Steyr Daimler Puch
|founding||April 16, 1864|
|Seat||Steyr , Austria|
|Number of employees||
|Branch||Mechanical engineering , automobile manufacturers , defense industry|
Josef Werndl , son of the company's founder, founded Josef und Franz Werndl & Comp., Waffenfabrik und Sägemühle on April 16, 1864 (this date is officially the company's date of birth) and from 1869 co-led the company as the Austrian Arms Factory (ÖWG) the legal form of the stock corporation . Arms production gave way to bicycles from 1894 (see also: Waffenrad ) and after 1918 to the manufacture of automobiles.
With the Austro-Daimler Sascha , Ferdinand Porsche created a winning car
The Steyr-Werke merged with Austro-Daimler-Puchwerke AG in 1934. These were created in 1928 from the merger of Austro-Daimler , the Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik (Oeffag) and Puch-Werke AG . The new company traded under the name of Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG.
The designers who worked for the predecessor companies of Steyr-Daimler-Puch and are considered pioneers of Austrian automobile construction included Ferdinand Porsche (from 1906–1923 at Austro-Daimler and 1929 at Steyr-Werke ), Hans Ledwinka (1917– 1921 with the ÖWG ) and Karl Jenschke (1922–1935 with the ÖWG / Steyr-Werke).
Steyr automobiles have become known far beyond Austria's borders for their high quality and high-quality workmanship through sporting successes and expedition trips that are demanding on materials . The automobiles initially comprised the large 6-cylinder types Steyr II ("Waffenauto" / from 1920, for the first time with a monoblock engine ), Steyr V and VII, and from 1925 the solid mid-range Steyr XII , which was used before the Great Depression Austria high numbers were built. The medium-sized Steyr IV car , however, was not an economic success.
Sales problems meant that Steyr car production was halted in 1929/30 and only started up again with the Steyr 30 (XXX) designed by Ferdinand Porsche . Its conservative line was continued from 1933 with the types 430, 530 and 630 . In 1932, Steyr tried to use the Steyr-Opel ("Stoppel"), a small car originally from Opel , to utilize the capacity of its factory, but had little success.
From 1934 the modern streamlined vehicle types Steyr 100 and 200 with four-cylinder engines were sold well. The small car Steyr 50/55 (“Steyr Baby”) presented in 1936 was just as successful . At the same time, 6-cylinder models were also built based on the types 200, the types 120, 125 and 220 . Luxurious convertibles based on the 220 type were fitted with bodies in small series at the renowned Gläser-Karosserie GmbH in Dresden. Austrian companies such as Keibl or Armbruster also rarely received individual orders. Trucks and vans, pickups, taxis, ambulances, and fire engines were also built in small numbers.
In terms of sport, Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG was also represented at this time. For example, “ice skating shoes” or runners for professional sport (which at that time were still mounted on normal shoes) with the resounding name “STYRIA OLYMPIC” were produced. These runners are already sought-after rarities among collectors today.
From 1938 to 1945
After Austria was annexed to the German Reich , the Steyr-Daimler-Puch-Werke were quickly transformed back into an armaments company under the newly appointed General Director Georg Meindl , achieved in the motor vehicle sector by the Schell Plan .
During the time of National Socialism in Austria , arms production dominated the company affiliated to the Reichswerke Hermann Göring with around 32,000 employees . New factories were built in Graz-Thondorf ( two-man factory ) and in St. Valentin ( Nibelungen factory ).
In several sub-camps of the Mauthausen concentration camp , prisoners had to do forced labor for the Steyrwerke. In Steyr-Münichholz subcamp and Melk ball bearings were produced. Production was also carried out in occupied Poland, for example in a satellite camp of the Majdanek concentration camp in Radom . After bombing raids on the Graz-Thondorf plant, parts of the production were relocated to tunnels in the Peggauer Wand as part of the so-called U relocation .
The range of production was immediately expanded to include the German standard rifle, the Karabiner 98k , and the development and production of the MG 42 machine gun and the StG 44 assault rifle began.
The types 250 and 640 developed for the Austrian army continued to be built on a small scale. The production of cars - such as the convertibles, limousines and government vehicles of the types Steyr 200 and Steyr 220 - was ended in 1940. The production of passenger cars was no longer started. In 1941 the production of the 1500 A, a completely new design with an air-cooled V8 engine, began. On this construction, which was also the basis for the new beginning after the Second World War, the Raupenschlepper Ost was developed in 1942 , which was built by various companies under license.
|Steyr Daimler Puch , mergers from 1864 to 1944|
|Steyr||weapons||Werndl||OEWG||Steyr works||Steyr Daimler Puch|
|Cycles||" Weapon wheel "|
|Tractors||" Steyr "|
|vehicles||" Steyr "|
Austrian Daimler-Motoren KG / AG
|Planes||" Albatross "|
After the end of the Second World War , there was a great need for commercial vehicles and tractors. Production of type 370 trucks with V8 petrol engines began in 1946. In 1948 the first truck, the Steyr Diesel 380, was presented. The production of Steyr tractors is also based on this diesel development. As the demand for passenger cars also increased, a cooperation agreement was signed with Fiat , and the Fiat models came onto the Austrian market as the Steyr-Fiat.
In the mid-1960s, the product range included cars , trucks , off-road vehicles , tractors , agricultural machinery, rolling bearings, hunting weapons, tanks , motorcycles , bicycles and tools . About a third of production was exported . Well-known vehicles were the Haflinger and the Pinzgauer , which were used for many years primarily in the Austrian armed forces, but also in numerous foreign armies.
Steyr-Puch Pinzgauer (prototype) in the Johann Puch Museum Graz
The Puch G is identical to the Mercedes-Benz G , which is also built in Graz. Only the much smaller Steyr-Daimler-Puch sales network meant that the vehicle was also sold under the Mercedes-Benz brand .
Puch G of the Austrian Armed Forces
Famous Steyr tanks are the Saurer armored personnel carrier, which is produced in numerous versions and is used in many countries (Austria, Greece, Cyprus, Africa etc.), Cuirassier (Austria, Brazil, Morocco, Botswana, Tunisia, Argentina etc.), Pandur ( Austria, Belgium, Slovenia, USA, Kuwait etc.) and ASCOD-Ulan (Austria, Spain).
From 1980 the Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG was the third largest industrial company in Austria with around 17,000 employees. Restructuring and the outsourcing of parts of the production to several successor companies reduced this number to 8,900 in 1991.
Outsourcing of the production divisions from 1987
In 1987 the company started filleting. Gradually, the individual production lines were sold or outsourced:
- 1987 Sale of the plant in Greece (since then independent as ELBO )
- 1987 Spin-off of arms production into an independent company, Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG.
- 1987 Sale of the bicycle division in the form of the Puch brand to the Italian company Bianchi, which in turn was bought by Cycleurope AB.
- 1987 Sale of the moped division in the form of the Puch brand to the Italian Piaggio Group.
- Sale of the rolling bearing division to SKF .
- 1990 Sale of the truck division in the form of the Steyr brand to the German MAN group.
- 1990s Outsourcing of tractor production in the form of the Steyr brand to the US Case group (later CNH ), see Steyr (tractor manufacturer)
- 1990 Outsourcing of bus production in the form of the Steyr brand to the Swedish Volvo group.
- 1998 Sale of heavy weapons production ( Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug GmbH ) through a management buy-out to an Austrian investor group, which in 2003 sold them on to the US armaments company General Dynamics .
- 1998 Sale of the two remaining divisions, vehicle technology and drive technology, to the Canadian Magna group owned by Frank Stronach , with the drive technology division being sold to the German ZF Friedrichshafen AG .
- In 2001, Steyr Motors split off from this through a “management buy-out”. In September 2012, this in turn sold 100% of the shares to the Chinese investor group Phoenix Tree HSC Investment
|Steyr Daimler Puch , divisions and spin-offs from 1945|
|1940s||1950s||1960s||1970s||1980s||1990s||2000s||Business area||Brand / company today|
|" Steyr Fiat "||Car||-|
|Steyr Daimler Puch as "Steyr" or "Steyr-Puch"||Car||-|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Steyr Mannlicher||Firearms||Steyr Mannlicher|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Piaggio||motorcycles||-|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Bianchi (Piaggio)||Cycleurope||Cycles||Puch|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Svenska Kullagerfabriken||roller bearing||SKF|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||MAN||truck||MAN|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Case||CNH Global||Tractors||Steyr|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Volvo||buses||-|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||SSF||General Dynamics||heavy weapons||Steyr-Daimler-Puch special vehicle|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Magna||Vehicle technology||Magna Steyr|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Magna||ZF Friedrichshafen||Drive technology||-|
|Steyr Daimler Puch||Magna||Steyr Motors||Engines||Steyr Motors|
|II (12/40 hp)||1920-1924||6 row||3325 cc||40 hp (29 kW)||100 km / h|
|IV (7/23 PS)||1922-1924||4 row||1814 cc||23 HP (17 kW)||80 km / h|
|VI Klausen Sport (19/145 hp)||1922-1924||6 row||4900 cc||145 hp (107 kW)||over 150 km / h|
|60 / VI (12/60 hp)||1922-1926||6 row||3325 cc||60 hp (44 kW)||120 km / h|
|V (12/40 hp)||1924-1925||6 row||3325 cc||40 hp (29 kW)||110 km / h|
|VII (12/50 hp)||1925-1929||6 row||3325 cc||50 HP (37 kW)||100 km / h|
|XII (6/30 hp)||1926-1929||6 row||1568 cc||30 HP (22 kW)||85 km / h|
|VI Sport (15/80 PS)||1928||6 row||4014 cc||80 hp (59 kW)||130 km / h|
|VI Sport (17/100 PS)||1928||6 row||4400 cc||100 hp (74 kW)||135 km / h|
|XVI (15/70 hp)||1928-1929||6 row||4014 cc||70 hp (51 kW)||110 km / h|
|Austria (21/100 hp)||1929||8 row||5295 cc||100 hp (74 kW)||120 km / h|
|XX (8/40 hp)||1929||6 row||2070 cc||40 hp (29 kW)||90 km / h|
|30 / XXX / 130 (8/40 hp)||1930-1932||6 row||2078 cc||40 hp (29 kW)||90 km / h|
|30 type 45 taximeters (8/40 hp)||1930-1933||6 row||2078 cc||40 hp (29 kW)||90 km / h|
|30 S / 230 (8/45 hp)||1932||6 row||2078 cc||45 hp (33 kW)||110 km / h|
(4.5 / 22 PS)
|1932||4 row||1169 cc||22 hp (16.2 kW)|
|30 SL / 330 (8/45 hp)||1932-1933||6 row||2078 cc||45 hp (33 kW)||95 km / h|
|430||1933-1935||6 row||2078 cc||45 hp (33 kW)||110 km / h|
|100||1934-1936||4 row||1385 cc||32 HP (23.5 kW)||100 km / h|
|120 great||1935-1936||6 row||1990 cc||50 HP (37 kW)||120 km / h|
|530||1935-1936||6 row||2260 cc||55 HP (40 kW)||105 km / h|
|125 super||1936-1937||6 row||2078 cc||50 HP (37 kW)||120 km / h|
|50 ("Steyr Baby")||1936-1938||4 boxers||984 cc||22 hp (16.2 kW)||90 km / h|
|200||1936-1940||4 row||1498 cc||35 hp (25.7 kW)||100 km / h|
|630||1937-1939||6 row||2260 cc||55 HP (40 kW)||100 km / h|
|220||1937-1941||6 row||2260 cc||55 HP (40 kW)||120 km / h|
|55 ("Steyr Baby")||1938-1940||4 boxers||1158 cc||25.5 PS (18.8 kW)||95 km / h|
|2000||1953-1959||4 row||1997 cc||65–86 hp (48–63 kW)||135 km / h|
|2300 sports||1956-1959||4 row||2260 cc||95 PS (70 kW)||160 km / h|
|Steyr-Puch 500||1957-1973||2 boxers||493 cc||16 hp (11.8 kW)||100 km / h|
In the Automobilmuseum Aspang in Aspang-Markt in Lower Austria there are vehicles of the models Steyr XX, Steyr 30 / Type 45, Steyr 50, Steyr 100, Steyr 200, Steyr 220 and Steyr 530 as well as a Steyr-Opel from 1932, a Steyr-Puch 500 DL from 1959 and a Steyr 40 truck from 1931 on display.
* Type III first truck chassis produced from 1920. In the mid-1960s, the production program comprised 21 designs based on five different basic types (380, 480, 586, 680 and 780), plus various special bodies such as tank trucks, silos, fire trucks and garbage trucks. The payload was 4 to 8 tons, with both conventional long-nosed vehicles and forward control vehicles (type 780) being produced. The engines were 5.3 l four-cylinder (380, 480) or 6 l six-cylinder .
In 1990 the truck division was sold to MAN, upon request MAN trucks were delivered with a Steyr radiator grille until the early 2000s.
- Type XII
- Type XVII
- Type 40
- Type 6x4
- Type 270
- Type 260
- Type 370
- Type 380
- 380-480 series
- 580-586 series
- 680-880 series
- Type 680M
- Steyr 90-Plus series
- 590-690 series
- Type 91
- 591-691 series
- Type 92
- Type 12M18
Steyr was also active in bus construction. In 1949 the 380 a and 380 b coach with front engine and hood were introduced, based on the 380 truck series. In 1953, the revised 380 b and q followed.
In 1956, the 480 a and 488 b coach were presented, still with a front engine, but in a new body without a hood.
From 1962 Steyr built the rear-engined bus 780 a together with Saurer .
Cooperation with various other companies followed. Two models developed together with Ikarus were the Steyr-Ikarus SIR 11 (12) H210 (1968–1972, initially as Saurer) and the Steyr-Ikarus SIR / SIL 7H 132 (1971–1976).
In the 1970s, several bus types from Mercedes-Benz were built under license, including the VÖV standard bus and the O 303 intercity bus . From 1976 to 1986 almost 1000 intercity buses of the type Steyr-Mercedes SML 14H 256 were produced and almost exclusively delivered to the Austrian railways and post offices.
From 1986 to 1992 more than 500 Austrian buses Steyr SL 11 HUA 280 followed as a further development of the company's own transit bus series. These intercity buses went mainly to the ÖBB and Austrian Post . There were also articulated bus and city bus variants. From 1988 the Mercedes OM 447 hLA was installed instead of its own engine 9 FUA .
From the 1990s, bodies on Volvo chassis followed, which were manufactured until the bus division was sold to Volvo.
After Steyr Daimler Puch AG (SDP) had manufactured the first Austrian diesel tractor of the post-war period ( Steyr 180 , 26 hp) in 1947 and sold it to medium-sized and large companies with increasing success, the Steyr diesel tractor type 80 was manufactured from 1949 . The target group that should be addressed were smaller companies. Around 45,000 of this tractor had been built by 1964.
The single-cylinder diesel engine initially developed 13 hp (9.6 kW) at 1500 rpm. From 1953 the engine output was increased to 15 HP (11 kW). The first models were equipped with "bottom exhaust", dry air filter and a crank for starting, but soon "top exhaust" and oil bath air filter were standard and hydraulic lifting gear and electric starter were available on request.
In addition to the standard Steyr 80 tractor with 24-inch rims, there was also the Steyr 80a root crop tractor with 36-inch wheels and a raised portal axle for over 46 cm clearance from the ground. Successor models were the Steyr diesel tractors Type 84 and Type 86.
For more information on Steyr tractors, see: Steyr (tractor manufacturer) .
The Puch 500 and Puch 800, after the Second World War the Puch 250 TF ("the Styrian Norton", tubular frame) and the Puch 125 SV , Puch 175 equipped with the innovative shell frame (see: Erwin Musger ) are among the motorcycles still best known today SV , Puch 250 SG and Puch 250 SGS .
Their history can be described in three phases. It began in 1900 when Johann Puch built the "D" tricycle, corresponding to the De Dion Bouton motor tricycle that was widely used at the time . In 1914, the year of Puch's death, the single-cylinder model R2 reached a maximum number of 700 units, after which production numbers gradually fell to ten units of the model MM from 1916–1917.
The next phase is shaped by the engineer Giovanni Marcellino. (See: Puch two-stroke double piston engine ) The Puch LM from 1924 had 2,500 units, the Puch 220 from 1926–1928 had 12,000 units, the most popular model was the 250 T from 1929–1932 with 13,200 units.
With the Puch 800 and its four-cylinder boxer engine , this era has the most powerful motorcycle, with the "Styriette" (60 cm 3 ) its lightest.
After the Second World War , the DKW RT 125 was considered to be the toughest competition that the Puchwerk faced. The Puch 125 from 1940 establishes a long line of generations of 125s, which culminates in the Puch M 125 from 1966. From the 1967 season onwards, this motorcycle concept found additional distribution in the "little sisters", the M 50 S and M 50 SE mopeds.
- 1968 State Award Design for off-road vehicle Steyr-Puch Haflinger 700 AP (first award of the award)
- Friedrich F. Ehn: The great Puch book. The two-wheelers from 1890 to 1987 , 8th edition, Weishaupt, Gnas 2013, ISBN 978-3-900310-49-3 .
- Friedrich F. Ehn: The Puch Automobile 1900–1990 (2nd edition 2000).
- Hilde Harrer: Grazer Radfahrvereine 1882-1900 (A contribution to the history of Styrian cycling) , Historical Provincial Commission for Styria, Graz, 1998, ISBN 3-901251-12-X
- Franz Knogler: Steyr passenger car from 1920–1941 . Steyr Daimler Puch AG, Steyr 1998, ISBN 3-9500823-1-X .
- Matthias Marschik; Martin Krusche: The story of the Steyr Puch 500 (world famous in Austria) , Verlagshaus Hernals, 2012, ISBN 978-3-902744-55-5 .
- Martin Pfundner: Austro Daimler and Steyr. Rivals until the merger. Ferdinand Porsche's early years . Böhlau, Vienna 2007. ISBN 978-3-205-77639-0 .
- Egon Rudolf: Puch. A history of development , Weishaupt, Gnas 2007, ISBN 978-3-7059-0259-6 .
- Hans Seper et al. a .: Austrian automobile history . Eurotax Verlag, Klosterneuburg 1999, ISBN 3-905566-01-X .
- Hans Seper : 100 years of Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG 1864–1964. 3rd edition, Weishaupt, Gnas 2009, ISBN 978-3-7059-0290-9 (preprint from: Blätter für Technikgeschichte . Issue 26).
- Wolfgang J. Verwüster: Puch. Mopeds, scooters and mopeds, Weishaupt, Gnas 2012, ISBN 978-3-7059-0254-1 .
- Wolfgang Wehap: fresh, cycling, Styrian. A journey through time through the regional cultural history of cycling. Steirische Verlags-Gesellschaft, Graz 2005, ISBN 3-85489-126-1 , p. 103 ff.
- Early documents and newspaper articles on Steyr Daimler Puch in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Steyr Diesel engines from 1947 - WD 113 to WD 613
- Photos of many bicycle models from the Steyr Daimler Puch works from 1935
- Steyr 1964 - Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG in the year of its centenary.
- Rudolf A. Haunschmied , Jan-Ruth Mills, Siegi Witzany-Durda: St. Georgen-Gusen-Mauthausen - Concentration Camp Mauthausen Reconsidered . BoD, Norderstedt 2008, ISBN 978-3-8334-7440-8 . P. 120ff.
- Hans Maršálek : The history of the concentration camp Mauthausen. 4th edition 2006, ISBN 3-7035-1235-0 , pp. 80f.
- Wolfgang Benz , Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror . History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps. Volume 7: Niederhagen / Wewelsburg, Lublin-Majdanek, Arbeitsdorf, Herzogenbusch (Vught), Bergen-Belsen, Mittelbau-Dora. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-52967-2 , p. 96 ff.
- news.at “Steyr Motors” returns in hometown, July 4th 2003
- Variable truck program. In: Automotive Technology . 5/1964, pp. 179, 182.
- Steyr Diesel 380 I - buses and panel vans. Retrieved August 21, 2017 .
- Steyr Diesel 380 II - Omnibuses. Retrieved August 21, 2017 .
- Steyr Diesel 480 and Steyr-Saurer Omnibuses. Retrieved August 21, 2017 .
- Steyr (Ed.): SIR / SIL 7H 132 .
- Steyr tractors - the small 1-cylinder: Steyr 80, 84 and 86 , zuckerfabrik24.de, accessed on November 16, 2019.