientists such. B. Melanie Brinkmann , Luka Cicin-Sain , Gérard Krause or Michael Meyer-Hermann in cooperation with other research institutions around the world developing diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and coronavirus vaccines .
On February 1, 1971, an area inhabited at that time with about 100 inhabitants was incorporated into the municipality-free area of Querum.
The community reform enlarged Braunschweig on March 1, 1974 by a total of 22 communities:
- The municipalities of Bevenrode , Bienrode , Broitzem , Dibbesdorf , Hondelage , Lamme , Mascherode , Rautheim , Rüningen , Schapen , Stöckheim near Braunschweig , Thune , Timmerlah , Völkenrode , Volkmarode , Waggum , Watenbüttel and Wenden were incorporated into the district of Braunschweig . In addition, the municipality-free area Buchhorst and parts of the dissolved municipality of Bechtsbüttel were reclassified to Braunschweig. The thereby enlarged city of Braunschweig became the legal successor of the previously existing district. Individual communities in the former district were added to the neighboring districts of Helmstedt , Peine and Wolfenbüttel . As early as July 1, 1972, the municipalities of Thedinghausen and Emtinghausen , which also belonged to the district, came to the district of Verden .
- Harxbüttel came from the Gifhorn district .
- The communities Geitelde , Leiferde and Stiddien were taken over from the district of Wolfenbüttel .
At this time, twelve localities, each with a local council, were formed for the 22 localities. These local councils lasted until 1981 and then went into the city districts.
In 1867 Braunschweig had more than 50,000 inhabitants. In 1890 the population exceeded 100,000, making it a major city . By 1939 that number had doubled to 200,000. In October 1944, just under 150,000 people were still living in the city, which was already badly damaged. In the post-war period it reached 245,551 (1961) and fell to 218,233 (1973), for example due to emigration to surrounding communities. Due to the territorial reform of 1974, the population rose to its previous high of 271,213. Thereafter, the number of inhabitants fell to 240,000 by the end of 2004 due to further emigration and the general demographic component. Since 2005 there has been a reversal due to family-friendly settlement offers. On December 31, 2010, the “ official population ” for Braunschweig was 248,867 according to an update by the Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics (only main residences and after comparison with the other State Offices). This results in a population density of 1,295 people per square kilometer. Since then, the population has grown continuously to 252,492 on December 31, 2012. However, the 2011 census of the Federal Statistical Office corrects the population to 242,537 retrospectively as of May 5, 2011. By June 30, 2015 this number rose to 249,135 residents.
According to the population register, the city of Braunschweig indicates the number of inhabitants after their main residence at the end of 2011 as 244,806 and as of the end of 2012 as 246,742. At the end of 2013, increasing numbers were reported again with 248,424 inhabitants. As of December 31, 2015, the number was 252,768.
The turnout in the election of the council on September 11, 2016 was 55.6 percent, 5.1 percentage points more than in the previous election. With the start of the new electoral term on November 1, 2016, the city council includes 54 councilors in addition to the mayor, who are distributed among the parliamentary groups or individual members as follows.
|Political party||be right||Voting share||Seats||Diff.|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||39,089||12.0%||7th||-2|
|Braunschweig citizens' initiative||19,571||6.0%||3||0|
In 2001, the dual leadership in the city administration was given up in Braunschweig. Since then there has only been the full-time mayor . He is the head of the city administration and the highest representative of the city. He has been elected directly by the population since 2001. However, the council continues to have its own chairman, who is elected from among its members at the constituent meeting of the council after each local election.
In the direct election of the mayor on May 25, 2014, the following result was achieved ( turnout 49.5%):
|Candidate and party||Votes||Voting share|
|Hennig Brandes (CDU)||34,247||34.4%|
|Ulrich Markurth (SPD)||46,135||46.3%|
|Holger Herlitschke (Greens)||7,959||8.0%|
|Wolfgang Büchs (Braunschweig citizens' initiative)||5,171||5.2%|
|Merten Herms (pirates)||2,407||2.4%|
|Udo Sommerfeld (left)||3,668||3.7%|
Since none of the candidates could achieve an absolute majority, a runoff election was necessary, which took place on June 15, 2014 and resulted in the following (preliminary) final result (voter turnout: 36.1%):
|Candidate and party||Votes||Voting share|
|Hennig Brandes (CDU)||24,331||33.5%|
|Ulrich Markurth (SPD)||48,387||66.5%|
Ulrich Markurth took up his post on July 1, 2014. He replaced Gert Hoffmann (CDU), who was in office from 2001 to 2014 .
Results of the city district council elections in%
|113 Hondelage||30.2||35.3||15.4||-||-||4.0||5.3||-||9.8 EB|
|114 Folk ailments||35.0||36.8||11.2||6.5||-||3.3||7.3||-||-|
|120 Eastern ring area||20.2||34.5||23.2||8.2||-||7.5||6.4||-||-|
|212 Heidberg-Melverode||30.7||34.6||10.1||6.0||-||4.9||4.8||-||9.0 FWHM|
|310 Western ring area||23.2||31.8||14.9||7.1||4.6||9.1||4.2||5.1||-|
|322 Veltenhof boast||36.2||42.7||8.3||-||-||6.8||6.0||-||-|
|331 North City||25.4||34.2||15.7||8.0||5.9||6.2||4.5||-||-|
Notes: EB single applicant; FWHM Free vote. Heidberg-Melverode
Distribution of seats in the city district councils since November 2016
|113 Hondelage||2||3||1||-||-||0||0||-||1 EB|
|114 Folk ailments||4th||4th||1||1||-||0||1||-||-|
|120 Eastern ring area||4th||7th||4th||2||-||1||1||-||-|
|212 Heidberg-Melverode||5||5||1||1||-||1||1||-||1 FWHM|
|310 Western ring area||4th||6th||3||1||1||2||1||1||-|
|322 Veltenhof boast||3||4th||1||-||-||1||0||-||-|
|331 North City||4th||6th||3||1||1||1||1||-||-|
Notes: EB single applicant; FWHM Free vote. Heidberg-Melverode
- Department I .: Mayor's Department
- Department II :: Organization, Personnel and Order Department
- Department III: Building and Environmental Protection Department
- Department IV .: Culture and Science Department
- Department V .: Social, School, Health and Youth Department
- Department VI .: Economic Department
- Department VII .: Finance, Urban Green and Sports Department
The total amount of debts in the public sector of the city of Braunschweig amounted to 345.1 million euros at the end of 2012. Each resident is thus in debt with 1134 euros. Braunschweig thus had the second lowest per capita debt of the 103 independent cities in Germany. According to a study by the auditing firm Ernst & Young from 2015, Braunschweig was by far the city with the lowest per capita debt in Germany of 72 major German cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants between 2012 and 2014 . It was 452 euros per citizen. Jena followed in second place with € 724, and Düsseldorf in third place with € 1,137. The average debt in this period was 4299 euros.
coat of arms
“As a coat of arms in a silver shield, the city has a soaring red lion turned left (heraldic right) with white teeth, red tongue and black claws. The shield width is related to the shield height as 6: 7. For the heraldic design of the coat of arms, the coat of arms letter of October 15, 1438 is authoritative. "
This city coat of arms has been known since at least 1366/1367 and has been in use since then - only with a few stylistic changes. It was confirmed by King Albrecht II in the coat of arms of 1438. In addition to the city as a whole, the five soft images Altewiek , Altstadt , Hagen , Neustadt and Sack have their own coats of arms, all of which show variations of the lion motif.
The main statute continues with regard to the colors of the city:
“The colors of the city are red and white. The city flag shows the color red at the top and the color white at the bottom in horizontal stripes of equal width. "
In addition to the coat of arms contained in the coat of arms, it also shows the colors of the city. In addition to this official city flag, the five soft images, the citizen's guard and the city administration also carry a large number of other (own) flags, which, like the coat of arms, again have variations of the lion motif.
The Brunswick Lion is the symbol of Henry the Lion , who expanded the city into an important community in the Middle Ages. Therefore, the lion became the symbol of Braunschweig. On the Ebstorf world map , which was probably created around 1300, Braunschweig is marked with the lion statue - the Braunschweig lion was already so well known in the late Middle Ages. Today's official determination as the city's landmark was not made until 1953 in the city's main statute .
The towers of St. Andrew's Church , which have long pointed the way to Braunschweig from afar , are considered to be the “unofficial”, also very old landmarks of the city .
From 1973 to 1978, the city of Braunschweig was one of the eight (later seven) members of the Greater Braunschweig Association and since 1991 has been a member of the Greater Braunschweig Association (ZGB) along with two other independent cities and five districts . In addition, there are intermunicipal cooperations as public-law cooperation with neighboring districts (e.g. at the Integrated Regional Control Center - IRLS) and in forms of private-law cooperation through direct or indirect participation or membership of the city in various companies and associations (e.g. with the Braunschweig region project, at the Braunschweig Region Transport Association , at the Braunschweigische Landschaft landscape association ).
City partnerships and friendships
Braunschweig has a partnership or friendship with the following cities :
|Bandung in Jawa Barat Province , Indonesia , since 1960|
|Nîmes in the Occitania region , France , since 1962|
|Bath in England , United Kingdom , since 1971|
|Sousse in the Sahel region , Tunisia , since 1980|
|Kiryat Tivon in Galilee , Israel , since 1985/86|
|Magdeburg in the state of Saxony-Anhalt , Germany , since 1987|
|Kazan in the autonomous Republic of Tatarstan , Russia , since 1988 (friendship between cities)|
|Omaha in the state of Nebraska , USA , since 1992 (friendship between cities)|
|Zhuhai in Guangdong Province , People's Republic of China , since 2011|
Economy and Infrastructure
The city and region of Braunschweig have experienced several structural changes in their history. Until after the Second World War , Braunschweig was a center of the canning industry with many processing companies and a specialized mechanical engineering industry, including Schmalbach-Lubeca .
With the decline of the canning industry and the relocation of industry to other countries, the focus shifted towards the automotive industry , but also towards the areas of transport technology , biotechnology , healthcare and finance . The photo industry with the traditional Voigtländer and Rollei companies is also history . Representative studies certify the city of Braunschweig to be by far the highest economic friendliness nationwide.
In 2016, the gross domestic product of Braunschweig, within the city limits, was € 11.733 billion and was 32nd in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 46,928 (Lower Saxony: € 34,812 / Germany € 38,180). In 2017, around 163,800 people were employed in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.9% and thus slightly below the Lower Saxony average of 5.0%.
In the Future Atlas 2016, the city of Braunschweig was ranked 36th out of 402 rural districts and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects".
Industry and craft
Braunschweig was the seat of the Büssing Automobilwerke , which was taken over by the MAN company until 1972 . MAN vehicles still bear the Büssing company logo, a stylized Braunschweig lion, on the radiator grille, but are produced in Salzgitter , 20 kilometers south of Braunschweig.
In Braunschweig in 1938 the first Volkswagen factory , the so-called “Vorwerk”, went into operation. The automotive industry is still one of the city's most important industries. Today there is a VW factory as well as numerous medium-sized suppliers in the city. In addition, the commercial vehicle holding of the Volkswagen Group and Volkswagen Financial Services AG (including Volkswagen Bank ) as well as the Braunschweigische Landessparkasse and the public insurance company Braunschweig have their headquarters in the city. But also private banks and direct banks, e.g. B. Bank von Essen, the Löbbecke Bank , the Berenberg Bank , the Volksbank Braunschweig Wolfsburg , the Braunschweiger Privatbank and the PSD Bank Braunschweig are represented.
The city is the seat of a long-established Siemens AG plant , which also goes back to Heinrich Büssing and is a world leader in rail automation (see Siemens plant in Braunschweig ) and, among other things, has developed the railway operations technology for the Transrapid in Shanghai . The Siemens Mobility division values Braunschweig, among other things, because of the Technical University of Braunschweig and the branch of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), which as a competence center for transport technology also carries out aerodynamic research for the rail industry. Another company from the mobility industry is Bombardier Transportation , which, like Bosch Engineering GmbH , has one of its locations in Braunschweig. DB ProjektBau GmbH has recently moved to Braunschweig . The focus of this railway subsidiary is in the field of control and safety technology. In addition, numerous automotive suppliers have their headquarters in Braunschweig. Numerous high-tech companies have their headquarters in the vicinity of the airport. B. Aerodata AG, founded as Aerodata Flugmesstechnik GmbH, which is the world's largest provider of flight inspection systems.
The Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG operates a development center in Braunschweig. The Alstom company plans to expand the existing maintenance center and develop it into a “national competence center for maintenance and service of trains” within the next few years. A large number of technical service providers such as Brunel GmbH as well as technical management consultancies such as B. the m + p group, operate from Braunschweig. In addition, Action Europe GmbH (formerly Devil AG ) is a large IT distributor and one of the companies with the highest turnover in Lower Saxony.
With around 3900 employees (as of 2014) at its three locations, the Braunschweig Municipal Hospital is one of the largest employers in the city.
According to a study by the economic research institute Prognos, Braunschweig is one of the most successful cities in Germany in the field of information and communication technology. As a result, a large number of nationally and internationally known advertising agencies have settled in the city. Overall, the economic situation is developing above average. The city experienced employment growth of 8.6% between 2005 and 2010; their income tax power grew by 31.1% over the same period. This is due to the numerous start-ups. In a nationwide comparison, Braunschweig took first place in a study by the New Social Market Economy initiative from 2011. There were 146 young entrepreneurs for every 10,000 employable people. The Braunschweig-based e-commerce company Pizza.de can be named as an example of the success of young start- ups . In 2012 Braunschweig was one of the ten most dynamic cities in Germany. In addition, Braunschweig, together with Stuttgart, is the region in the European Union in which the highest percentage of employees work in top and high-tech sectors, namely 22% each.
The computer company Commodore International , which was very successful in the 1980s, had a plant in Braunschweig until its demise in the early 1990s . Among other things, the legendary C64 was manufactured here. Today Braunschweig is the seat of Intel's largest chip development center in Europe with around 120 employees. Six chips have been developed here since 2000 and are currently in use. In the European competence center for high-performance computing (HPC) technology in Braunschweig, chips for high-performance computers and supercomputers are also developed. At the TU Braunschweig, Intel finances the main course "Advanced VLSI -Design" (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits), which deals intensively with the development of highly complex microchips in order to promote the training of highly qualified workers on site. In autumn 2013, however, the announcement was made that this location would be closed. The location and the employees were then taken over by Fujitsu . Today Braunschweig is recognized as an IT stronghold in Germany. The proportion of IT specialists here is three times as high as the national average and twice as high as in comparable large cities.
The "Cooperation Initiative in Mechanical Engineering" is an amalgamation of medium-sized mechanical engineering companies from the Braunschweig region that buy together, increase the qualifications of employees and also work together in other areas. Companies from the IT industry have also signed a similar cooperation agreement under the name "Federated IT" in order to enable the joint implementation of projects. A well-known mechanical engineering company based in Braunschweig is Bühler .
Braunschweig has traditionally been a center of the sugar industry since around 1850 due to the intensive cultivation of sugar beet in the Braunschweig area . Nordzucker AG , which emerged from a merger of several sugar factories, has chosen Braunschweig as its headquarters. It is now the second largest German producer of sugar products. This complex of topics is also addressed in the field of research. The Technical University of Braunschweig has had its own research institute for sugar production and processing for decades.
The Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt (BMA AG) is one of the leading companies in the field of mechanical engineering for the industrial processing of renewable raw materials. With the law firm Appelhagen und Partner , the largest law firm in Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt is based in Braunschweig.
Braunschweig is the seat of the international textile company New Yorker and its subsidiary "Ann Christine". Other well-known companies and institutions are the Heimbs coffee roaster , founded in 1880 , the men's textile company Dittmar ( Signum shirts) and the Westermann printing and publishing group . The Richard Borek group of companies is also based in Braunschweig. “Borek” is one of the oldest mail order companies in Germany (since 1906). In 1996, the specialist kitchen company Küchen Aktuell was founded.
The Braunschweiger supply AG & Co. KG is one of the 50 largest companies in Lower Saxony.
With over 1300 retail stores, Braunschweig is a central shopping location for the region and has also been a fair trade city since 2014 .
In addition, the city is one of the administrative headquarters of the Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Stade Chamber of Crafts , whose chamber district includes the independent cities of Braunschweig, Salzgitter and Wolfsburg as well as the districts of Helmstedt , Goslar , Peine and Wolfenbüttel .
The regional daily newspaper is the Braunschweiger Zeitung (BZ), which also predominates in the region under different titles with different local sections. In 2007 the Braunschweiger Zeitung was taken over by the WAZ media group (today: Funke media group). The Neue Braunschweiger and Neue Braunschweiger newspapers published by BZ-Verlag are distributed to households on Sundays as free weekly newspapers . Online newspapers for Braunschweig are the daily newspaper NEUESausBraunschweig , which has appeared since April 2013, and regionalBraunschweig.de (as BraunschweigHeute) since 2014 . News38.de has been online since May 2016 , a free news portal that primarily offers information from postcode region 38, but also national news.
City magazines : The family magazine Clicclac appears monthly with a circulation of 25,000 and 560 distribution points. The Subway magazine appears monthly with a circulation of 20,000 issues and 300 distribution points. The district magazines Druff, Nordlicht, Tangente and Westblick appear in smaller editions in various districts of Braunschweig. Stadtglanz magazine appears quarterly. The monthly magazines Da Capo (1989–6 / 2017) COCKTA! L (1990–2005), chexx (1999–2007) and Backstage (2005–2014) as well as the sports magazines 33 (1994–1995) and apart with a focus on Braunschweig also appeared earlier Football region.
There is also an independent publishing company that publishes advertising newspapers for Braunschweig and the Braunschweig region. Products are the Braunschweig Report, the weekly Sunday newspaper and Ambiente . Another advertising newspaper is Extra am Sonntag for Braunschweig .
In Braunschweig and the surrounding area, the non-commercial, local community radio " Radio Okerwelle " broadcasts on the frequency 104.6 FM and the commercial station Radio 38 on the frequency 100.3 FM. In addition, "TV38", a non-commercial community TV, maintains a studio in the city (along with other studio locations in Wolfsburg and Salzgitter). Radio Okerwelle and TV38 are two of the 15 citizens of Lower Saxony broadcasters. In addition, the Braunschweiger Ideeal advertising agency operates an event radio on frequency 90.5 with a focus on Eintracht Braunschweig.
In Cremlingen , Deutsche Telekom AG operated a medium wave transmitter on behalf of Deutschlandfunk (DLF) until the end of 2015 . Although it was not located in the city of Braunschweig, this transmitter was often referred to as the "Braunschweig transmitter" (see the Cremlingen-Abbenrode broadcasting station ).
Musical instrument making
Braunschweig was and is one of the centers of the German musical instrument industry . Here are among others Wilhelm Schimmel GmbH as the largest German manufacturer of pianos and wings and with the Grotrian-Steinweg GmbH another well-known manufacturer based. Strings are in Brunswick from 1844 luthier family Rautmann produced (five generations). After a short shutdown due to the death of Elfi Rautmann, master violin maker Matthias Vorbrodt from Wernigerode reopened the workshop in 2013. The company Sandberg Guitars produces high quality electric guitars and basses .
In the entire European Economic Area (EEA), the Braunschweig region has the highest density of scientists, a high proportion of engineers in a nationwide comparison and the highest intensity in the field of research and development expenditure . In the Braunschweig region, more than 16,000 people from over 80 countries work and research in 27 research institutions as well as 20,000 employees in 250 high-tech companies on the issues of the future. The concentration of employees in research and development at the Braunschweig site is around five times as high as the national average. In 2010, 5.83% of the gross domestic product (GDP) was spent on research in Braunschweig . Furthermore, research is being continuously expanded. In the years 2012 to 2014 alone, over 200 million euros were used to set up new research infrastructure.
The city is home to three universities, a professional academy and a large number of federal institutions and research institutions. The Technical University Carolo-Wilhelmina was founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum" and is the oldest technical and natural science university in Germany. In 1862 this was converted to the "Ducal Polytechnic School" and in 1877 to a "Technical University". Since it was expanded to include a Faculty of Philosophy and State Science in 1968, it has been a “Technical University”. The Ostfalia - University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1971 through the merger of the Wolfenbüttel State Engineering School and the Higher Technical School for Social Work of the State of Lower Saxony. Further departments were added. The University of Fine Arts Braunschweig (HBK) was founded in 1963 from the former Werkkunstschule Braunschweig. This architectural-technical drawing institute was opened in 1790 on behalf of Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand. In 1972 it became a scientific university and since 1978 it has had the status of an artistic and scientific university. It is the only art college in Lower Saxony and among the five largest in Europe. There are over 300 Europe-wide. A dual degree in business administration can be completed at the state-recognized Welfenakademie . At the German Milling School Braunschweig , the world's only state-certified qualification as a process engineer for mill construction , grain and animal feed can be obtained.
The Federal Aviation Office and the Federal Office for Aircraft Accident Investigation are located in Braunschweig . The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt has, due to the time law since 1978, the contract with their atomic clocks to determine the time in Germany. The impulse for controlling radio clocks comes from the PTB, but the clock is broadcast via the long wave transmitter DCF77 southeast of Frankfurt am Main. In addition to time, PTB is responsible for various technical and scientific measured variables such as B. Length and mass.
A unique selling point is the concentration of companies, authorities and research institutions in the field of mobility, especially aviation technology, aviation safety, space travel and transport. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is located at Braunschweig-Wolfsburg Airport , which emerged in 1969 (initially as "DFVLR") from the German Aerospace Research Center (DFL) founded in 1936 . The main areas of work are flight mechanics , flight guidance and air traffic control , aerodynamics and the development of powerful tools for calculations and structural systems ( adaptronics and extreme lightweight construction). The location works closely with the neighboring Federal Aviation Office, the Technical University, technology transfer offices and other resident research institutions. For example, researchers from the TU Braunschweig and the DLR were involved in the development of the Philae lander and the Rosetta space probe and thus in the first landing of a man-made object on a comet. A special feature of the location is the well-developed infrastructure with research aircraft, wind tunnels, simulators and test benches, which, in addition to the airport infrastructure, is concentrated in one place. In total, over 2,800 employees work at the airport in basic research and application-oriented technology development and testing. The world's first automatic satellite-controlled aircraft landing took place at Braunschweig Airport as early as 1990.
In the patent atlas of the German Patent and Trademark Office, the Braunschweig region ranks first in Lower Saxony with 1200 patent applications for 2005 and seventh in a nationwide comparison. This applies in particular to patents in the technical fields of "vehicles, ships, aircraft" and "measuring, testing, optics, photography". One example is the city pilot project . The world's first self-driving car (called "Leonie") with high inner-city traffic was successfully tested in 2011 on the Wilhelminischer Ring. The research and testing of modern traffic light and car systems based on the application platform Intelligent Mobility (AIM) and the award as a showcase for electric mobility make Braunschweig the center of German mobility research. This top position is underlined in the international context by the strong expansion of research at the NFF. In the future, over 200 scientists will be working there on future mobility concepts.
The Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI), formerly the Society for Biotechnological Research (GBF), is a center for infection research. His research focus is on pathogens that are medically relevant or that are used as models for investigating infection mechanisms. The HZI is sponsored by the Federal Republic of Germany (90%) and the State of Lower Saxony (10%).
Other federal institutions and research institutions in Braunschweig are or were:
- Federal Biological Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA) (dissolved on December 31, 2007)
- Battery LabFactory Braunschweig (BLB)
- Braunschweig Integrated Center for Systems Biology (BRICS)
- Braunschweig Center for Gender Studies
- Braunschweig Computer Science and Technology Center (BITZ)
- Braunschweig Scientific Society (BWG)
- Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL)
- Federal Research Center for Agriculture (FAL) (dissolved on December 31, 2007)
- Center for Computer Science and Information Technology (tubs.CITY)
- German accreditation body (DAkkS), department of metrology with headquarters in Berlin
- German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) in the Leibniz Association
- German Center for Infection Research (DZIF)
- Drug Research and Functional Genomics Center (DRFG)
- Epitaxy Competence Center (ec²)
- Research Institute for Feed Technology (IFF)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Wood Research (WKI), also known as the “Wilhelm Klauditz Institute”
- Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine with headquarters in Hanover
- Fraunhofer Project Center for Energy Storage (CES) (in planning; joint platform of TU and Fraunhofer Institutes)
- Friedrich Loeffler Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health with headquarters on the island of Riems (Greifswald) (emerged from the dissolved FAL)
- Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research (GEI)
- Society for Plant and Reactor Safety (GRS)
- Intelligent Transport Systems Lower Saxony (ITS Lower Saxony)
- Institut Nehrig (food, consumer goods and environmental analysis)
- Institute for Applied Radio System Technology (IAF)
- Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forests and Fisheries (emerged from the dissolved FAL)
- Joint Optical Metrology Center (JOMC)
- Wind Energy Competence Center (under construction)
- Julius Kühn Institute (JKI), Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants with headquarters in Quedlinburg (emerged from the dissolved FAL and the BBA)
- Laboratory of Emerging Nanometrology (LENA)
- Food and Veterinary Institute of the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (LAVES)
- Materials Testing Institute for the Building Industry (MPA), Institute for Building Materials, Solid Construction and Fire Protection (IBMB)
- Nanotechnology Competence Center Ultra Precise Surface Processing e. V. (CC UPOB e.V.)
- Lower Saxony Research Center for Vehicle Technology (NFF)
- Lower Saxony Research Center for Aviation (NFL)
- Center for Agrometeorological Research (ZAMF) of the German Weather Service
- Center for Fire Research (ZeBra)
- Center for Light and Environmentally Friendly Buildings (Zeluba)
- Center for Micro Production (ZeMPro)
The Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft awarded the city the title “City of Science 2007”. The award also honored the commitment with which various actors are committed to networking science, especially with business and culture, and to opening up science to the citizens of the city. The jury certified the application of Braunschweig under the motto “Ideas Kitchen Braunschweig” with an experimental concept as “originality and comprehensibility”.
With the “Ideas Kitchen Braunschweig” in 2007, the idea arose to create a place that would promote dialogue with science in the future as well. The Haus der Wissenschaft Braunschweig GmbH was founded in the former college of education in Pockelsstrasse . The house focuses on interactive events and at the same time promotes the exchange between universities and research institutions with business, culture and educational institutions.
Other educational institutions are:
- State education center for the hearing impaired
- Volkswagen Financial Services Academy
- Clinic for urology and uro-oncology for specialist training
Braunschweig has been at the crossroads of several long-distance trade routes since the Middle Ages. The Oker, which flows through and around the city, was navigable up to modern times.
Today, several federal motorways (e.g. the A 2 and A 39 ) and federal roads lead to Braunschweig or directly through the city (e.g. the B 1 , the B 214 and the B 248 ). Braunschweig has a port with a connection to the Mittelland Canal , which connects inland shipping with Berlin, Hamburg and the Ruhr area , and has had its own airport in Waggum , Braunschweig-Wolfsburg Airport, since 1935 .
The Braunschweig main train station was opened in 1960 and replaced the inner-city Braunschweiger train station , a terminus from 1845, whose listed main building now serves as the headquarters of the Braunschweigische Landessparkasse . The first German state railway from Braunschweig to Wolfenbüttel started operating here as early as 1838 . Nowadays it is the system stop for the IC and ICE networks as well as regional local transport. In addition, Deutsche Bahn operates a train station in Braunschweig-Gliesmarode.
Local public transport (ÖPNV) in the city is carried out, among other things, with a tram and city bus system from Braunschweiger Verkehrs-GmbH within the Verkehrsverbund Region Braunschweig (VRB). The area is served by several regional transport companies, mainly with regional bus routes. A regional rail transport network from Goslar via Braunschweig to Uelzen was also planned, as was the RegioStadtBahn Braunschweig , which also operates within the city . The planning of this tram was stopped in 2010 due to a lack of funding and replaced by the 2014+ regional train concept.
For the first time in the world, battery buses in local public transport are operated with induction technology.
In April 1904 Heinrich Büssing had already opened the bus line of the "Automobil-Omnibus-Betriebs-Gesellschaft Braunschweig" (AOBG) on the Wendeburg –Braunschweig route . It served as a practical test for the buses that he had built in his plant. It is also the first and oldest bus line in the world that is still used today. At that time, up to twelve passengers were carried per trip at a maximum speed of 30 km / h.
The "Braunschweigische Verein für Luftschiffahrt" was founded as early as 1909. On October 13, 1912, the airship "Hansa" landed in the city. As a result, Braunschweig was referred to as the “City of Aviators”. Before the First World War, there were two airfields in Braunschweig : in Waggum and Völkenrode. A third, in Broitzem, followed in 1916. Braunschweig-Waggum was an important airfield in Germany.
The bicycle plays an important role in Braunschweig and in 2012 had a share of around 21% on weekdays and almost 24% on Sundays. There is a dense network of bike-friendly paths in the urban area. The cycling tourism has in Braunschweig and the surrounding area more of a significance for weekend getaways, the long-distance cycling tourism is poorly developed: Braunschweig is not the primary German long-distance cycle route network of D-routes connected.
Tourism and congress city
Attempts are currently being made to strengthen Braunschweig as a trade fair and congress location. Among other things, extensive modernization work was carried out on the town hall . This goes hand in hand with the complete reorganization and upgrading of the station district through the construction of the BraWoPark, combined with the construction of an InterCityHotel and a retail park. The new building of the youth hostel on Wendenstrasse , corner of Neuer Geiershagen, opened on April 23, 2015.
The European long-distance hiking trail E6 leads - coming from Essehof - through the Dibbesdorfer Holz, along the Im Lah forest , through the Schapen district , through the Riddagshausen and Buchhorst nature reserve , on the Rautheimer Holz - on the southern edge of which you can see the remains of the Braunschweig Landwehr on the right of the path are - and at Niederdahlumer wood along and then on to Wolfenbüttel belonging Oberdahlumer forest along in the which also belongs to Wolfenbüttel Lechlumer wood .
In the past, Braunschweig was the location of the Braunschweig , Prussian armies , Reichswehr and Wehrmacht as well as the British occupation forces . In the Cold War it was because of its proximity to the border and the strategic importance of the North German Plain of gravity location of the Army of the Armed Forces . Almost the entire Panzer Grenadier Brigade or Panzer Brigade 2 was stationed in Braunschweig. After the tank battalion 24 was disbanded on December 31, 2003 as the last active combat troop unit, only the defense district command 23 (VBK 23) and the district army replacement office remained in the city. VBK 23 was relocated to Hanover a short time later, and the district military replacement office was also dissolved in 2014. Today the Bundeswehr is only represented by a career advice office in the city.
Due to the extensive destruction of the Braunschweig city center by numerous air raids during the Second World War, especially the air raid of October 15, 1944 , only a few old buildings and streets in what was once the largest half-timbered town in Germany have survived in their original form. Especially since the 1990s there have been increased efforts to rebuild buildings that are important to the city's history. This happened, for example, with the Alte Waage and - with restrictions - the Braunschweig Castle , which was reconstructed between 2005 and 2007. However, it largely contains a shopping center that continues in a modern extension. The largest quadriga in Europe is placed on the castle . The Braunschweiger Quadriga is controlled by Brunonia , the symbol goddess of the Braunschweig region.
Undestroyed, restored or rebuilt can be found today mainly within the five " traditional islands " of the city center: around the cathedral , the Aegidienkirche , Magnikirche ( Magniviertel ), Martinikirche and around the Michaeliskirche . The "traditional islands" were brought into being shortly after the war by the then state curator Kurt Seeleke and have enjoyed legal protection since 1963. Today the cathedral is one of the ten most visited Protestant churches in Germany.
The "traditional island" around the cathedral mainly includes the Burgplatz with Braunschweig's landmark, the Braunschweiger Löwen , the original of which has been in Dankwarderode Castle since 1989 to protect against harmful environmental influences . The Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum (originally the headquarters of Vieweg Verlag ), the Huneborstelsche Haus and the Veltheimsche Haus are grouped around the statue after the castle and cathedral . The canons' houses from the 15th century are located southwest behind the cathedral. Similar "islands" form the old town market with the old town hall , old town market fountain , Gewandhaus and Stechinelli house and the nearby Kohlmarkt with numerous important buildings from different centuries.
The oldest church buildings include the Jakobskirche from the 9th century and the Magnikirche from the 11th century, in whose consecration document from 1031 Braunschweig is first mentioned as Brunesguik . Other important churches of the Middle Ages are the St. Blasii Cathedral , the Bartholomäus Church, the Michaeliskirche , the Petrikirche and the parish churches of St. Martini , St. Katharinen and the Andreas Church with its 93 m high south tower, which was the tallest building in the city for centuries.
Noteworthy church buildings from recent times are the St. Jakobi churches, built between 1899 and 1906, and the neo-Gothic St. Johannis and St. Pauli . Also interesting is the built in the second half of the 20th century churches, the Built in 1952 heiliggeistkirche with works of artists Toni Zenz and Dominikus Böhm or 1958 built the Dominican church of St. Albert the Great , whose artistic decoration of Gerd Winner comes .
The Dankwarderode Castle , the Gewandhaus , the Liberei , the Achtermannsche Haus , Richmond Castle , the Alte Waage, reconstructed between 1991 and 1994, and the Knight St. Georg all date from the last almost 900 years . Other noteworthy buildings are the Neustadtrathaus , the " Haus Salve Hospes ", the Haus zum Golden Stern , the Alte Bahnhof , the Haus Anker and the water tower on the Giersberg .
Accents of modern architecture were set in 1960 with the reception building of the Braunschweig main train station and the local transport terminal built in 2000. The Happy Rizzi House , built on the edge of the Magniviertel in 1999 , sparked controversial discussions. Another example of modern architecture is the glass library building of the University of Fine Arts from 2002, originally built as a Mexican pavilion on the grounds of EXPO 2000 in Hanover.
Between 2005 and 2007, the company ECE Projektmanagement built the Schloss-Arkaden , a shopping center whose façades were mainly designed in a modern steel and glass construction, on the site of the Braunschweig Castle, which was demolished in 1960 and the castle park that was removed in 2005 . From Schlossplatz it can be entered through the portico of the residential palace, which has been reconstructed using preserved original parts.
The tallest residential building in the city is the 22-storey high-rise on the Black Mountains at 66 m, the telecommunications tower in the Broitzem district is 155 m high. Since 1983, the city has been dominated by the tallest structure, the chimney of the Mitte thermal power station with a total height of 198 m.
Scattered across the city are numerous monuments , statues, reliefs , memorial stones and plaques that have been created on various occasions over the centuries. However, some of these works are no longer available for various reasons (mostly due to the effects of the war). Undoubtedly the most important works in terms of art history and urban history are also the oldest:
The " Imervard Cross " in Braunschweig Cathedral, named after its creator, is one of the most important Romanesque sculptures on German soil. The wooden sculpture is a four-nail cross from the middle of the 12th century. A few meters further on in Dankwarderode Castle is the Brunswick Lion . It is the oldest surviving large-scale sculpture from the Middle Ages north of the Alps and the first larger figurative hollow casting since ancient times .
The 2.6 m high Lessing monument by the Braunschweig ore caster Georg Howaldt from 1853 is the first statue in the city to depict a person. The Eulenspiegel fountain reminds of Till Eulenspiegel , who (probably) was born not far from Braunschweig . It stands at the place where, according to tradition, the bakery where Till baked owls and monkeys for the citizens, which are today as figures around the fountain.
Green spaces and recreation
The city has - especially after the expansion through the regional reform of 1974 - a particularly high proportion of green and natural areas. The Wallring, which follows the course of the Okerum flood ditches, surrounds the Braunschweig city center as a continuous green area and is one of the most important urban and historical elements of the Braunschweig cityscape.
In addition to landscape protection areas and natural monuments, there are three designated nature reserves in the city area (as of February 2017). The largest green area in Braunschweig is the Riddagshausen nature reserve . The European reserve , which has been designated since 1962, is home to many rare bird species, for example the teal and the little grebe . The extensive pond landscape of today's Riddagshausen is due to the activities of the Cistercian monks , who drained the then very swampy area and created fish ponds. The 25 hectare Lammer Holz nature reserve is located in the west of the city in the Lehndorf-Watenbüttel district. It essentially consists of scramble forest and alluvial forest-like trees.
- List of nature reserves in Braunschweig
- List of landscape protection areas in Braunschweig
- List of natural monuments in Braunschweig
- List of protected landscape components in Braunschweig
The Westpark has been under construction in several construction phases in Weststadt since 1980 . The 240 hectare area combines recreational areas, allotment gardens as well as sports and play areas on adjacent agricultural land .
Several systems are lined up on the ring track : In a multi-generation park built in 2014 on the site of the former Westbahnhof station, movement, coordination and dexterity exercises can be completed on 12,500 m². To the north is the Westbahnhof youth area, which also includes a covered skate park. This is followed by the industrial path with various installations on the local and urban industrial history as well as the listed Jödebrunnen green area .
The Richmond Park was created in 1768 by the English princess and later Braunschweiger Duchess Augusta Friederike Louise. With the Wörlitzer Park near Dessau, which was created at the same time, the Richmond Park is one of the earliest landscape gardens in northern Germany.
The Prinz-Albrecht-Park in the eastern ring area was created in 1895 from a parade ground and is designated as a landscape protection area with valuable trees. The park is just under 47 hectares. The 4.04 hectare city park can also be found in the eastern ring area.
The theater park extends around the hill of the former Anton bulwark and is particularly characterized by its generous lawn slopes and the good view from the hilltop. The museum park is to the south . In the southern part of the city you will find the Hermann-Löns-Park on around 20,000 square meters .
The Bürgerpark is one of the oldest and, at around 42 hectares, the fourth largest in the city. It is located on the former southeastern Okeraue, south of the city center. In a northerly direction it goes into the Kiryat-Tivon-Park (the former park of the Braunschweig train station).
The school and community garden on Dowesee is a 9.07 hectare park in northern Braunschweig. It is located in the protection zones II and IIIa of the drinking water protection area Bienroder Weg, which encompasses large parts of the northeastern urban area and extends to Cremlingen in the east .
The Inselwallpark , located at the northwest bend and the confluence of the flood ditches, together with the Gaußberg form a park area of around ten hectares. The southern recreational areas Kennel and Südsee extend for around 2½ kilometers on the western bank of the Oker. You can go sailing and surfing here, among other things. Further local recreation areas can be found with the Heidbergsee in Heidbergpark in the south-east and with the Ölpersee in the north-west of the city. The Bienroder See is also a popular swimming destination. The Moorhüttenteich in Volkmarode, which arose from a former clay pit, is known today as a biotope, leisure and fishing area. The Botanical Garden of the Technical University of Braunschweig , which was laid out by Johann Heinrich Blasius , also offers a large number of different plant species, and it also serves as an outdoor laboratory for experimental plant research.
With the Noah's Ark Zoo in Stöckheim, the city has a small zoo. In the park-like facility, which opened in 1964, 300 animals from 50 species are kept in natural enclosures, some of which are free to roam. The zoo is family-owned and has a sister zoo about 15 kilometers away, the Essehof zoo in teaching .
In 2015, a community garden was created in the Bebelhof district with the Bebelhof city / StattGarten on the former site of the urban green and sports department of the city of Braunschweig. In raised beds, on sealed surfaces , similar to the Prinzessinnengärten in Berlin , mainly vegetables are grown.
According to the 2011 census , 39.5% of the population were Protestant, 14.0% Roman Catholic , and 46.4% either belonged to another religious community or no religious community under public law, or remained without information. According to the statistics office of the city of Braunschweig, 84,594 (33.6%) of the 251,551 inhabitants were Protestant, 32,602 (13.0%) Roman Catholic and 134,355 (53.4%) belonged to another or no religious community.
Evangelical Lutheran Church
From 1521 the Reformation took hold and was first spread through the reformer Gottschalk Kruse . The first mass in German was celebrated in the cathedral on Easter 1526. From 1528 onwards, the Reformation was promoted according to the Lutheran confession by Luther's comrade-in-arms, Johann Bugenhagen : the city was given a church system that was famous beyond its borders . On September 6, 1528, the officially sealed introduction of the Reformation in Braunschweig was announced from every pulpit in the city; henceforth the city was predominantly Protestant for many centuries . It regulated its church affairs largely autonomously. In 1580 the city council signed the Lutheran formula of concord from 1577. The main sermon place of the regional bishop has been the Brunswick Cathedral since 1923 .
It was not until 1671 that the church administration was incorporated into the Evangelical Lutheran regional church of the Duchy of Braunschweig . Here the city soon became the seat of a superintendent , today this administrative level is called the provost's office . In 1887 the main cemetery was inaugurated, which today is the largest church cemetery in Germany with a size of 42 hectares and 40,000 graves.
The Evangelical Lutheran parishes of the city belong to the Braunschweig Propstei of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church in Braunschweig . In 2007, 414 parishes with around 405,000 members were organized in the regional church.
Roman Catholic Church
In the Middle Ages the city of Braunschweig belonged to the Diocese of Hildesheim and the Diocese of Halberstadt , with the Oker as their border. The Hildesheim area belonged to the Archdiaconate Stöckheim, the Halberstädter to the Archidiaconate Atzum. In 1391 the two bishops established an official office in Braunschweig , which took care of the city's church affairs on behalf of both dioceses. During the Reformation the churches became Evangelical Lutheran and Catholic services were no longer held.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the Catholics in Braunschweig were allowed to hold church services again, so that a Catholic community could soon be founded. From 1824 this belonged to the newly established diocese of Hildesheim, which until 1930 belonged to the ecclesiastical province of Cologne ( archbishopric Cologne ), then to the ecclesiastical province of Paderborn ( archbishopric Paderborn ) and since 1995 to the newly founded ecclesiastical province of Hamburg ( archbishopric Hamburg ). The parishes of the city belong to the deanery of Braunschweig, whose area also includes parishes outside the city of Braunschweig. The main Catholic church in Braunschweig is the Liebfrauenmünster St. Aegidien , the church of a former Benedictine monastery. The Catholic Church in Braunschweig consists of six parishes with 13 churches.
Since 1958 there has been a Dominican monastery again in the city. The Dominicans , who in the course of the Reformation had to give up their monastery founded in 1310 on Bohlweg in 1528 on the instructions of the city council and had to leave the city, returned after more than 400 years and built a modern monastery complex, which also includes the church of St. Albertus Magnus with the parish of the same name belongs.
Other Christian religious communities
In the 18th century, German Reformed and French Reformed congregations were founded in Braunschweig, which united in 1811 to form a Reformed congregation . The congregation was independent and in 1928 became a founding member of the Federation of Evangelical Reformed Churches in Germany , which comprises a small number of Reformed congregations that are not members of a regional church and has its seat in Braunschweig. The independence ended in 2012 when she joined the Evangelical Reformed Church. There she belongs to Synodal Association X.
The Free Churches include the Seventh-day Adventist Church , the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK), two Evangelical Free Churches ( Baptists ), the Evangelical Methodist Church , the Evangelical Free Church of Querum , the Christ Center Braunschweig , the Ecclesia -gemeinde Braunschweig e. V. and the community of Christ .
The New Apostolic congregation in Braunschweig has a church on Körnerstraße. The church district of Braunschweig of the New Apostolic Church of Central Germany includes churches up to Helmstedt, Salzgitter-Lebenstedt, Peine and Gifhorn.
There has been a diverse Jewish life in Braunschweig since the Middle Ages. A Jewish community with a synagogue , school, court and ruler is mentioned for the first time in 1282 . Mainly the northern part of the old town and the new town were settled. The first Jewish cemetery is documented for 1584; There is still a cemetery established in 1797 on Hamburger Strasse , which was desecrated during the Nazi era , but was later repaired. The “ New Synagogue ”, designed by Constantin Uhde from 1873 to 1875 , was severely damaged in the so-called “ Reichskristallnacht ” launched by the National Socialists from November 9th to 10th, 1938, and demolished in 1940 due to dilapidation. Due to the persecution during the Third Reich, Braunschweig's Jewish population decreased dramatically from 682 in 1933 (see Persecution of Jews ). There is evidence that 196 Braunschweig Jews were murdered between 1939 and 1945. It is assumed, however, that the actual number is much higher.
After the end of the war, a new Jewish community formed in the city as early as 1945. It consisted of surviving Braunschweig Jews and newcomers. In 1995, Bea Wyler was appointed as the first rabbi to be hired in Germany after the Holocaust to lead the Jewish community, which in 2008 again had around 600 members. The new Braunschweig synagogue was inaugurated on December 6, 2006 .
There has been a Muslim community in Braunschweig since 1964. In the meantime seven mosques have been inaugurated.
Other religious communities
Several Masonic lodges are located in Braunschweig , in addition to the lodges Zum neue Tempel , Friedrich zur Constant, Via Lucis and Jonathan, as well as Carl zum Crowned Pillar . All lodges reside in the “House of Brotherhood”, Löwenwall 9. Carl zur crowned column is one of the oldest existing lodges in Germany and the oldest in Lower Saxony. It belongs to the Grand Lodge of the Old Free and Accepted Masons of Germany (AFuAMvD) and has the matriculation number 15. CzgS was founded on February 12, 1744 as Lodge Jonathan and in 1802 renamed Carl to the Crowned Pillar .
- The most important museum in Braunschweig is the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum , which dates back to 1754 and is of international importance in terms of art history. It is not only the oldest museum in Germany, but also the third oldest public museum in the world. His collection includes u. a. Paintings by Rubens, Vermeer and Rembrandt.
- The Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum , or BLM for short, is located in the Vieweg house on Burgplatz . It was founded in 1891 as the "Fatherland Museum for Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte" in Hagenscharrn Street and is the only history museum sponsored by the State of Lower Saxony. The exhibition in the Dankwarderode Castle opposite is also part of this museum. The branch of the BLM in the choir of the former Pauline monastery from the middle of the 14th century houses the oldest Jewish museum in the world. A museum of religions is currently being built in the exhibition center Hinter den Aegidien.
- The Städtisches Museum am Löwenwall, opened in 1865, shows the history of the city of Braunschweig; It also includes the collection of shapes and the Altstadtrathaus museum, which has a permanent exhibition on the history of the city of Braunschweig in its vaulted cellar and on the ground floor. The museum also owns the “Ad astra” balloon from 1783, which makes it the oldest surviving flying object in the world.
- The Natural History Museum was opened in 1754 as the Ducal Art and Natural History Cabinet and is the oldest natural history museum in Germany. As a museum of the history of zoology , it has a scientific collection of tens of thousands of specimens . In addition to permanent exhibitions on various topics, there is a light room in which the most important pieces can be seen.
- In the memorial of the Braunschweig Schillstrasse satellite camp , an open archive commemorates the victims of the satellite camp. The memorial, designed by artist Sigrid Sigurdsson since May 2000, includes documents, reports, memories and research on the history of the camp. Texts from the open archive are posted on boards on walls on the site.
- The Raabe House, Wilhelm Raabe's last home, was founded in 1948 as a memorial in honor of the writer.
- The association Friedrich Gerstäcker company operated from 1982 to 2016 in the so-called Cavaliershaus of Richmond Palace , an exhibition about the writer Friedrich Gerstäcker , who spent his youth and later years in Braunschweig. The exhibition included, among other things, an extensive collection of originals and replicas of "Firearms of the Wild West ".
- Gramophone Museum Harmony
- Agricultural technology museum on Gut Steinhof
- Museum of Photography .
- In the Salve Hospes house , the Kunstverein Braunschweig presented important contemporary art from 1832 in four individual or group exhibitions.
- Mineral cabinet of the Technical University of Braunschweig , in the premises of the general consumer association and in the Cistercian museum Riddagshausen further exhibitions. In the "Torhaus Galerie" contemporary works by visual artists from the city and region of Braunschweig are shown. The focus is on painting, object art, sculpture, video and photography.
- Company museum in the branch of Ball Packaging Europe with an overview of the development from the beginnings of tin can production to the modern beverage can.
- In 2008, the Braunschweiger ZeitSchiene opened , a 5.5 kilometer long open-air museum in which Braunschweig and German economic and transport history is presented using a ring track that has connected over 50 industrial companies in the city to the public rail network for around 100 years.
- The so-called world championship train from 1954 has been on display in the former repair shop in Braunschweig , which is part of the ZeitSchiene, since 2008 .
- The castle museum has seven rooms that have been recreated from the original, such as the music room, the audience room and the throne room. A football museum is currently being built as part of the renovation of the Eintracht stadium.
The largest library in the Braunschweig region is the University Library of the Technical University of Braunschweig . It was founded in 1748 as the library of the Collegium Carolinum, making it the oldest library of a technical university in Germany. The inventory comprises around 1.6 million media. In addition to its actual work, the Braunschweig University Library also operates the allegro database system and looks after the largest collection of pharmaceutical literature in Germany and Central Europe.
The Braunschweig City Library has been housed in part of the newly built castle arcades since June 23, 2007. The former public library, the music library and the holdings of the former municipal library from the Magniviertel, which focused on the humanities and social sciences, are now combined in them. The city library was founded in 1861 and opened in 1865 with a 3584-volume ministerial library in the Neustadtrathaus. The inventory of works has grown over the decades, so that the city library today has 400,000 books, 1,366 medieval manuscripts, 2,500 maps and plans from before 1850, as well as the library of the Ministry of Spirituality with 8,675 titles. The open access holdings include around 170,000 current media. In addition to the children's and youth library, an art library and a music library, there are three external branches.
With the Wilhelm Raabe Research Center of the City Library, the estate of the writer Wilhelm Raabe is to be made accessible and developed. Raabe's works can be found in the Raabe House Museum and in the Braunschweig City Archives .
Further libraries are located in the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research , in the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum and in the Braunschweig University of Art .
The city is a member of the Braunschweigische Landschaft , an association for the maintenance of cultural institutions in the region.
Braunschweig is home to a large number of foundations , the oldest still in existence today, the St. Thomaehof Foundation was founded in 1290, the United Monastery and Study Fund in 1569 (he lost his legal independence on January 1, 2005, his assets have been a sub- fund of the foundation since then Braunschweigischer Kulturbesitz with separate funding purposes), Braunschweig's Foundation to commemorate February 6, 1794 , dates from that same year 1794 and is also still active today. Foundations of the recent past are the Braunschweig Community Foundation from 2003 and the Braunschweigischer Kulturbesitz Foundation from 2005.
The State Theater Braunschweig is a state four-part theater with an A-orchestra . Every year it shows around 30 premieres in drama , music theater ( opera , operetta , musical ) and ballet, as well as in the children's and youth theater division of the Young State Theater . The origins of the State Theater go back to a previous building, which was founded in 1690 by Duke Anton Ulrich . The Ducal Opera House stood on Hagenmarkt until 1864 , where important premieres such as Lessing's Emilia Galotti in 1772 and Goethe's Faust in 1829 took place. Today the city's smallest theater, “KULT”, is located at the same location.
The second oldest theater in Braunschweig was the Niederdeutsche Theater , founded in 1925 . In the 2014/2015 season, game operations were initially temporarily suspended.
Other theaters are: Puppet theater fadenschein, Komödie am Altstadtmarkt , LOT-Theater , Theater Fanferlüsch, Premiere Amateur Theater Braunschweig, Studio Bühne Braunschweig, the Brunsviga Culture and Communication Center and the Theater Zeit.
The most famous sports club is Eintracht Braunschweig . Eintracht was a founding member of the Bundesliga in 1963 and won the German championship in 1967 . This was the club's only significant title. In 1985 he was relegated from the 1st Bundesliga and then spent a long time in the second or third division. At the end of the 2007/2008 season, Eintracht qualified for the newly founded 3rd division . At the end of the 2010/2011 season, coach Torsten Lieberknecht was promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga . In the 2013/2014 season, the club played in the 1st Bundesliga, from 2014 to 2018 and again since 2020 in the 2nd Bundesliga. From 2018 to 2020 the club played in the 3rd division. In the 2019/2020 season, the club again celebrated promotion to the second Bundesliga. Other departments of the club are also successful: In women's hockey , they have been German champions nine times. In athletics some titles could also be won. The club's women's basketball team currently play in the 2nd women's basketball league .
The Braunschweig New York Lions are a nationwide successful American football team. From 1997 to 2008 the Lions were in every final of the German Bowl and were able to win this championship title as record champions twelve times, most recently in 2019. In 1999, 2003 and 2015 to 2018 they won the European title of the Eurobowl .
Other clubs are the Basketball Löwen Braunschweig , which plays in the 1st basketball Bundesliga , the Braunschweig Spot Up 89ers , who play in the 2nd Bundesliga North , the rugby second division Welfen Braunschweig , the third division handball team MTV Braunschweig and the men's volleyball team of USC Braunschweig , which plays in the 2nd Bundesliga . The football club Freie Turnerschaft Braunschweig was promoted to the regional league for the first time in 2014 . Nationally and internationally the most successful dance sport club in standard formation dancing is the Braunschweiger Tanz-Sport-Club (BTSC). The Braunschweig Athletics Association won several German championship titles - especially in long-distance running . The Oase Dropshotters played in the 1st Squash Bundesliga for several years .
Braunschweig is also successful in karate : the local club Shotokan Braunschweig has regularly provided state and national champions in this sport for several years. The boxing club 72 Braunschweig , together with the BAC Wolfenbüttel and Salzgitter Heros the Löwenboxteam, which competes in the second Bundesliga. The sailing sport is represented in Braunschweig by the Segler-Verein Braunschweig .
The Sparkassen Open ( Nord / LB Open until 2010 ), an annual ATP Challenger tennis tournament for young and aspiring world tennis players, has been taking place in June on the premises of the Braunschweiger Tennis and Hockey Club (BTHC) in the Bürgerpark since 1994 . It is the largest professional tennis tournament in Lower Saxony and is considered the top 3 challenger tournament worldwide. Various world ranking tournaments are also held in women's tennis.
Every spring since 2002, the Löwen Classics, an international world ranking equestrian tournament , has been held in the Volkswagen Hall .
The Braunschweiger Nachtlauf has been taking place on a Friday in June since 1987 , offering school classes, teams and individual runners various distances on a circuit through the city center. For this sporting event with around 13,000 active participants and 40,000 spectators, parts of the city center will be closed to traffic. There is also a big summer festival on the route. This makes it the second largest running event in Lower Saxony and among the ten largest in Germany. An elite run with professional runners that had taken place in recent years was canceled in 2006 in favor of additional starting places for running enthusiasts.
The Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel Marathon is another running event that offers not only the classic marathon but also other shorter routes (half marathon, 10 km, 5 km, 2.5 km) on a slightly hilly route between Braunschweig and Wolfenbüttel. The event, offered since 2000, takes place in October. 189 runners (161 men, 28 women) finished the 2006 marathon.
In July 2014 the oldest German road bike race , the cycling classics "Rund um den Elm", "Rund um dem Rathaus " and "Rund um den Prinzenpark " took place for the 100th time in Braunschweig city center and in the nearby Elm . The trilogy has been organized by the Braunschweig 1923 cycling club since 1926 .
Braunschweig is the seat of the German (n) Aero Club eV (DAeC), the umbrella organization of the German aviation associations.
The Braunschweig Christmas market , which has a tradition of over 300 years, is known nationwide. Due to the structural environment, the so-called “traditional island” around Burgplatz , Dankwarderode Castle and the Brunswick Cathedral , the market has already been voted the most beautiful Christmas market in northern Germany several times.
The Sunday before Carnival Monday held Braunschweig Carnival parade - " Schoduvel " - called, applies to more than 6 kilometers in length than the largest in northern Germany and to those in Cologne, Mainz and Dusseldorf's fourth biggest move in Germany. The Braunschweig Schoduvel attracts around 250,000 visitors every year, and in 2014 it was even 300,000. The Middle Low German word "Schoduvel" (from duvel = devil and scho for shoo ), describes an old custom, namely to scare away the evil spirits of cold, death and danger through noise, disguise and terrible behavior. It is a medieval form of carnival that was first mentioned in the Braunschweiger Stadtbuch in 1293 .
The Braunschweig International Film Festival , the largest film festival in Lower Saxony, has been taking place since 1987 . Since 2014 the Cinestrange has been organized with a focus on “genre film”. Festivals such as the Selbstfilmfest are also organized annually. Up to 50 teams shoot a short film in 24 hours under special conditions: a maximum of five minutes, include three terms, one camera and no editing. Every year the largest cabaret festival in the region takes place in the Bürgerpark in front of Richmond Castle. The Braunschweig State Theater organizes the European festival for young directors "Fast Forward" every year. In addition, the international final of the breakdance tournament Battle of the Year will be held in Braunschweig. The event "Culture in Tents" takes place every year. The Braunschweig Poetry Slam is one of the first poetry slams in German-speaking countries and has been taking place regularly since 1998. There are also numerous cultural events such as "Braunschweig International" or the "Long Night of Literature". The TU Night takes place annually on the central campus of the TU Braunschweig, with live music and experiments waiting for the visitors. In addition, local cultural associations organize a cultural night especially for students every year. The annual Braunschweiger Spielemeile offers children and young people the opportunity to try out trend sports and unusual new games free of charge. Since 1998, midnight basketball events, the so-called “Nitejams”, have been held regularly for young people and adolescents.
Every year in May / June, the Braunschweig Classix Festival took place in Braunschweig and the region . Internationally known artists performed at numerous concerts and events. The program ranged from chamber music , through symphony concerts and readings by well-known authors (e.g. Donna Leon ) to jazz and percussion events. The successor was the event “Soli Deo Gloria”. Furthermore, the jazz festival CityJazzNight has been held since 2004, which was initiated by members of the Jazzkantine . The festival, which is spread across the city center, shows artists from various jazz genres in several places . During the Christmas season, the Braunschweig Christmas story is performed annually, with the jazz canteen accompanying the performance with traditional and present-day Christmas carols.
Various events are also offered by the Louis Spohr Society in order to preserve the violinist's musical legacy. There are also annual summer open-air concerts in the Raffteich -Bad, where prominent artists such as Bosse and Philipp Poisel are represented. The Honky Tonk pub festival takes place once a year in Braunschweig. Artists of the most varied musical styles perform in the city's clubs, bars, cafés, restaurants and pubs.
Events in summer
At Whitsun, the medieval market traditionally takes place on Burgplatz, which is organized by the Kramer, Zunft & Kurtzweyl association. At the end of June, the USC City Beach Volleyball Cup will be held on the Kohlmarkt .
Every two years in June, the theater festival "Theaterformen" takes place in Braunschweig. In July, the summer hole festival | CSD Braunschweig has been the largest event for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual culture and politics in Lower Saxony since 1996. Also in July, the Wolters Hoffest takes place , which extends over a whole weekend and offers beer and live bands.
In 1999 the Braunschweig International Summer Spectacle took place for the first time , with street theater groups from Europe performing in Braunschweig. The Braunschweiger Kulturnacht was launched in 1994 and has been holding cultural events throughout the city center every two years since then.
The program Holidays in Braunschweig (FiBS) with over 1000 activities in and around Braunschweig is regularly offered for children and young people during the summer holidays .
Since 1974 the Magnifest has been held every year on the first weekend in September in the Magniviertel , which attracts up to 100,000 visitors. There are also various district and street festivals such as B. the chestnut blossom festival.
The series Classic in the park offers visitors every year at Pentecost the opportunity to receive free classical music in the park atmosphere at picnic to enjoy.
This year, for the 34th time, the largest multicultural festival in the region, "Braunschweig International", with a stage program, information stands and international culinary specialties took place on the Kohlmarkt.
Sausage from Braunschweig was already valued in literary terms in the Middle Ages . In particular, the " Braunschweiger " named after the city , which is internationally known. This is a coarse sausage with a soft consistency, which is offered with or without garlic . The “Braunschweiger” is even available in the USA - but there it describes a type of tea sausage that is significantly finer than the original. But even in Germany, the name is sometimes used incorrectly for tea sausage. The slag sausage, which is traditionally smoked in a fatty intestine, is somewhat stronger and more durable. Beyond the region, the Knackwurst , a light gray spread sausage , often spiced with thyme , which is smoked and unsmoked and which is as tasty as its content is undocumented. Another delicacy is the Heidewurst, which can be compared to cooked Mettwurst as a preserve.
Of the once more than 300 breweries , only four still produce in the city today. These are the two large breweries, the Hofbrauhaus Wolters and the Braunschweig brewery (zu Oettinger Brauerei ), as well as two smaller ones: the Schadt private brewery, to which a brewery inn is attached, and the Mumme brewery. The Braunschweiger Mumme has its origins in the Middle Ages (before 1390) and is still available today: on the one hand, it is bottled in non-alcoholic form and, on the other, it has been back in bottles since autumn 2008.
“Ulen un Apen” is the name of a typical Brunswick pastry. Its origins go back to Till Eulenspiegel, who came from the village of Kneitlingen , a few kilometers east of Braunschweig, and who is said to have made many rough but also wise jokes in the city. From his time as a baker witness those made from dough and of Brunswick -called "Ulen un Apen" owls and monkeys , even today in some bakeries in the city are offered.
Braunschweig was famous for its honey cake until the end of the Second World War . Today only one bakery still produces honey cake in the Braunschweig style. The cake is baked according to the recipe of the former Brunswick honey cake baker Hans Mahn and sold by the Thomas Schaper bakery.
White asparagus is a regional specialty that is mainly grown in the north of the city on the sandy soils of the Südheide and is offered traditionally with schnitzel or ham or modernly with smoked salmon at the markets and in many restaurants and bars from May to June.
A traditional Braunschweig winter dish is kale , which in Braunschweig is called " brown cabbage ". This name is explained "historically", because Braunschweigian brown cabbage is a special type of cabbage that was grown around the city in earlier times (traditions and recipes from the 19th century confirm this). In contrast to the kale, which is predominantly grown today, “the heavily veined leaf […] of brown cabbage is actually smooth and only curled on the edge, its color […] dark purple to brown, the leaf feels thicker than that of kale “And the traditional cabbage is“ a nuance stronger in taste, maybe even more fruity ”than the modern cabbage with its“ well-known mild-tart ”appearance. It is unknown why the old variety is practically no longer grown today. Since 1986 it has been possible to harvest the old “brown cabbage” again in the Diesdorf open-air museum in the Altmark near Salzwedel ; This was also achieved with the one grown by a hobby gardener in Eitzum in the Wolfenbüttel district , who clearly won 1-0 in a taste comparison of Slow Food members between the two types of cabbage in January 2008 . Brown cabbage is typically eaten with Bregenwurst and boiled potatoes after the first frost (because it destroys the bitter substances contained in the cabbage ) . Traditionally, beer is also drunk. The Braunschweig pomologist , medical advisor and professor Theodor Engelbrecht published the work “Germany's apple varieties ” in 1889 , in which he described a total of 688 varieties. These include at least two special Braunschweiger apple varieties, the Braunschweiger Milchapfel and the Braunschweiger Tafel-Rambour.
People and personalities
Born in Braunschweig
Famous people born in the city of Braunschweig include the natural scientists Carl Friedrich Gauß , the prince of mathematicians, as he was already known during his lifetime, and Richard Dedekind , as well as the late medieval chronicler Hermann Bote , writers such as Ernst August Klingemann and Ricarda Huch , the actors Willy Maertens , Gustav Knuth and Edda Seippel , the politicians Günter Gaus , Wilhelm Bracke (co-founder of the Social Democratic Workers' Party ) and the Prime Minister of the Free State of Braunschweig and later of Lower Saxony Alfred Kubel and the resistance fighter of July 20, 1944 Axel von dem Bussche , in addition, the architect of the Brunswick Palace Carl Theodor Ottmer , the first German balloonist Wilhelmine Reichard and the musicians Louis Spohr and Norbert Schultze .
Well-known entrepreneurs and industrialists included Ludwig Otto Bleibtreu , the brothers Johann Heinrich and Christoph Julius Gravenhorst during the industrialization period in the 18th century , and in the 19th century Philipp Wilhelm Daubert , Max Jüdel , Albert Natalis , the brothers Willi and Gustav Schmalbach or the bankers Carl Friedrich Löbbecke and Albert Oppenheimer .
Well-known native Braunschweig residents of the present include the fashion designer Jette Joop , the comedian MC Rene , the musician Axel Bosse as well as the NBA professional basketball player Dennis Schröder and the Bundesliga - and former FIFA referee Florian Meyer , also the CEO of Porsche AG Oliver Blume , the Let's Player Erik “Gronkh” range and the German producer and DJ in the field of electronic dance music Oliver Koletzki were born in Braunschweig.
Connected with Braunschweig
People who were not born in the city but are closely connected to Braunschweig through their life, work and work are Heinrich the Lion , who made Braunschweig his residence in the 12th century, the jester Till Eulenspiegel , who in the 14th In the 19th century, the baroque master builder Hermann Korb , the reformer Johannes Bugenhagen , who drafted the Braunschweig church regulations , the poet Hoffmann von Fallersleben , author of the Deutschlandlied, as well as Joachim Heinrich Campe and Wilhelm Raabe, played a number of his pranks in the city . Furthermore, the industrialist Heinrich Büssing , the inventor Franz Trinks , who developed the first writing calculating machine, the Brunsviga , the photo pioneer Peter Wilhelm Friedrich von Voigtländer and the publishers Friedrich Vieweg and George Westermann .
The city's honorary citizenship was first granted in 1838. The intention behind the award was originally to honor merchants and manufacturers (who did not necessarily have to be citizens of Braunschweig for this title) for their services. For this they had to have offered their goods at least one hundred times at one of the various Brunswick trade fairs . Over the decades, these requirements changed more to more general services to the city.
Since 1988, the Citizen Medal of the City of Braunschweig has been awarded to individuals and associations of people who have made a special contribution to the interests of the City of Braunschweig.
Part of the plot of the children's opera Wittkopp by the composer Hans-Joachim Marx based on a libretto by Margret Rettich takes place in the alleys and in the town hall of Braunschweig. In 1983 this opera was premiered on Braunschweig Cathedral Square.
The Burgplatz in Braunschweig was the location for the film Hansel and Gretel: Hexenjäger .
The miracle of Braunschweig , a series of cash donations to the needy, attracted a lot of media attention.
In 2013 an L6-type stone meteorite, weighing 1.3 kilograms, fell in Braunschweig-Melverode . When it hit a concrete pavement, the meteorite shattered into many small fragments.
- Elmar Arnhold: Medieval metropolis Braunschweig. Architecture and urban architecture from the 11th to 15th centuries. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2018, ISBN 978-3-944939-36-0 .
- Herbert Blume , Kristin Casemir , Uwe Ohainski : The place names of the city of Braunschweig (= Lower Saxony Place Name Book . Part 9; Publications of the Institute for Historical Research at the University of Göttingen. Volume 61). Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-7395-1161-0 .
- Luitgard Camerer , Manfred Garzmann , Wolf-Dieter Schuegraf (eds.): Braunschweiger Stadtlexikon . Joh. Heinr. Meyer Verlag, Braunschweig 1992, ISBN 3-926701-14-5 .
- Reinhard Dorn : Medieval churches in Braunschweig. Niemeyer, Hameln 1978, ISBN 3-87585-043-2 .
- Manfred Garzmann , Wolf-Dieter Schuegraf (Ed.): Braunschweiger Stadtlexikon . Supplementary volume. Joh. Heinr. Meyer Verlag, Braunschweig 1996, ISBN 3-926701-30-7 .
- Horst-Rüdiger Jarck , Gerhard Schildt (ed.): The Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. A region looking back over the millennia . 2nd Edition. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2001, ISBN 3-930292-28-9 .
- Horst-Rüdiger Jarck , Dieter Lent et al. (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon - 8th to 18th century . Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2006, ISBN 3-937664-46-7 .
- Horst-Rüdiger Jarck , Günter Scheel (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon - 19th and 20th centuries . Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 1996, ISBN 3-7752-5838-8 .
- Jörg Leuschner , Karl Heinrich Kaufhold , Claudia Märtl (eds.): The economic and social history of the Braunschweig country from the Middle Ages to the present. Volume 1: Middle Ages. Volume 2: Early Modern Era. Volume 3: Modern Times. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 2008, ISBN 978-3-487-13599-1 .
- Richard Moderhack (Hrsg.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte at a glance (= Braunschweigischer Geschichtsverein [Hrsg.]: Sources and research on Braunschweigische Geschichte. Volume 23). 3. Edition. Waisenhaus-Buchdruckerei, Braunschweig 1979, OCLC 256283413 ( restricted preview in the Google book search; - 1st edition: 1976, ).
- Reinhard Liess (with photos by Willi Birker): Braunschweig (= German country, German art ). 5., completely change in text and images. Edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-422-00120-4 .
- Richard Moderhack: Brunswick town history. Wagner, Braunschweig 1997, ISBN 3-87884-050-0 .
- Rudolf Prescher : The red rooster over Braunschweig. Orphanage printing and publishing house, Braunschweig 1955.
- Ernst-August Roloff : Braunschweig and the state of Weimar. Orphanage printing and publishing house, Braunschweig 1964.
- Ernst-August Roloff: How brown was Braunschweig? Hitler and the Free State of Braunschweig (= "Special" of the Braunschweiger Zeitung [ed.]). Braunschweig 2003.
- Gerd Spies (Ed.): Braunschweig - The image of the city in 900 years. History and views. 2 volumes, Städtisches Museum Braunschweig, Braunschweig 1985.
- Gerd Spies (Ed.): Brunswiek 1031 - Braunschweig 1981. The city of Henry the Lion from its beginnings to the present. 2 volumes, Städtisches Museum Braunschweig, Braunschweig 1982.
- Werner Spieß : History of the city of Braunschweig in the post-Middle Ages . From the end of the Middle Ages to the end of urban freedom 1491–1671. 2 volumes. Orphanage printing and publishing house, Braunschweig 1966, OCLC 7495150 .
- DVD: Braunschweig 1945 - bombing, liberation, life in ruins. Recalled and commented on by Eckhard Schimpf (Braunschweiger Zeitung and Archiv Verlag, Braunschweig 2005)
- Video: Eike Besuden : Braunschweig. In: Bilderbuch Deutschland ( NDR 2004), website with description of the content ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
|Wikisource||- Sources and full texts|
|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Official website of the city of Braunschweig
- Networked memory - National Socialist tyranny in Braunschweig
- Internet portal history in Braunschweig of the history seminar of the TU Braunschweig
- Link catalog on Braunschweig at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- The inscriptions of the city of Braunschweig - from 1529 to 1671 via Deutsche Insschriften Online
1st flight route from north to south : Andreasfriedhof , Hamburger Straße , Gaußbrücke , Bammelsburg , Löbbeckes Insel , Inselwall , Rehnstoben-Bunker , Nickelnkulk , Kaiserstraße , Wollmarkt , Andreaskirche , Liberei , Kröppelstraße , Alte Waage , Lange Straße , Neustadtrathaus , Packhof , Meinhardshof , Brüdernkirche , Kannengießerstraße , Schuhstraße , Kohlmarkt , Haus zur Sonne , Haus zur Rose , Haus zum Goldenen Stern , Ziegenmarkt , Bankplatz , Oberpostdirektion , Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz
2nd flight route from east to south : water tower on Giersberg , Parkstrasse , museum park , Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum , Magniviertel , Magnikirche , Municipal Museum , Gauss School , Bunker Ritterstraße , Ackerhof , Ölschlägern , Klint , Kuhstraße , Auguststraße , Aegidienmarkt , Aegidienkirche , Aegidienkloster , Garrison School , Lessingplatz
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- The secondary form , Brönswiek '. Herbert Blume : What Braunschweig Low German is - and what it isn't . In: = Braunschweigischer Landesverein für Heimatschutz e. V. (Ed.): Braunschweigische Heimat . 101st year, no. 2/2015 , March 29, 2017, ISSN 2198-0225 , p. 17–24, here p. 18 f., And 24 , section 2: Only alleged Braunschweig Low German (4) ( tu-braunschweig.de [PDF; 8.8 MB ; accessed on October 7, 2018]).
- Urban agglomerations (Germany): & Urban agglomerations - population figures, graphics and map. Retrieved August 22, 2020 .
- Wolfgang Kimpflinger: Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany . Architectural monuments in Lower Saxony. Volume 1.1 .: City of Braunschweig. Part 1, p. 94.
- Braunschweiger Zeitung: The Braunschweig region is the most research-intensive in Europe . September 28, 2018, accessed September 30, 2018.
- Eurostat yearbook of the regions 2010. ISBN 978-92-79-14564-3 , p. 136 ( europa.eu ( memento of January 24, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 13.7 MB]).
- Eurostat Science, technology and innovation in Europe . 2010 edition. 2010, ISBN 978-92-79-14618-3 , pp. 55 , doi : 10.2785 / 39823 (English, eurostat.ec.europa.eu ( memento of January 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 9.2 MB ; accessed on June 15, 2018]).
- Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft: Braunschweig: City of Science 2007 ( Memento from August 2, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
- Department of Urban Planning and Environmental Protection of the City of Braunschweig: Natural Spatial Structure. (PDF; 130 kB) (No longer available online.) In: Internet site of the city of Braunschweig. 2011, archived from the original on September 18, 2015 ; accessed on May 20, 2015 .
- City of Braunschweig, Department of Urban Development and Statistics Statistical information on Braunschweig. In: braunschweig.de, accessed on November 21, 2019.
- boundaries of the city districts are valid until October 31, 2006 ( memento of November 8, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 246 kB; January 19, 2004) or the boundaries of the city districts are valid from November 1, 2006 to October 31, 2011 ( memento of August 31, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 592 kB; October 28 / November 11, 2010).
- Limits of the city districts valid from November 1, 2011 ( Memento of August 31, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 184 kB).
- See the old list of the Landtag constituencies in Lower Saxony 1982–1998 with the new list of the Landtag constituencies in Lower Saxony
- Current map of the city districts ( Memento from September 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig de, accessed on May 28, 2018.
- Main statute of the city of Braunschweig from November 8, 2011 . (in the version of the fifth amendment of June 25, 2019). In: City of Braunschweig (Ed.): Official Journal for the City of Braunschweig . No. 9 , July 5, 2019, p. 23 ( braunschweig.de [PDF; 1.3 MB ; retrieved on May 3, 2012] For the city districts and city district councils, see §§ 14 to 16 and Annex 1 of the statutes).
- City of Braunschweig: electoral districts.
- electoral district division in the city districts. Status: November 2012 ( Memento from January 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 214 kB).
- Municipal. Status: May 2011 (PDF; 866 kB).
- Limits of choice. As of October 2012 on braunschweig.de (PDF; 368 kB).
- Limits of the statistical districts (PDF; 607 kB). In: braunschweig.de .
- Braunschweig in the statistics - 01_06 areas of the statistical districts. In: Statistics Year 2010, p. 21 (PDF; 8 MB).
- DWD climate data 1981-2010
- Climate diagram for Braunschweig. In: climate-Data.org .
- Christoph Drösser : The Hanoverians speak the purest German. Right? In: zeit.de. Die Zeit , June 8, 2000, accessed on September 15, 2018 (XML; beginning of article freely accessible).
- Richard Moderhack (ed.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte at a glance (= Braunschweigischer Geschichtsverein [ed.]: Sources and research on Braunschweigische Geschichte. Volume 23). Waisenhaus-Buchdruckerei, Braunschweig 1976, , p. 157 ( limited preview of the 3rd edition, 1979, in the Google book search).
- Herbert Blume , Kristin Casemir, Uwe Ohainski: The place names of the city of Braunschweig (= Lower Saxony Place Name Book . Part 9; Publications of the Institute for Historical Research at the University of Göttingen. Volume 61). Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-7395-1161-0 , p. 32.
- Herbert Blume, Kristin Casemir, Uwe Ohainski: The place names of the city of Braunschweig (= Lower Saxony Place Name Book . Part 9; Publications of the Institute for Historical Research at the University of Göttingen. Volume 61). Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-7395-1161-0 .
- Herbert Blume, Kristin Casemir, Uwe Ohainski: The place names of the city of Braunschweig. P. 38.
- Werner Flechsig. In: Fritz Timme (Ed.): Research on Braunschweigischen history and linguistics. In: Sources and research on the history of Brunswick. Volume 15. Appelhans, Braunschweig 1954, OCLC 28163496 , pp. 20-54.
- Jürgen Udolph: The place name Braunschweig. In: Wolfgang Meibeyer , Hartmut Nickel: Brunswiek - the name and beginnings of the city of Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger workpieces. Volume 51/110. Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 2007, ISBN 978-3-7752-8801-9 , pp. 59–70.
- Gerd Spies (Ed.): Braunschweig - The image of the city in 900 years. History and views. Volume 2: Braunschweig's cityscape. Braunschweig 1985, p. 17.
- Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gerber: Braunschweig. In: Codex juris municipalis Germaniae medii aevi. Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages. Erlangen 1863, pp. 285–308 ( scan in Google book search).
- Arno Herzig: Jewish history in Germany: from the beginnings to the present. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-39296-2 , p. 35.
- Friedrich von Schrötter, N. Bauer, K. Regling, A. Suhle, R. Vasmer , J. Wilcke: Dictionary of Coin Studies. Berlin 1970 (reprint of the original edition from 1930), p. 440.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig ( Memento from June 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- Georg Braun , Frans Hogenberg : Civitates Orbis Terrarum: 1572-1618. Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel 1965.
- Ernst-August Roloff : Braunschweig and the state of Weimar. Politics, economy and society 1918–1933. (= Braunschweig workpieces. Publications from the city's archive, library and museum. Volume 31) Waisenhaus-Druckerei, Braunschweig 1964, pp. 68–72.
- Bernd Rother : The Social Democracy in Braunschweig 1918–1933. Dietz, Bonn 1990, ISBN 978-3-8012-4016-5 , pp. 105-109.
- Gerd Spies (Ed.): Braunschweig - The image of the city in 900 years. History and views. Volume 1. Städtisches Museum Braunschweig, Braunschweig 1985, p. 98.
- Ulrike Müller: Rudolf Jahns (1896–1983). The painter and his subjects: nature - figure - music. In: Theory of Contemporary Art. Volume 9, Münster 1997, ISBN 3-8258-3295-3 , p. 135, FN 179.
- Hinrich Bergmeier, Günter Katzenberger (Ed.): Kulturaustreib. The influence of National Socialism on art and culture in Lower Saxony. A documentation for the exhibition of the same name. Dölling and Galitz, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-926174-70-6 , p. 83.
- Gerd Biegel (Ed.): Bombs on Braunschweig. In: Publications of the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum. No. 77, Braunschweig 1994, p. 9.
- Gerd Biegel (Ed.): Bombs on Braunschweig. P. 28.
- Braunschweig - The German settlement city. In: Siedlungs-Sonderheft. Episode 5, 1935, cover picture ( vernetztes-gedaechtnis.de ).
- Markus Mittmann: Building under National Socialism. Braunschweig, the "German settlement town" and the "model settlement of the" German labor front "Braunschweig-Mascherode". Origin, design, analysis. Niemeyer, Hameln 2003, ISBN 3-8271-9050-9 .
- Hans-Ulrich Ludewig , Gudrun Fiedler : Forced Labor and War Economy in the State of Braunschweig 1939–1945. In: Sources and research on the Braunschweig national history. No. 39, Appelhans, Braunschweig 2003, ISBN 3-930292-78-5 , p. 9.
- Ludewig, Fiedler: Forced Labor and War Economy in the State of Braunschweig 1939–1945. P. 10.
- IndustrialSchützenplatz. In: vernetztes-gedaechtnis.de, accessed on May 11, 2020.
- Hans-Ulrich Ludewig : Forced Laborers. In: Luitgard Camerer , Manfred Garzmann , Wolf-Dieter Schuegraf (eds.): Braunschweiger Stadtlexikon . Joh. Heinr. Meyer Verlag, Braunschweig 1992, ISBN 3-926701-14-5 , p. 255 .
- Bernhild Vögel: The “Maternity Home for Eastern Workers.” Braunschweig, Broitzemer Straße 200 (= Small Historical Library. Volume 3). Edited by the Hamburg Foundation for Social History of the 20th Century . Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-927106-02-X ( birdstage.net [PDF; 2.6 MB; digitized from 2005]).
- Ludewig, Fiedler: Forced Labor and War Economy in the State of Braunschweig 1939–1945. P. 12.
- Rudolf Prescher: The red rooster over Braunschweig. Air protection measures and aerial warfare events in the city of Braunschweig 1927 to 1945. Braunschweig 1955, p. 112 ff.
- Gudrun Fiedler: No more land and yet region (1945–1989). In Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Gerhard Schildt (Hrsg.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. A region looking back over the millennia. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3-930292-28-9 , p. 1121.
- City of Braunschweig: City portrait of Braunschweig: Time of National Socialism. ( Memento from September 15, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) In: braunschweig.de, accessed on September 15, 2018.
- Rudolf Prescher: The red rooster over Braunschweig. Air raid protection measures and air war events in the city of Braunschweig 1927 to 1945. Braunschweig 1955, p. 112.
- Friedrich Lindau : Hanover. Reconstruction and destruction. The city in dealing with its architectural identity. 2nd, revised edition. Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Hanover 2001, ISBN 3-87706-607-0 , p. 328.
- Ralph-Herbert Meyer: Braunschweig is among the best in Germany when it comes to quality of life. Representative EU citizens' survey "Urban Audit". Plus points for the cityscape, cleanliness, security. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. August 3, 2010 (beginning of the article freely available) ( staedtestatistik.de [PDF; 25 kB, accessed on August 28, 2019; full text]).
- Braunschweig Stadtmarketing GmbH: Braunschweig receives top marks. In: seilflechter.de. February 27, 2018, accessed on October 7, 2013 (PDF; 432 kB).
- Gert Hoffmann: Our city is on the rise. Greetings from Braunschweig's Mayor Dr. Gert Hoffmann at the turn of the year. (No longer available online.) In: Unser38.de. December 28, 2013, archived from the original on November 2, 2017 ; accessed on September 15, 2018 .
- future prospects in Wolfsburg and Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. November 8, 2013. Braunschweig has held this good position to this day and has positioned itself in front of centers such as Cologne, Münster, Karlsruhe, Freiburg, Mannheim and the Hanover region.
- Study: “Very good future prospects” for Braunschweig. In: news38.de, May 27, 2016, accessed on May 11, 2020.
- Christoph Eisenring: In Germany's «swarm cities». In: NZZ. August 8, 2016, accessed October 7, 2018.
Reformation city of Braunschweig. Germany. Reformation of the Citizens. In: reformation-cities.org, accessed on May 28, 2018.
Template - 17-03906. Application by the city of Braunschweig for the title “Reformation City of Europe”. In: ratsinfo.braunschweig.de, accessed on May 28, 2018 ("Resolution: The City of Braunschweig applies to the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe (CPCE) for the title of 'European Reformation City'".).
- Cornelia Steiner: Corona in Braunschweig: All facts at a glance. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung (is continuously updated).
- Katja Dartsch: Corona case in Braunschweig confirmed - further suspected cases. March 5, 2020, accessed April 19, 2020 .
- Hello Lower Saxony: Coronavirus: Infections throughout Lower Saxony. Norddeutscher Rundfunk , March 5, 2020, accessed on March 5, 2020 .
- Cornelia Steiner: First death in connection with Corona in Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. March 31, 2020 ( braunschweiger-zeitung.de [accessed on May 11, 2020]).
- Michael Ahlers and our agencies: Corona: Schools and daycare centers in Lower Saxony will close on Monday. March 13, 2020, accessed April 19, 2020 .
- Frequently asked questions and answers (FAQ) on the subject of the corona pandemic. In: braunschweig.de, accessed on May 11, 2020.
- Norbert Jonscher: Mask requirement in Braunschweig: King customer sticks to it. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. April 28, 2020 ( braunschweiger-zeitung.de [accessed on May 11, 2020]).
- buy a million copies: Mask duty in Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. April 25, 2020 ( braunschweiger-zeitung.de [accessed on May 11, 2020]).
- Andreas Eberhard: Braunschweig researchers report success in the fight against Corona. In: Berliner Morgenpost . May 5, 2020, accessed May 11, 2020.
- Weil praises researchers for their rapid response to corona. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . May 8, 2020, accessed May 11, 2020.
- Siegfried Hofmann: A spray against corona - biotech companies are forming new alliances. In: Handelsblatt . April 16, 2020, accessed May 11, 2020.
- Pamela Dörhöfer: "Breakthrough" with antibodies. In: Frankfurter Rundschau . May 6, 2020, accessed May 11, 2020.
- Andreas Eberhard: Fight against Corona: Braunschweig researchers report breakthrough. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. May 6, 2020 ( braunschweiger-zeitung.de [accessed on May 11, 2020]).
- Federal Statistical Office (Hrsg.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 265-267 .
- Braunschweiger Zeitung (ed.): The bomb night. The air war 60 years ago. Braunschweig 2004, p. 43.
- Population ( Memento from January 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig.de .
- Results of the 2011 census. In: results.zensus2011.de .
- population. (No longer available online.) State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, formerly in the original ; accessed on February 5, 2016 (no mementos). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Braunschweig in the statistics ( Memento from January 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 25 kB). In: braunschweig.de. November 13, 2013, accessed January 14, 2014.
- Braunschweig is growing. The administration reports 248 424 inhabitants. Braunschweiger Zeitung. January 13, 2014, accessed on August 28, 2019 (beginning of article freely accessible).
- City of Braunschweig, press office: More residents. Strong population growth in Braunschweig ( Memento from February 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Press release from January 29, 2016. In: braunschweig.de, accessed on May 28, 2018.
- City of Braunschweig, Department of Urban Development and Statistics - Local Election 2016 - Election of the Council - Overall result (PDF; 144 kB).
- City of Braunschweig: Current elections 04/2014 from May 26, 2014 - Mayor election May 25, 2014 (PDF; 81 kB).
- FDP Braunschweig supports Ulrich Markurth ( Memento from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: fdp-braunschweig.de. April 8, 2014, accessed May 28, 2018.
- Results of the mayor's runoff election in Braunschweig, June 15, 2014.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig
- Debt ranking of the 103 independent cities in Germany. Household control.de, accessed on September 19, 2014 .
- Debt of major German cities 2012 to 2014. Update on EY municipal study 2015. December 2015 ( Memento from December 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF). In: ey.com .
- Excerpt from the main statute of the city of Braunschweig.
- Camerer, Garzmann, Schuegraf, Pingel: Braunschweiger Stadtlexikon. Braunschweig 1992, p. 217 f.
- Bandung / Indonesia - Java Sea and Indian Ocean. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Nîmes / France - The palms of friendship. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Bath / Great Britain - The flower city in the southwest of the island. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Sousse / Tunisia - The pearl of the Sahel. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Kiryat Tivon / Israel - The Park in the Hills. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Magdeburg - The neighboring city on the Elbe. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Kazan / Russian Federation - metropolis on the Volga. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Omaha / USA - city in the "Heartlands". In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Zhuhai / China - The Pearl Sea City. In: braunschweig.de. Retrieved December 27, 2016 .
- Website of the city of Braunschweig. ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Federal State of Lower Saxony. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- Future Atlas 2016. (No longer available online.) In: prognos.com. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 (click on the Braunschweig area on the map so that the bar graphs appear on the right).
- Ulrike Gutzmann, Markus Lupa: From the “Vorwerk” to the FahrWerk. A history of the location of the Volkswagen plant in Braunschweig (= Historical Notate. No. 13, series of historical communications by Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft). Wolfsburg 2008 ( volkswagen-media-services.com ( Memento from May 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 2.8 MB]).
- Andreas Karius: VW commercial vehicle holding company moves to Braunschweig. In: automobil-produktion.de, July 22, 2015, accessed on May 11, 2020.
- New location opened ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: dbprojektbau.dbnetze.com. August 24, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Alstom in Salzgitter builds the trains for the Regiobahn. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung, December 17, 2012.
- News ( Memento of December 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig.de, accessed on December 27, 2015.
- Braunschweig in comparison. Smart City Index 2019. Website of the city of Braunschweig, accessed on November 29, 2011.
- Top position for Braunschweig's economy ( memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In: newsclick.de, accessed on December 9, 2011.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig ( Memento from January 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
- Eurostat regional yearbook 2009. (PDF; 11.6 MB) In: ec.europa.eu, accessed on November 21, 2019.
- This is how innovative Intel researches and develops in Germany ( Memento of December 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In: intel.de, accessed on May 28, 2018.
- processor. In: c't . 25/13.
- by competence: Fujitsu is now developing in Braunschweig. In: regionalBraunschweig.de. June 5, 2014, accessed October 7, 2018.
- By Jörn Stachura: Braunschweig, the IT stronghold, in 8th place nationwide. In: braunschweiger-zeitung.de. Retrieved November 23, 2016 .
- Federated IT ( Memento of February 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: federated-it.de, accessed on August 30, 2018.
- Herfried Kohl: Quality and environmental management for financial service providers and law firms. Springer, 1997, ISBN 3-642-64568-2 , pp. 196–202, doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-642-60816-2 12 .
- Braunschweig becomes a fair trade city. Review committee confirmed: application was successful ( memo from February 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig.de. December 20, 2013, accessed August 30, 2018.
- neueausbraunschweig.de ( Memento from April 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- BraunschweigHeute.de. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 14, 2015 ; accessed on July 28, 2015 .
- cocktail.re, accessed June 15, 2018.
- chexx, accessed June 15, 2018.
- eleven / 33. In: esdes.media, accessed on June 15, 2018.
- Offside. Magazine. (No longer available online.) In: abseitsmagazin.de. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013 ; accessed on May 28, 2018 .
- Economy and Science. In: Website of the city of Braunschweig, accessed on November 21, 2019.
- insm-staedteranking.de ( Memento from November 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 22 kB).
- Include and exclude. Retrieved July 28, 2015 .
- Science network for technology, life and culture. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on July 28, 2015 .
- ern-bs.de ( Memento from August 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- HWWI / Berenberg-Städteranking 2010 - The 30 largest cities in Germany in comparison: Braunschweig (PDF; 567 kB), p. 36, accessed on May 29, 2015.
- 190 million euros for research in Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung (paid subscription access).
- TU Braunschweig: Research building "LENA": Federal and state governments invest 29 million euros in nano research ( Memento from April 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig.ihk.de, May 2013, accessed on August 30, 2018.
- Best choice2015 ( Memento from February 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig-best-choice.de, accessed on August 30, 2018.
- 111 Numbers, data, facts about Braunschweig. Broaden your horizons ... Point 51. ( Memento from February 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: subway.de. July 30, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- NDR: Braunschweig between tradition and modernity. In: ndr.de. P. 3 , accessed on April 17, 2016 .
- Lower Saxony Research Center for Aviation. In: forschungsflughafen.de, accessed on May 28, 2018.
- Annual review 2014: Braunschweig loses European research crown. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 8, 2017 ; accessed on July 28, 2015 .
- Research airport starts in a new dimension - Volksbank BraWo inaugurates Lilienthalhaus. In: wir-sind-brawo.de. August 25, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Research. Braunschweig continues to grow. In: airliners.de, January 2, 2013, accessed on November 21, 2019.
- Report on braunschweiger-zeitung.de
- 60 million for mobility research in Braunschweig on braunschweiger-zeitung.de
- A laboratory for the battery of the future - TU Braunschweig | Blogs. Retrieved July 22, 2018 .
- ResearchBraunschweig Compact. (PDF) Retrieved July 28, 2015 .
- Center for Computer Science and Information Technology (tubs.CITY). Retrieved July 28, 2015 .
- German Accreditation Service (Department of Metrology). Retrieved October 1, 2015 .
- Groundbreaking ceremony for a new center for genome research. In: regionalbraunschweig.de, November 17, 2015, accessed on November 21, 2019.
- osram.de ( Memento from March 15, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Agreement signed for a new Fraunhofer project center. Press release Fraunhofer IKTS and Fraunhofer IFAM. In: fraunhofer.de. March 21, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- institut-nehring.de , accessed on November 21, 2019.
- IAF GmbH - Institute for Applied Radio System Technology ( Memento from November 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: teliaison.de, accessed May 28, 2018.
- Groundbreaking ceremony for wind energy competence center. In: regionalbraunschweig.de, accessed on March 5, 2016.
- Braunschweiger Zeitung (paid subscription access).
- ndr.de ( Memento from August 30, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- Center for Light and Environmentally Friendly Buildings ZELUBA ® - Fraunhofer WKI. Retrieved July 22, 2018 .
- Website of the Center for Microproduction
- City of Science 2007: Braunschweig. Braunschweig made science palatable in its “kitchen of ideas”. ( Memento from June 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Winning city 2007 in the “City of Science” competition. In: stadt-der-wissenschaft.de, accessed on August 30, 2018.
- Regional Railway Concept 2014+ - Infrastructure. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 8, 2014 ; accessed on July 28, 2015 .
- This is how the new electric bus of the Verkehrs-AG looks from the Braunschweiger Zeitung (paid subscription access).
- Website of the city of Braunschweig ( Memento from September 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Richard Moderhack (ed.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte at a glance (= Braunschweigischer Geschichtsverein [ed.]: Sources and research on Braunschweigische Geschichte. Volume 23). Waisenhaus-Buchdruckerei, Braunschweig 1976, limited preview of the 3rd edition, 1979, in the Google book search). , p. 208 (
- Günter Karl Paul Starke: Braunschweig: 60 years city of aviators. Aero-Club Braunschweig 1969.
- Modal split. (PDF; 5.11 kB) In: regionalverband-braunschweig.de. Regional association for the greater Braunschweig area, September 8, 2012, accessed on May 17, 2018 .
- Bicycle city map. In: braunschweig.de. City of Braunschweig, accessed on September 5, 2017 .
- Brawo-Park is being built for 130 million euros. In: immobilien-zeitung.de, accessed on November 21, 2019 (beginning of article freely accessible).
- Deutsches Jugendherbergswerk Landesverband Hannover e. V .: New youth hostel inaugurated in Braunschweig. “Meeting place for young people” in the heart of Braunschweig. (PDF; 5 kB) Press release. (No longer available online.) In: braunschweig.de. April 23, 2015, archived from the original on May 30, 2015 ; accessed on May 29, 2015 .
- "We are not perceived optimally". Braunschweig. Quickly - the documentation - Cathedral preacher Joachim Hempel answers questions from the editorial team. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. August 28, 2013, accessed on August 28, 2019 (beginning of article freely available).
- Herbert Blume: Basics and General - Language. In Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Gerhard Schildt (Hrsg.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. A region looking back over the millennia. Braunschweig 2000, p. 50.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig
- City of Braunschweig: The West Park.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig - current projects.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig.
- Website of the city of Braunschweig.
- Ann Claire Richter: A perennial gem in the south. BZ series - 38 locations. Hermann-Löns-Park is a wonderful place to relax. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. July 9, 2013, accessed on August 28, 2019 (beginning of article freely available).
- School overview. In: www.braunschweig.de. Retrieved May 24, 2015 .
- Lower Saxony environmental maps. Lower Saxony Ministry for the Environment, Energy and Climate, accessed on May 24, 2015 .
- City of Braunschweig Religion. with figures from the 2011 census. Accessed April 22, 2020.
- STAPAK 2019. City of Braunschweig. Current population data as of December 30, 2019 (PDF; 28 kB) p. 2. In: braunschweig.de, accessed on February 23, 2020.
- Werner Spieß: History of the city of Braunschweig in the post-Middle Ages. From the end of the Middle Ages to the end of urban freedom 1491–1671. Volume 1. Braunschweig 1966, p. 48.
- Werner Spieß: History of the city of Braunschweig in the post-Middle Ages. From the end of the Middle Ages to the end of urban freedom 1491–1671. Volume 1. Braunschweig 1966, p. 52.
- Werner Spieß: History of the city of Braunschweig in the post-Middle Ages. From the end of the Middle Ages to the end of urban freedom 1491–1671. Volume 1. Braunschweig 1966, p. 59.
- Cf. confessional writings of the Evangelical Lutheran Church , p. 766; see. P. 17.
- Dapd: Germany's largest church cemetery is in Braunschweig . In: www.t-online.de . November 2, 2011 ( ( page no longer available , search in web archives: t-online.de ) [accessed July 22, 2018] no mementos).
- NN: In memory of the 200th year. Existence of the Catholic community of Braunschweig 1708–1908. Verlag J. Herm. Raecke, Braunschweig 1908 ( digitized version ).
- Dominican monastery in Braunschweig. In: dominikaner-braunschweig.de, accessed on November 21, 2019.
- Hans-Ulrich Ludewig: The state of Braunschweig in the Third Reich (1933-1945). In Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Gerhard Schildt (Hrsg.): Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. A region looking back over the millennia. Appelhans-Verlag, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3-930292-28-9 , pp. 1004-1007.
- Irina Leytus: Small but nice: the Braunschweig Jewish community relies on continuity. ( Memento from December 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- DMK Braunschweig: The history of the DMK - 50 years of the Muslim community in Braunschweig ( Memento from February 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: dmkbs.de, accessed on May 28, 2018.
- Braunschweig mosques
- Start | Braunschweig Buddha Factory. Accessed March 31, 2019 .
- Baha'i community.
- Buddhist Community
- To the new temple: Freemason Lodge in Braunschweig. Official website. In: zum-neuen-tempel.org, accessed on July 10, 2019.
- Carl on the Crowned Pillar (CzgS). Official website. In: freimaurerei.de, accessed on July 10, 2019.
- Klaus-Michael von Swiontek: 250 Years of Freemason Lodge Carl on the Crowned Pillar 1744–1994 - donated on February 12, 1744 in the Orient Braunschweig. Registration number 15. Lower Saxony's oldest lodge. Braunschweig 1994, OCLC 163531153 .
- Friedrich Knoll : Braunschweig and surroundings. Historical-topographical handbook and guide through the monuments and art treasures of the city. 1881, p. 144.
- Prelude to the new museum in Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. December 11, 2013, accessed on October 7, 2018 (beginning of article freely available).
- Fabien Tronnier: Because with Braunschweig summary: 2nd league and research location. In: News38.de. Braunschweiger Zeitung, September 13, 2016, accessed on October 19, 2016 .
- Website of the Lower Saxony State Museums in Braunschweig.
- Sights in Braunschweig. (PDF; 5.7 MB) Retrieved July 28, 2015 .
- Exhibition program of the general consumer association
- World championship train stays in Braunschweig. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung .
- Braunschweig City Library
- With 30 seats, probably the smallest theater in town. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung (paid subscription access).
- "Dear friends of the Low German Theater, unfortunately we have to temporarily stop our theater operations for personnel and financial reasons. There will be no performances by the Low German Theater in Braunschweig in the 2014/2015 season […] Ihr Reimer Hebbeln ”.
- Brunsviga on brunsviga-kulturzentrum.de, accessed on August 28, 2019.
- 12. Title for New York Lions. germanbowl.de, accessed on January 9, 2020
- American Football: Braunschweig wins the Eurobowl final. In: focus.de. Retrieved July 28, 2015 .
- Free gymnasts celebrate promotion in the regional league. Braunschweig. The greatest success in the club's history: the football team of the Free Turner Braunschweig has been promoted to the Regionalliga Nord. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. June 8, 2014, accessed on August 28, 2019 (beginning of article freely accessible).
- World class tennis, live music, DJ nights and public viewing on ten event days ( Memento from April 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: sparkassen-open.de .
- Frank Rieseberg, Leonard Hartmann: Criss-cross and straight ahead to the goal. Braunschweig. More participants than ever before enjoyed the 28th edition of the Braunschweig Night Run. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. June 20, 2014, accessed on August 28, 2019 (paid subscription access).
- Kurt Hoffmeister : Time travel through the Braunschweig sports history. Self-published by Kurt Hoffmeister, BoD, Norderstedt 2010, ISBN 978-3-8391-0712-6 , p. 43.
- cycling trilogy is complete again. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung .
- Statutes of the German Aero Club e. V. (PDF; 91 kB) DAeC, December 10, 2011, accessed on June 25, 2013 .
- Joel Stubert: Understanding between nations in a gymnastics manner. In: braunschweiger-zeitung.de, January 25, 2014, accessed on August 11, 2019.
- "Stage art and foolery, in Braunschweig the fools are free!" ( Memento from February 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig.de. February 14, 2010, accessed on September 16, 2018 ("The Braunschweiger parade is more than six kilometers long and is the largest carnival parade in Northern Germany.").
- Braunschweiger Zeitung: 100,000 fools brave the cold. ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Braunschweig: 300,000 celebrate at the Schoduvel ( Memento from July 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: NDR .de, March 3, 2014.
- "Cinestrange Festival": cinema weekend with director John Badham. Retrieved July 28, 2015 .
- Website of the "Durchgedetzt 24 Kurzfilmfestverein".
- kulturimzelt.de ( Memento from April 30, 2015 in the web archive archive.today ).
- Braunschweig Poetry Slam.
- Braunschweig's full variety at Fest am Saturday. Braunschweiger Zeitung (paid subscription access).
- neueausbraunschweig.de ( Memento from December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Event calendar of the city of Braunschweig.
- Official website of "Soli Deo Gloria".
- Event calendar of the city of Braunschweig.
- Website of the Honky Tonk Festival.
- Event calendar of the city of Braunschweig.
- Henning Thobaben: Colorful street festival attracts more and more visitors. In: Braunschweiger Zeitung. May 25, 2014, accessed on August 28, 2019 (beginning of article freely available).
- Website of the city of Braunschweig.
- Braunschweig business directory
- Gingerbread box for the first time also with honey cake. Braunschweiger Lebkuchen available again ( Memento from December 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: braunschweig.de. November 22, 2011, accessed August 30, 2018.
- Thomas Parr: Braunkohl - Braunschweigische Sprach-Insel in the kale sea. A few thoughts on the popular autumn vegetable known outside of Braunschweig as kale. (No longer available online.) In: newsclick.de. Braunschweiger Zeitungsverlag, October 20, 2007, archived from the original on December 9, 2008 ; accessed on October 7, 2018 .
- Thomas Parr: Which cabbage tastes better? Report: A look into the pots of cook Regina Oestmann before the big taste test. (No longer available online.) In: newsclick.de. Braunschweiger Zeitungsverlag, January 14, 2008, archived from the original on December 9, 2008 ; accessed on October 7, 2018 .
- Theodor Engelbrecht: Germany's apple varieties. Illustrated, systematic presentation of the apple varieties grown in the area of the German Pomologists Association. Verlag Friedrich Vieweg, Braunschweig 1889, OCLC 215633518 , p. 160, no. 140.
- Theodor Engelbrecht: Germany's apple varieties. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1889, p. 183, no. 162 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Braunschweig. Meteoritical Bulletin, accessed June 13, 2020 .
- The youngest meteorite in Germany. gingko-dp.de, accessed on June 13, 2020