The automotive industry is an industry dedicated to the mass production of automobiles ( automobile manufacturing ) and other motor vehicles . It was created after Carl Benz invented the automobile in 1885 towards the end of the 19th century.
After the turn of the century , the assembly line production of motor vehicles developed by Ransom Eli Olds and above all by Henry Ford experienced a significant boom , which overall, albeit weakening, continues to this day - interrupted mainly by the two world wars and the global economic crisis of the 1930s and to a lesser extent the oil crises of the 1970s and the 2007 financial crisis .
In 1950, more than 10 million vehicles were produced for the first time, more than a thousand times that of 1900. Since then, the automobile industry has been one of the most important branches of industry in many industrialized countries such as the United States , Japan , Germany and South Korea -Million limit expected.
In the European Union (EU-25), the automotive industry achieved sales of 643.55 billion euros in 2001 , of which 264.525 billion euros or 41.1% in Germany alone. To do this, it employed around 2,168,400 people, including 863,201 or 39.8% in Germany.
History and meaning
Hardly any other industrial mass product changed the everyday life of mankind more than the automobile. Since its invention, there have been more than 2,500 companies that have manufactured automobiles. Many of them, who produced iron goods or steel in the 19th century , began producing weapons or bicycles in the middle of the century , thereby developing the knowledge that was needed decades later in automobile construction.
Not all of them developed into large mass producers and many sooner or later disappeared from the market . Nevertheless, automobile manufacturers were and still are founded today. These take place in a wide variety of market segments, but usually with the aim of comparatively low quantities for a market niche , for example special vehicles, exclusive sports cars or light electric vehicles . Their production method is usually the manufacture , so that they do not belong to the automotive industry in the narrower sense (mass production).
The mass manufacturers soon after they had developed into mergers and takeovers . A well-known example is the sale of Adam Opel AG by the owners to General Motors in 1929. As recently as 1928, Opel was the largest vehicle manufacturer in the German Reich with 44 percent of all vehicles produced. In this and other ways, despite the fundamentally sustained growth in the automotive industry, there has been a strong market adjustment and company concentration over time , so that today a manageable number of manufacturers dominate the world market.
With the growth and, at the same time, the decreasing share of the manufacturers' own added value, an important supplier industry also developed .
Despite the numerous mergers, company closures or liquidations , many brands were retained in the automotive industry, for example that of Opel. Today, Volkswagen AG alone houses more than ten brands of formerly independent companies under its roof.
In the production of electric cars , the barriers to entry into the automotive industry are significantly lower than for vehicles with internal combustion engines. In 2016, for example, around 200 electrical startups were founded, particularly in China. In contrast to the Chinese lead market for electric cars, the infrastructure for manufacturing battery cells and the network of charging stations were still in their infancy in Europe in 2020 . According to a study by McKinsey from 2020 , Asian automakers offered their cars twice as good a price-range ratio as their international competition. At the same time, one of the largest German car manufacturers began to cooperate with a Chinese battery manufacturer and supplier instead of its own battery cell production .
Brands of pure commercial vehicle manufacturers
There is a wide variety of commercial vehicle manufacturers who do not produce passenger cars. Some important ones are:
World's largest automaker by number of units and sales
All companies with a production of more than one million vehicles are listed. At the same time, the sales of the most productive automotive groups in 2008, 2012 and 2013 were listed, which in some cases lead to significantly different orders.
|rank||Companies||country||Number of pieces
|1.||Toyota Motor Corporation||Japan||10,475,338||8,788,018||204,800||151,443||172.367||210|
|3.||General Motors Company||United States||9,609,326||6,643,030||149,000||110.561||112.863||118|
|4th||Hyundai Motor Group||South Korea||8,008,987||7,628,779||40,100||52.641||54.410||74|
|5.||Ford Motor Company||United States||5,969,541||3,230,842||146,300||96.984||106.684||127.5|
|6th||Nissan Motor Company||Japan||5,097,772||4,279,030||88,700||65.369||70.115||90|
|7th||Fiat Chrysler Automobiles||Italy||4,865,758||1,904,618||53,100||35,566||35,593||110.9|
|8th.||Honda Motor Company||Japan||4,513,769||4,478,123||94.240||65.868||79.543||106|
|9.||Suzuki Motor Corporation||Japan||3,016,710||2,543,077||k. A.||17,520||19,553||k. A.|
|10.||Groupe PSA||France||2,917,046||2,521,833||56,300||55,446||54.090||k. A.|
|11.||Groupe Renault||France||2,761,969||2,398,555||44,500||41.270||40.932||k. A.|
|13.||Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation||People's Republic of China||2,087,949||1,769,837||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.|
|15th||Chongqing Changan Automobile Company||People's Republic of China||1,447,017||1,089,179||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.|
|16.||Mazda Motor Corporation||Japan||1,328,426||1,261,521||28,800||14,847||18,027||k. A.|
|17th||Dongfeng Motor Corporation||People's Republic of China||1,301,695||745.765||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.|
|18th||Mitsubishi Motors Corporation||Japan||1,262,342||1,199,823||k. A.||12.408||14.165||k. A.|
|19th||Beijing Automotive Group||People's Republic of China||1,115,847||538.027||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.|
|20th||Tata Motors||India||945.113||614.247||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.||k. A.|
Automotive brand value 2010
From 2009 to 2010, all automobile brands in the world together lost 15% of their brand value . According to this, the most valuable brand in the automotive industry in 2010 was that of BMW , the core brand of the manufacturer that was only in seventh place in terms of sales and only in 14th place in terms of quantities. The largest producer in the world in terms of number of units, Toyota , followed almost on par with its core brand in second place, while Volkswagen AG, with the most important of its numerous brands, only achieved the eighth highest value worldwide with the most important of its numerous brands, just ahead of the Ford brand . However, it should be noted that Volkswagen, with its two sports brands Porsche in fifth place and Audi in ninth place, unites two other top 10 brands under its corporate umbrella, with which together it even surpasses the high brand values of BMW and Toyota.
New vehicle registrations
In 2003, 14,208,250 passenger cars were registered for the first time in Western Europe . There were 56.3 million automobiles worldwide. While the demand for passenger cars almost stagnated at only 1% growth , over 6% more commercial vehicles were sold compared to 2002. This growth mostly takes place in the so-called developing and emerging countries , with China as a pioneer in the growth market, where 35% more automobiles were brought into circulation compared to 2002. In 2006, 16 million new cars were sold in the US, 4 million in China and one million in India .
Statistics by country
Employees in the automotive industry in the EU
|country||Employees 2010||Employees 2012|
|Germany||749,000 (34.6%)||812,514 (35.4%)|
|France||225,000 (10.4%)||243,779 (10.6%)|
|other EU countries||42,000||48,290|
|European Union||2,166,000 (100%)||2,296,416 (100%)|
Auto industry in Germany
In terms of sales, the automotive industry is by far the most important branch of industry in Germany, but not the most important branch of industry in Germany . In 2008, 345.9 billion euros were generated. The next industry with the highest turnover, mechanical engineering , brought it to 225.5 billion euros. Around 747,000 people were employed in the automotive industry in Germany in 2009. With around 40%, the industry contributes by far the largest share of the total research and development expenditure of the German economy. In 2009 this was around 22.1 billion euros. Their export surplus makes up well over half of Germany's total export surplus.
After China and the USA, Germany is the third largest car producer in the world. In 2010 5.55 million cars were produced. Local car production is characterized by its strong export orientation. While Japan, especially China and the USA, produce more domestically, around 69% of German car production goes abroad - the world's highest car export quota. According to the number of vehicles sold, Japan and Germany have been taking turns as world champions in car exports for years. However, when it comes to the value of car exports, Germany is a long way ahead of Japan, because abroad, in particular, its large, high-priced vehicles are in demand.
Automobile production, vehicle inventory and new registrations in Germany: See details under economic figures on automobiles .
Auto industry in Japan
Domestic automobile manufacturing in Japan began when Fusazō Mori ( 森 房 造 , Mori Fusazō ) commissioned Torao Yamaba ( 山 羽 虎 夫 , Yamaba Torao ) to build a bus in 1903 after seeing US automobiles at a trade fair . The result was the "Yamaba steam bus" ( 山 羽 式 蒸 気 バ ス , Yamaba-shiki jōki basu ) from 1904. The first gasoline-powered vehicle followed in 1907 at the behest of Prince Takehito Arisugawa by Shintarō Yoshida ( 吉田 真 太郎 , Yoshida Shintarō ) and Komanosuke 内 山 駒 之 , Uchida Komanosuke ), who were inspired by the French Darracq . Ten copies were made of this vehicle , named Takurī ( タ ク リ ー 号 , Takurī-gō ) according to the noises it made . In 1923 or 1925 Jun'ya Toyokawa ( 豊 川 順 弥 , Toyokawa Jun'ya ), the founder of the Hakuyōsha ( 白楊 社 ) company, began producing the Ōtomo ( オ ー ト モ 号 , Ōtomo-gō ), which was to become Japan's first export vehicle.
|Companies||Cars + trucks||proportion of||Car||proportion of||truck||Proportion of %|
*) Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. has been working closely with Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. since 1967 and Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd. connected
Auto industry in Austria
Austria's automotive industry looks back on a long tradition. The front-wheel drive was developed by Gräf & Stift as early as 1900 , and the Steyr works were among the leading automobile manufacturers in Europe in the 1930s. Not least because of the Second World War and undesirable developments, all Austrian manufacturers failed in the post-war decades and as a result were bought up ( Steyr Daimler Puch , Gräf & Stift, Puch , ...) or had to close.
Due to these closings and the diminishing importance within the overall economy, efforts were made by the then Federal Chancellor Bruno Kreisky to build an Austro-Porsche, i.e. to rebuild a powerful auto industry. This upswing began with the establishment of the General Motors engine plant in Vienna-Aspern . Today the automotive industry still plays an important role in Austria. Soon more auto parts were exported in terms of value than finished vehicles were imported. Because due to existing know-how and a high degree of innovation , international automotive groups, above all BMW in Steyr or MAGNA in Graz , are repeatedly investing in Austrian locations. There are now three car clusters ( AC Styria with 180 companies, including Slovenian, Croatian and Hungarian companies. 30,000 of the 44,000 employees work in Austria; AC Upper Austria, AC Vienna Region) to promote cooperation between automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. This is intended to increase efficiency and international competitiveness in order to support the domestic locations. After all, since the eastward expansion with Slovakia and its booming auto industry around Bratislava , which is very close to the Austrian border, the competition is right on the proverbial "own front door".
But even in this time of globalization, outsourcing , and the economic downturn in Europe, Austria's suppliers - mainly medium-sized companies with a high export share - were able to achieve growth in turnover and sales. The automotive sector is therefore one of the few fast-growing branches of industry in Austria (average annual growth between 2000 and 2003 10% each). The reason for this is of course not the low domestic demand due to the population, but the good international competitiveness, recognizable by the continued strong popularity with the German automobile manufacturers, who are the largest buyers of Austrian automobiles (BMW has a large part of all engines it needs developed and manufactured in Steyr, or all types of diesel engines in the engine competence center in Steyr). Important customers abroad include a. Daimler, BMW, VW and Audi. The automotive sector generates around 10% of Austria's industrial output with 38 billion euros.
Automotive industry in Austria (manufacturers and suppliers) in figures (2003):
- around 600 companies with around 175,000 employees
- 2.1 million engines and transmissions
- 200,000 cars
- 25,000 trucks
- 18,000 trailers and 8,500 tractors
The following vehicle manufacturers are represented in Austria:
- BMW in Steyr
- Magna in Graz
- MAN in Vienna- Liesing and Steyr
- PSA / Opel in Vienna- Donaustadt ( Aspern )
In addition, there are several hundred (mostly medium-sized) suppliers, some of which are expanding rapidly. They not only sell to the vehicle manufacturers represented in Austria, but also export most of them, such as B. voestalpine in Linz , Miba in Laakirchen , FACC in Ried , Epcos in Deutschlandsberg , Eybl International , AVL List , Pankl Racing Systems .
Auto industry in Poland
In 2009 automobile production in Poland fell by 9.2% to 899,700 units. FIAT Auto Poland accounted for 605,800 of these units. The FIAT works in Tychy near Bielsko-Biała accounted for 67% of Polish automobile production. At Opel Gliwice, production fell by 45% from 2008 (171,700 vehicles) to 2009 (94,900). VW Poznań built 138,200 units (2009) 22% fewer cars and delivery vans than in 2008. At FSO in Warsaw, production fell by 60%. In addition to the complete Chevrolet Aveo, the Daewoo Matiz was prefabricated here, which then went to the Ukraine for final assembly . At that time the car manufacturers' market shares in Poland: FIAT 67.3%, VW 15.4%, Opel 10.7% and FSO 6.6%.
|Companies||Location||brand||number of pieces|
|Fiat Poland car||Tychy||Fiat Panda||298,000|
|Fiat Poland car||Tychy||Fiat 500||184,100|
|VW Polska||Poznań||VW Caddy||127,300|
|Fiat Polska car||Tychy||Ford Ka||112,500|
|GM Europe||Gliwice||Opel Zafira, Astra III and IV||94,600|
|GM, FSO||Warszawa||Chevrolet Aveo||31,000|
|all in all||Poland||-||899,700|
Auto industry in Switzerland
|Companies||Car registrations||Change in 2008/07||Market share|
|Mercedes Benz||13,919||+ 3.6%||4.8%|
|Škoda Auto||11,134||+ 23.8%||3.9%|
In Switzerland there are a few manufacturers of buses , trolleybuses , commercial vehicles and solar / electric vehicles, the best-known are Mowag (military vehicles), Hess AG (car and trolleybuses) and Bucher Industries (municipal vehicles ).
Auto industry in Slovakia
The development of an automotive industry in what is now Slovakia has been taking place since the 1960s. Thanks to foreign investors, Slovakia grew into a major vehicle manufacturer in the first few years of its membership in the EU, even if not a single manufacturer has its corporate headquarters in Slovakia, so actually not a single type can be described as Slovak. If you count vehicle production per inhabitant of the country, Slovakia leads the world. The three major vehicle manufacturers in Slovakia are Volkswagen in Bratislava , PSA Peugeot Citroën in Trnava and KIA in Žilina . While in 2000 the number of units produced was 180,000, this grew to 570,000 by 2007, with a further large increase to 640,000 being assumed for 2008.
Auto industry in South Korea
Auto industry in the USA
|Companies||paragraph||of which cars||including light trucks|
|Ford Motor Co.||2,599,211||694.046||1,905,165|
In 2016, the U.S. auto industry employed between 201,600 and 211,200 people.
Criticism from environmental organizations
Of environmental organizations automaker for particulate pollution, the destruction of valuable landscapes as also for their contribution to climate change partly responsible. The share of the transport sector (car, train, airplane, ship) in anthropogenic CO 2 emissions is 18%. The contribution that cars make to particulate matter caused by diesel soot, brake pad and tire wear is 20–60%, reducing life expectancy in the EU by more than 8 months.
Environmental associations further criticize the fact that the automotive industry is being promoted with public funds despite market saturation , namely with the relocation of car factories, the expansion of roads, a scrapping bonus or the construction of parking spaces, often with the argument of job creation and the competitiveness of a region .
In 2001, Greenpeace filed a criminal complaint against the automotive industry for the risk of lung cancer from diesel exhaust. In 2006, a California attorney general sued six automotive companies for contributing to global warming . In a study from 2009, the Volkswagen Group came third from the bottom.
Numerous artists address emotions or dangers related to cars in their works. In the Warnviereck media art project, the automotive industry is calling for a warning that should be placed on and in cars, similar to cigarette packs.
The automotive industry could face major changes due to the emergence of disruptive technology (see autonomous driving or electric mobility ) or a change in traffic .
According to estimates by the Center Automotive Research (CAR) of the University of Duisburg-Essen in 2019, around 124,000 jobs would be lost in the German automotive industry when switching to electromobility: In production and development, savings of almost 234,000 jobs and the creation of 109,000 new jobs are expected. these numbers include both automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. The Federal Government and the Prime Ministers of the three federal states with the largest automobile production (Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Lower Saxony) are planning to support the automobile industry in this context.
- Automobile manufacturing
- Automotive supplier
- Automotive industry of Iran
- Economic figures on the automobile
- List of countries by automobile exports
- Car of the year
- Motor vehicle
- Topic list road traffic
- Franz W. Peren (Ed.): Crisis as Opportunity. Where is the German automotive industry headed? Gabler-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-409-19190-9 .
- Franz W. Peren, Helmut HA Hergeth (eds.): Customizing in the global automotive industry: Customer-oriented product and service management. Campus-Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-593-35494-2 .
- Gerhard Schröder: Automotive industry in Lower Saxony - industrial policy leeway to overcome the crisis. In: Franz W. Peren (Ed.): Crisis as an opportunity. Where is the German automotive industry headed? Gabler-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-409-19190-9 . (Gerhard Schröder was Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1998 to 2005)
- Jacques Calvet: The product development management of Peugeot and Citroen. In: Franz W. Peren, Helmut HA Hergeth (Hrsg.): Customizing in the global automotive industry: Customer-oriented product and service management. Campus-Verlag 1996, ISBN 3-593-35494-2 . (Jacques Calvet was Chairman of the Board of PSA Peugeot Citroen from 1984 to 1997)
- Werner Neubauer, Bernd Rudow (Ed.): Trends in the automotive industry: Development tendencies - Works council work - Control and conveyor technology - Foundry technology - Information technology - Information and assistance systems. 2012, ISBN 978-3-486-71527-9 .
- Willi Diez: The international competitiveness of the German automotive industry - challenges and perspectives. 2012, ISBN 978-3-486-71398-5 .
- automotive-index.com: International Directory of automotive suppliers (Engl.)
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), January 26, 2010, oecd.org: The automobile industry in and beyond the crisis ("The automobile industry during and after the crisis")
- visualcapitalist.com , October 11, 2018, Jeff Desjardins: The 15 Corporations That Make the Most Cars (" The 15 Corporations That Make the Most Cars ")
- ^ The motor vehicle industry in the European Union. ( Memento from November 21, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
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- ↑ LukasBay: Crossheads conquer the auto industry (page 2/3). In: Handelsblatt. September 28, 2017. Retrieved October 21, 2017 .
- ↑ a b c Martin Hesse, Simon Hage, DER SPIEGEL: E-car boom: How VW, BMW and Daimler are chasing Tesla - DER SPIEGEL - Wirtschaft. Retrieved July 18, 2020 .
- ^ OICA : Production Statistics
- ↑ The sales 2008 were taken from an older version of this article, but are without evidence; the sales in 2012 and 2013 come from: Peter Fuß: The largest automobile manufacturers worldwide. (PDF) An analysis of important balance sheet figures for the 2013 calendar year. Ernst & Young , 2014, accessed on March 15, 2015 .
- ^ The ACEA Industry Pocket Guide 2013. ( Memento of September 18, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on acea.be
- ↑ acea.be
- ↑ Federal Statistical Office , Statistical Yearbook 2011, p. 370.
- ^ Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft eV, Facts. Facts and figures from the Wissenschaftsstatistik GmbH in the Stifterverband, January 2011, p. 2.
- ↑ In 2009 the share of the total German export surplus was 55%, cf. Federal Statistical Office, Economy and Statistics 1/2010. Gross domestic product 2009, p. 19, International Auto Statistics, edition 2010, p. 374 ff.
- ↑ oica.net
- ^ Association of the Automotive Industry, Data on the Automotive Industry, 2011 edition, p. 249.
- ↑ Germany's car export value in 2009 was € 72.8 billion, the Japanese figure was € 44.6 billion, cf. Verband der Automobilindustrie, International Auto Statistics, edition 2010, p. 374/375.
- ^ A b c Civilization, Imported Cars, and the Birth of Domestic Production. In: Toyota Automobile Museum. Retrieved December 3, 2010 .
- ↑ Yamaba Steam Bus. (No longer available online.) In: 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, archived from the original on September 18, 2014 ; accessed on December 3, 2010 (English).
- ↑ Takuri. (No longer available online.) In: 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, archived from the original on July 22, 2010 ; Retrieved on December 3, 2010 (English, 1902 is specified in the running text, instead of 1907 as in the table).
- ↑ Otomo. (No longer available online.) In: 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, archived from the original on July 22, 2010 ; accessed on December 3, 2010 (English).
- ↑ Federal Agency for Foreign Trade, or JAMA
- ↑ Federal Agency for Foreign Trade
- ↑ SLOVAKIA - 1st place producer / head ( Memento from October 1, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.4 MB) Lecture at the Austrian Chamber of Commerce on April 2, 2008, accessed on February 21, 2009.
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- ↑ Bureau of Labor Statistics :  (data not seasonally adjusted )
- ↑ spiegel.de July 5, 2017: US auto industry loses thousands of jobs
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- ↑ Warnviereck media art project . Retrieved June 11, 2011.
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- ↑ 30 percent of the cars would be enough. In: The time . September 26, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2017 .
- ↑ Federal states are calling for federal aid: E-mobility should soon cost 125,000 jobs. In: www.n-tv.de. September 29, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2019 .