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car2go electric cars in Berlin
Tram in Basel
Battery bus at a charging station
Electric bike from Deutsche Post
Electric truck e-Force One

Electromobility (also E-Mobility or English E-Mobility ) describes the use of electric vehicles and can be defined as follows: "Electromobility is a highly networked branch of industry that focuses on meeting mobility needs under sustainability aspects and uses vehicles that have an energy storage device for this and use an electric drive, which can vary in the degree of electrification. "

The term electromobility is often used for programs that promote the use of electric vehicles. While in articles such as electric trains , electric cars , electric scooter , electric motorcycle , electric tricycle , battery bus , electric truck and electric bike technical, vehicle-related aspects are considered, particularly public funding, technique of charging systems and charging infrastructure are discussed in this article. In a broader sense, the electrification of public transport (especially rail traffic), which is already well established, is also included, but is rarely mentioned in the current context.

Electromobility is considered to be a central component of a sustainable and climate-friendly transport system based on renewable energies , as is being sought with the transport transition.



In track-guided traffic systems, numerous electrical systems have been established since the end of the 19th century, which in most cases are supplied with electrical energy via an infrastructure of conductor rails or overhead lines. Numerous series of electric locomotives and electric traction vehicles led to what is now a very advanced technology for electric drive traction. Even independently of the electrical network, the efficiency of hybrid technology can often be used with diesel-electric locomotives or accumulator railcars .

Four-wheeled motor vehicles with electric motor assistance

While the Toyota Prius has been available as a hybrid electric vehicle since 1997, the range of models for full hybrids as well as for pure electric cars and electric motorcycles is constantly expanding

Four-wheeled vehicles with purely electric drive

By the beginning of 2014, over 400,000 electric cars had been sold worldwide. The number doubled in 2013. In 2016, the number of electrically powered vehicles worldwide doubled again to two million (0.2 percent of the total number of cars).

(See also list of electric cars in series production ).

There have also been electric trucks , trolley trucks , battery buses , gyrobuses and trolleybuses since the beginning of the 20th century .

Purely electrically powered two-wheeled small vehicles

Electric bikes in particular (see also Pedelec ) have had high growth rates since the beginning of the 2010s.

Various electrically powered small motorcycles such as electric scooters (see  list of electric scooters ) or electric motorcycles are also available.

Electric scooters have definitely been under this heading since the 2010s . These have spread almost explosively in many countries in the 21st century. They serve as the link between vehicles with longer ranges and the assistance for the last mile .

At the beginning of the 2020s, all-electric mini bicycles came to the city from the USA. The first manufacturer, Wheels, produced the handy wheels weighing just 20 kg without pedals, but with a small, fixed saddle. Like many similar city vehicles, these are offered for free loan. Since March 2020, those interested have been able to borrow the wheels for free test drives on the EUREF Campus in Berlin-Schöneberg . As with the e-bike sharing companies or the e-scooter providers, an app must be installed on the mobile phone beforehand, which is then activated to enable the journey.

The wheels are already available in eleven cities in the USA, in Basel, Stockholm and Madrid. The e-mini-bikes with a speed of around 20 km / h are equipped with disc brakes and lighting; Luggage baskets or similar are not (yet) in use. Above all, they are intended to compete with e-scooters because they are safer for users to handle.

Some statistics

In the registration statistics of the Federal Motor Transport Authority , only vehicles in accordance with the EC regulations or the system of road vehicles in accordance with DIN 70010 are taken into account, so that u. a. Light vehicles with reduced speed and three-wheeled vehicles (max. 45 km / h) such as CityEL , Sam and the Twike (max. 85 km / h) (see also light electric vehicle ) or the Renault Twizy do not appear in the German car registration statistics.


The subject of the public debate is the ecological assessment of electric vehicles , hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles whose traction batteries are charged with electricity from the conventional energy mix. Electromobility is seen as part of the energy transition, in order to reduce political import dependencies and economic risks from scarcity of crude oil and to reduce emissions that are harmful to the climate. Electrically operated transport systems only develop their full potential for climate protection when they use electricity from renewable energy sources . However, even with today's EU electricity mix, battery-operated electric vehicles cause lower CO 2 emissions than vehicles with internal combustion engines. According to the judgment of the Federal Environment Agency , the direct use of electricity as drive energy in the vehicle is the most efficient, most ecological and often also the most economical. When comparing conventional drives and electric drives, the considerable proportion of gray energy in the provision of fuels must also be taken into account (e.g. for six liters of diesel up to 42 kWh).

At the end of April 2016, the grand coalition agreed on financial incentives to purchase electric vehicles through market launch bonuses ( environmental bonus ) of initially 4,000 euros (or 3,000 euros for plug-in hybrids ) for electric vehicles with a price of a maximum of 60,000 euros. The total amount was limited to 1.2 billion euros with a maximum term until 2019. The public sector and manufacturers share the costs. If a manufacturer does not participate, their cars will not be funded. It was also decided to support the expansion of the charging infrastructure. The cabinet decision was made in May.

As part of the “National Electromobility Development Plan”, the Federal Government is aiming to have one million electric vehicles on German roads by 2020. The automotive industry, which is important for the German economy, is to play a key role in the current phase of the gradual conversion to electric drive and thus maintain and expand its strong position in the world economy in the future.

The current political discussion is largely focused on road vehicles. The Pro Schiene Alliance complains that the existing and technically mature electrically operated means of transport for rail transport are ignored in the discussion and that the car industry is being promoted unilaterally. Deutsche Umwelthilfe confirmed this position in May 2012 with specific examples. Increasingly, there is also criticism of the EU guidelines for vehicle manufacturers' fleet consumption, which do not present and promote electric mobility as a sustainable alternative to mobility.

Potentials and Problems

Advantages and disadvantages of electric vehicles

The primary advantage of electric vehicles over combustion vehicles is - from an economic as well as an ecological point of view - that there are no local exhaust emissions. For a holistic life cycle analysis , the emissions and consumption ( gray energy ) that arise during energy generation and provision must also be taken into account. The maximum freedom from emissions is linked to the use of renewable energy sources . However, even when using the average European electricity mix, battery electric vehicles produce far lower emissions of carbon dioxide than conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines. Depending on the approach used (simplified well-to-wheel analysis or full product life cycle analysis), the savings are 44 to 56% or 31 to 46%. Electric vehicles emit less carbon dioxide when driving, but more when they are manufactured. A study published in 2010 by the interdisciplinary EMPA research institute in the field of materials science and technology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH) came to the conclusion that around 15% of the total environmental impact of electric cars is due to the manufacture of the batteries .

In 2017, a study by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, in which 40 international studies were evaluated, found in May 2017 that the production of a lithium-ion battery resulted in carbon dioxide emissions of 150 to 200 kg per kilowatt hour (kWh) Battery capacity would come. The values ​​given in the study were at that time significantly higher than data in other scientific studies, in which the emissions during battery production are given as around 70 to 75 kg of carbon dioxide per kilowatt hour of capacity. The study received significant media attention. In 2019 an update of the so-called "Sweden Study" was published, in which the authors corrected the values ​​given in 2017 on the basis of more recent literature down to around half of the original values. According to this, the CO 2 emissions in the production of the most frequently used NMC type are around 61 to 106 kg CO 2 -eq.

A study published in August 2020 by the Eindhoven University of Technology on behalf of the Green Parliamentary Group showed that, for example, the Tesla Model 3 has a CO 2 backpack only 30,000 km compared to a Mercedes 200d . The decisive factor is that the Tesla only causes 40 g of CO 2 per kilometer driven , in contrast to the Mercedes with 228 g.

In addition to the local zero emissions of the electric drive, electric vehicles have other customer-relevant advantages:

  • high engine torque from standstill
  • higher driving comfort thanks to quieter (inside and outside) and low-vibration drive train; no switching operations
  • better ratio of interior space to vehicle size (for vehicles designed as electric vehicles)
  • lower energy requirement; Possibility of recuperation or regenerative braking
  • longer service life / lower maintenance costs of the low-wear drive
  • Possibility of integrating the vehicle into the energy infrastructure ( vehicle to grid )
  • lower vehicle taxation of electric vehicles in some countries (limited in time in Germany)

In order to be able to quantify the customer-worthy advantages and the acceptance of electric vehicles, small fleets of electric vehicles ( MINI E and BMW ActiveE ) were temporarily assigned to customers in Europe, USA, China, Japan etc. in advance of the development of the BMW i3 , and their behavior and Evaluation of more than 40 million total kilometers scientifically recorded and evaluated. In this by Dr. Julian Weber at the BMW Group led pilot project. a. It is clear that the customers initially enjoy the zero emissions and fear of the limited range, but after a few weeks the enthusiasm for driving dynamics and comfort while at the same time getting used to the given range predominates.

On the other hand, there are also customer-relevant disadvantages of electric vehicles:

  • higher purchase price despite government subsidies, but this disadvantage has now been reduced (e.g. Model 3 or Sion are or will be cheaper than comparable vehicles with combustion engines)
  • shorter range
  • Time spent charging the vehicle batteries when driving long distances compared to refueling vehicles with diesel, gasoline or natural gas engines
  • limited range of charging stations
  • low range of model types
    • often no way to pull loads
  • Lack of service infrastructure (workshops) in parts of the world, especially in developing countries
  • No possibility of using the heat loss from the engine to heat the interior when the outside temperature is cold. The use of heating systems is at the expense of the range.


Regarding traction batteries, it is known that vehicle fires involving the batteries can occur and are difficult to fight. At the beginning of the 2010s, these dangers were pointed out in several technical reports. In addition to the danger to the vehicle occupants, the problem of fire fighting by the fire brigade has been known since then. Also breakdown services are facing new challenges, such as. B. a special refrigerated container is required for removal.

Energy storage

For the time being, batteries , currently lithium-ion batteries , have established themselves as energy storage devices .

Recently, great advances have been made in accumulator technology, particularly in the cost of accumulators. If the production doubles, the battery prices drop by approx. 6–9%. Whereas in 2007 the costs were still more than $ 1000 / kWh, in 2014 large electric car manufacturers were able to buy their batteries for around $ 300 / kWh. It is assumed that electric cars with battery costs of around $ 150 / kWh can compete economically with conventional cars with internal combustion engines. Likewise, cycle stability and service life have increased so that the batteries are now sufficient for the life of a car. Due to the increase in the demand for lithium , which is primarily associated with electromobility , advances in battery technology are increasingly counteracting price increases for raw materials, for example, the lithium price has doubled within a year (as of September 2017). At the same time, the considerable increase in lithium mining in the course of the increased demand for lithium-ion batteries is associated with negative effects on the environment in the raw material extraction countries.

Alternatively, fuel cells are repeatedly cited as energy converters. Due to the multiple energy conversion, these have significantly poorer efficiency than accumulators, but the hydrogen used can be refilled in a few minutes and ranges of several hundred kilometers can be achieved, depending on the tank. Toyota has had such a vehicle on the market with the Mirai since 2014. As the only German manufacturer (as of 2020), Mercedes-Benz has been offering a fuel cell car as a plug-in hybrid (i.e. with a battery), the mid-range SUV GLC F-Cell, since autumn 2018 . However, this is not freely available, and the manufacturer does not disclose any quantities.


Charging systems

Battery exchange station from Better-Place in Israel
EnBW charging station in Karlsruhe with special parking area
Free parking for charging electric vehicles (sign on Ernst-Reuter-Platz in Berlin )
older charging station in Freiburg im Breisgau

In Europe, the Type 2 connector system and the Combined Charging System (CCS) with its locally differently powerful AC and DC charging points have been standardized. The technical requirements for new public charging points to be built have been regulated in Germany since March 2016 by the charging station ordinance.

Practically all electric cars can be charged at any socket with a suitable adapter cable. However, since only very few common household sockets are designed for permanent high currents, the vehicle manufacturers and external service providers offer to install wall charging stations , so-called "wall boxes", when the vehicle is sold to the customer. There is often the option of providing higher power, which shortens the charging time. Until the Charging Column Ordinance came into force, charging stations were often only equipped with the familiar plug types , i.e. Schuko, camping plugs (CEE blue) and three-phase current plugs (CEE red). However, these are usually limited to currents of 16/32 amperes and deliver 11 kW or 22 kW of power as three-phase current . The “ Park & ​​Charge ” system of public charging stations for solar and e-mobiles, which originally came into being in Switzerland, has existed for many years . The filling stations are accessible via a Europe-wide standard key and deliver 3.5 kW or 10 kW as standard, depending on the design and protection. The charging stations of the three-phase network initiative are designed in a similar way.

Apart from various technical restrictions in battery technology, the charging speed depends primarily on the performance of the charger. While the charging process with a conventional household connection with 3.3 kW for an electric vehicle with a battery of around 20 kWh takes approx. 6-8 hours, a 10 kW connection reduces the charging time to approx. 2-3 hours. Significantly faster charging times are possible with fast charging devices: with 50 kW an electric vehicle is charged in approx. 30 minutes, with the 100 kW connections that are currently being developed in approx. 15 minutes.

In Japan, a connector system for the CHAdeMO fast charging system with direct current and up to 62.5 kW was developed. Since this charging connection is available on many available electric cars ( Nissan Leaf , Mitsubishi i-MiEV , ...), this charging structure has been increasingly expanded. At the beginning of 2014 there were around 250 CHAdeMO fast charging stations in Europe, mainly in Germany, Great Britain and Switzerland.

Tesla Supercharger Station on the A9

With the superchargers, Tesla Motors operates its own proprietary fast charging system with up to 145 kW. The charging connection on the vehicle is still a compatible, but modified type 2 connection. The connector on the charging station side is also a modified type 2 connector. The charging system can only be used for Tesla vehicles.


The network of publicly accessible charging stations for electric vehicles has not yet been fully expanded in Europe. Long charging times for the accumulators require careful planning of the route and time on long journeys. Since there is not yet a network that is available everywhere, directories and maps have been developed that describe the position of charging stations and their charging modalities.

The LEMnet Internet database has been operated by LEMnet Europe e. V. operated. The database lists charging stations from all operators. In February 2014 the database contained 5,300 active locations in Europe, with most of the stations in Switzerland and Germany. The more than 640 charging points (February 2014) of the RWE Mobility network, most of which also allow charging with 32 A / 400 V three-phase current, are also listed. The LEMnet also offers your data for private use as a download for navigation devices and as an Android app.

The three-phase network (320 locations in February 2014) is a private initiative that promotes private 400 V three-phase charging points and thus enables faster charging than with 230 V household electricity.

With a focus on the USA, the EV-Charger Maps website lists the reports from electric car drivers about public power access points, which are coordinated via EV Charger News. By Electrify America were 2020 thousands of charging stations set up in the United States.

With MEGA-E , the EU began to support the construction of 322 charging stations in at least ten European metropolises with 29 million euros from 2018 . Ford , BMW , Daimler , and the Volkswagen Group (including Audi and Porsche ) founded a joint venture called Ionity , which began in 2018 with the establishment of a Europe-wide network of charging stations.

With a focus on Spain, Alargador.org offers an editable map with charging points that is open to entries worldwide. All data can also be downloaded for free in formats for GPS navigation and electronic maps.

In 2020, China had a large network of charging stations and was considered the lead market for electric vehicle sales.

Charging an electric car
Current cost structure (TOC) of various drive types
Internationally planned promotion of electromobility

Initiatives and programs

European Union

Battery pack of the Nissan Leaf

The European Commission attaches particular importance to electromobility. As part of the European Green Cars Initiative of the European Economic Recovery Plan, which was launched in 2008, a billion euros for research and development on this topic should be made available by 2013 together with industry in a public-private partnership (PPP) End of 420 million euros. The successor to the European Green Vehicles Initiative was started in 2013.

European Green Cars Initiative

An ad hoc advisory body has been created here, comprising representatives of the European Commission General Directorates involved and the European technology platforms European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC), European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration (EPoSS) and SmartGrids. These and the interest groups of automobile manufacturers and suppliers (EUCAR) and the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA) have submitted proposals for the design of the Green Cars initiative. B. on the subjects of batteries or system integration and E / E architecture of the electric vehicle, and have drawn up a roadmap of European industry. The aim is to interlink the funding activities in Germany and Europe.

The European Union (EU) is funding the construction of fast charging stations for electric vehicles along the most important motorways between Germany (67), Denmark (23), the Netherlands (30) with around 4.2 million euros from the European transport funding program Trans-European Networks (TEN-T ) and Sweden (35 charging stations). This is being built as an openly accessible network of fast charging stations for electric vehicles. The total cost will be around 8.42 million euros. The expansion should be completed by the end of 2015. These new fast charging stations for electric vehicles on important roads are intended to help accelerate the expansion of electric vehicle traffic in Northern Europe.

European Green Vehicles Initiative

The follow-up initiative of the European Green Cars Initiative, the European Green Vehicles Initiative, started in 2013 is also organized as a public-private partnership. In 2016 it had 84 members from industry and research.

The European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC), European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration (EPoSS) and SmartGrids are also members of the European Commission.

In addition, it participates in monitoring programs to check the efficiency of activities as well as in programs to establish communication channels between the members of the EU and their research institutions.

It is planned to set up a so-called ERA -NET Cofund initiative to promote electromobility in Europe in collaboration with the Electromobility + Initiative and European countries and regions . The new platform will build on the experiences, networks and results of the Electromobility + initiative. The aim is to put cross-border research and a targeted policy exchange on the subject of e-mobility in Europe on a further level of cooperation. With the two-pronged approach of the initiative, research and politics will be more closely networked with one another in order to accelerate the introduction of electromobility at European level.


The Institute for Transport Research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) carried out a study in 2014 on owners of electric cars in Germany and their user behavior. Most buyers are well-educated, male, higher-income, and 51 years old on average. Only around 22 percent of buyers live in larger cities, the rest in smaller cities and in rural areas, which is surprising because up until now the electric car has been seen as a city vehicle due to its short range. 80 percent of those surveyed use the electric car as a second car. In most cases, the previous second car was replaced by an electric car. The vehicles cover an average of 43 km every working day; they are driven an average of 10,300 km per year compared to 15,400 km per year for a car with a combustion engine. The electric cars are used by the owners in a similar way to the cars with combustion engines, but for trips, vacations and longer journeys most use combustion vehicles. The main motivation for buying an electric car are lower energy costs and driving pleasure as well as interest in innovative vehicle technology and the reduction of environmental pollution. The electric car is mainly used in everyday life. Most of them charge their vehicle at home every day. About 36 percent also charge at work. Charging options in public spaces hardly play a role. 84 percent of owners would recommend using an electric car. The majority of commercial users are planning to buy more electric vehicles. "That's why the respondents (the so-called early adopters ) formed a solid starting point for the further spread of electric vehicles," the researchers said.

Funding programs and political initiatives

The cornerstone for promoting electromobility in Germany was laid in the Integrated Energy and Climate Program (IEKP) in 2007. Concrete measures were discussed for the first time in connection with the National Strategy Conference on Electromobility at the end of 2008 in Germany. The first funding programs for this were launched in early 2009 as part of the economic stimulus package II . Previously, as part of the LIB 2015 innovation alliance, an industrial consortium had committed to investing 360 million euros in research and development for lithium-ion batteries over the next few years.

The federal government put in August 2009, a National Development Plan for Electric Mobility front, the aim of which is climate change with industrial policy to link. According to this, Germany is to become the lead market for electromobility, with one million electric vehicles being put on the streets by 2020.

A joint office of the federal government (GGEMO) was set up at the beginning of 2010 as the central contact point for electromobility . The National Electromobility Platform (NPE), established by Chancellor Angela Merkel in May 2010, with representatives of the economic sectors, research disciplines and federal ministries involved, is to develop further concrete proposals for achieving the goals of the National Development Plan. On November 30, 2010, the NPE published its first interim report.

As part of the economic stimulus package II, the Federal Ministries for Economics and Technology ( BMWi ), for Transport, Building and Urban Development ( BMVBS ), for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety ( BMU ), for Education and Research ( BMBF ) and for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection ( BMELV ) funds totaling 500 million euros for projects in 15 subject areas. The projects are coordinated by the respective project sponsors of the ministries, e. B. by the VDI / VDE-IT as the project management for electromobility of the BMU or the German Aerospace Center as the project management for electromobility of the BMBF.

The 15 subject areas are:

  1. Establishment of a competence network system research for electromobility (BMBF)
  2. Establishment of research centers to increase competence in electrochemistry (BMBF)
  3. Energy research: new funding initiative "Key elements of electric mobility: storage, networks, integration" with the funding priorities: "Electricity storage", "Future power supply networks", "Network integration concepts" and "Fuel cells" (BMWi)
  4. Development of production technologies for Li-ion batteries (BMBF)
  5. Traffic research: short-term implementation of current project proposals (e.g. components and systems for braking energy recovery, optimization of the drive train, on-board power generation to increase range, use of engine waste heat to generate electrical energy, relevant aspects of standardization), scientific preparation and support of field tests (Daimler / RWE, hybrid waste collection vehicle) (BMWi)
  6. Expansion of the projects within the framework of E-Energy : New research and funding focus of the BMWi ("ICT for Electromobility") and the BMU ("Intelligent Networks, Renewable Energies and Electromobility") ICT-based charging, control and billing infrastructures , electronic marketplaces and ICT-based technology operation of e-mobility concepts and their integration into electronic supply networks, services, business models, norms and standards (BMWi / BMU). The following model regions are funded: MeRegioMobil eE-Tour Allgäu, Future Fleet, e-mobility, GridSurfer, Harz.EE-mobility, Smart Wheels
  7. Field trials of electromobility in car traffic. Research questions : u. a. Alternative charging methods, further development of the grid integration of renewable energies, testing and acceptance of further developed drive systems. The first fleet test with 50 Mini-E was started on June 22, 2009 in Berlin.
  8. Fleet trial of electromobility in commercial traffic. Research questions: Development of a procedure for the grid integration of renewable energies under usage profiles in commercial traffic, testing of vehicles under everyday conditions, determination of energy demand and user acceptance (BMU)
    Location of the model regions for electromobility in Germany
  9. On August 24, 2009 the funding program for model regions for electromobility in Germany was launched. A total of 115 million euros is available for the regions. The National Organization for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology ( NOW ) is also involved. The following model regions are funded (BMVBS): Hamburg, Bremen / Oldenburg, Rhine-Ruhr (with competence centers Aachen and Münster), Rhine-Main / North Hesse , Saxony (with a focus on Dresden and Leipzig), Stuttgart, Munich, Berlin-Potsdam ( see also : BeMobility )
  10. Battery test center (cells, batteries, systems, crash behavior) for cells, batteries, systems (BMVBS)
  11. Research and development for a pilot plant in the field of recycling of lithium-ion traction batteries (BMU)
  12. Hybrid buses for environmentally friendly public transport (via KfW) Small fleets of at least 10 buses at municipal transport companies (BMU)
  13. Construction of 25 pilot hydrogen filling stations (BMVBS)
  14. Model project for "Mobile with Biomethane" (demonstration of the entire supply chain for the production and use of biomethane as a fuel including system-analytical accompanying research) (BMELV)
  15. Construction of a pilot synthesis plant for the production of high-quality synthetic fuels ("Bioliq" at the Karlsruhe Research Center) (BMELV)

The Electromobility Forum began in September 2009 as part of the Fraunhofer Society's electromobility system research . The forum was supposed to bundle the research of the 33 participating Fraunhofer institutes in cooperation with industrial partners. The control center for Fraunhofer systems research was to become Darmstadt . The project was funded until 2011 with 30 million euros from the economic stimulus package II .

The eNOVA strategy group for electromobility, an association of German companies in the key sectors of automobiles, batteries, semiconductor components, electrical engineering and materials for lightweight construction, presented a roadmap in February 2011 that identifies the focus of research and development.

The technical standards for electromobility are summarized in the working groups of the DKE / VDE , which in the overview of standardization covers a wide range of areas from vehicle technology to charging stations to intelligent power grids .

On May 16, 2011 the National Platform for Electric Mobility published its second interim report , whereupon the Federal Government published a National Government Program for Electric Mobility on May 18, 2011. Despite the political declaration of intent, there has not yet been any significant market growth. Environmental politicians therefore called for the creation of incentives to buy zero-emission cars, privileged parking spaces and the opening of bus lanes in order to promote the market introduction of electric drives.

In the Electromobility Showcase Program , the Federal Government funded the Living Lab BW E-Mobil (Baden-Württemberg), International Electric Mobility Showcase (Berlin / Brandenburg), Our horsepower will be electric (Lower Saxony) and electric mobility (Bavaria / Saxony) projects. with a total of 180 million euros.

In April 2016, purchase premiums of 4,000 euros for electric cars and 3,000 euros for plug-in hybrid cars were decided (see above).

In May 2017, a cross-party group of members of parliament to promote electromobility was founded in the German Bundestag.

Electromobility Act and Charging Column Ordinance

In 2014, the Union and SPD agreed to promote electromobility through user-oriented incentives without purchase premiums. The law on the prioritization of the use of electrically powered vehicles , or Electromobility Act (EmoG) for short, launched by the federal government in September 2014 came into force on June 12, 2015 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 901 ). It allows the municipalities to change the road traffic regulations, e.g. B. reserve parking spaces at charging stations for electric vehicles, offer free parking spaces, arrange exceptions to access restrictions and open bus lanes for marked vehicles. The law is valid until 2026. Large cities, however, reject the opening of bus lanes for electric cars because the punctuality and reliability of local public transport would be impaired.

Since March 17 2016, applies in Germany Regulation on minimum technical requirements for the safe and interoperable development and operation of publicly accessible charging points for electric vehicles ( charging stations Regulation - LSV) . It contains regulations for the technical implementation (charging standards), the construction and operation of publicly accessible charging stations.


A 2010 study calculated the cost of bringing one million electric vehicles to market, as the federal government is aiming for. According to the research network Energie Impuls OWL, additional costs between 0.8 and 2.7 billion euros will be incurred by 2020 - depending on the future development of oil prices and battery costs . The additional costs vary significantly between the vehicle classes. According to the study, the battery and energy costs determine the development of the so-called differential costs between electric cars and vehicles with combustion engines. The more the battery costs drop and the faster the price of crude oil rises, the lower the additional costs for electric vehicles. If the battery price drops to 120 euros per kilowatt hour of storage capacity by 2020 (in fact, the price at the beginning of 2014 was 300 euros / kWh, see price development of batteries ) and the oil price rises to 200 US dollars per barrel of crude oil at the same time, all electrical ones will pay off Vehicle classes. Even if electricity prices rise, the costs for the battery are offset by savings at the fuel pump. In this most favorable scenario, the additional costs of the first million electric vehicles are limited to 0.8 billion euros. If the e-vehicle fleet is operated exclusively with electricity from renewable energies, the researchers expect 2.1 million tons less greenhouse gases in 2020. In a study from 2011, the consulting firm McKinsey graphically displayed which vehicle type at which gasoline price or battery price is most economical. Accordingly, with a fuel price of over USD 1 per liter and a battery price below USD 300 per kWh, the battery-electric car would be the most economical. In fact, by the end of 2013 the fuel price in many countries was over USD 1 per liter and the battery price was below USD 200 per kWh.


Approx. 30% percent of the lithium extracted worldwide is obtained with high use of groundwater in Chile , which, especially in dry areas, promotes the drying out of the landscape and pollutes or destroys the livelihoods of the indigenous population. However, these reports are based on outdated or unproven numbers; a new study comes to a significantly more environmentally friendly result.

In a study, researchers at the TU Dresden advocated purchase premiums for electric vehicles. “Funding incentives of any kind significantly shorten the period between first dealing with the subject of electromobility and purchasing the vehicle. [...] Purchase premiums would significantly increase demand by expanding the target groups. "

In 2012, Deutsche Umwelthilfe criticized the federal government's funding strategy as "already beginning to be wrong and counterproductive". Large companies like Porsche and BMW in particular would receive funding for questionable prestige developments, while the innovative medium-sized industry already offered solutions on the market that were not funded.

The German Renewable Energy Association welcomed the Electromobility Act passed in 2014, but criticized the fact that it does not support e-two-wheelers and also privileges heavy plug-in hybrids.

Environmental associations like BUND criticize that electric vehicles only make ecological sense if the electricity for them comes from renewable energies and they are embedded in an overall strategy in which local public transport and traffic reduction are also provided.

Associations active in development aid, such as Bread for the World , point out that the extraction of lithium for the manufacture of batteries for electric vehicles in developing countries leads to considerable ecological damage. In this regard, experts also criticize the lack of studies that deal with the ecological consequences of lithium mining.

According to a study by the Fraunhofer Institute for Labor Management and Organization from 2018, which was carried out on behalf of IG Metall and with the cooperation of automotive companies, the change from internal combustion engines to electromobility in Germany is expected to result in the reduction of up to 111,000 jobs in the Lead auto industry. The jobs that are newly created by electromobility have already been offset against this value. A model calculation commissioned by the environmental association BUND assumes that 360,000 jobs (out of a total of 800,000) and thus almost three times as many jobs as previously forecast by the Fraunhofer Institute IAO could be lost in the automotive industry over the next ten years . The difference arises from the fact that the BUND modeling also takes into account the loss of 160,000 jobs due to the lower number of parts required for electric car production and 50,000 jobs due to the switch to public transport. At the same time, the authors of the study do not call for the technical change to be stopped, but for better preparations and the like a. through politics.

In contrast to larger automobiles, light electric vehicles (including class L7e ) are currently exempt from the environmental bonus despite their greater environmental friendliness , which has been criticized by members of the Greens .

A report by the National Platform for the Future of Mobility (NPM) for the federal government from January 2020 warns of the loss of up to 410,000 jobs by the end of the decade, including 88,000 jobs in production and engines and transmissions . The Association of the Automotive Industry criticized the study and pointed out that these figures were based on the assumption that hardly any e-cars and battery cells would continue to be produced in Germany and that most of the e-cars sold were imported. This is an "unrealistic extreme scenario", since the manufacturers are currently greatly expanding the range of electric cars. The study was led by IG Metall boss Jörg Hofmann and calls on automobile manufacturers to strategically plan personnel and set up new qualification centers.

Existence of electric passenger cars

The share of electric passenger cars in new registrations in 2015 was below 0.50 percent and cars that are exclusively electrically powered had a share of 0.07 percent of the total in January 2017. The following table gives a corresponding overview including the objectives and a graph:

year Stock
(January 1st)
New registrations Decommissioning increase
2002 19th 248 −229
2003 2,348 28 248 −220
2004 2,169 61 250 −189
2005 2,038 47 249 −202
2006 1.931 19th 214 −195
2007 1,790 8th 255 −247
2008 1,436 36 204 −168
2009 1,452 162 224 −62
2010 1,588 541 207 334
2011 2,307 2.154 424 1,730
2012 4,541 2,956 893 2,063
2013 7.114 6,051 1,903 4.148
2014 12,156 8,522 3,443 5,079
2015 18,948 12,363 5,809 6,554
2016 25.502 11,410 2,890 8,520
2017 34,022 25,056 5,217 19,839
2018 53,861 36,062 6,748 29,314
2019 83.175 63.281 9,839 53,442
2020 136,617 61,105 1
1 to July 2020



Automobile manufacturers like Audi have long been developing passenger cars (cars) as electric vehicles. However, the concepts were initially based on hybrid vehicles such as the Audi A4 B5 . In April 2016, BMW , Daimler , Volkswagen and Ford of the German large-scale manufacturers had at least one electric car model in their sales range. Smart had announced an electric vehicle for the end of 2016 and Opel for spring 2017 the five-seater Opel Ampera-e based on the Chevrolet Bolt with a range of 520 km according to the NEDC and 383 km according to the EPA . In fact, the Smart fortwo ED came onto the market in spring 2017. The Ampera-e can only be ordered again since January 2018 due to the turbulence caused by the takeover of Opel by Peugeot . Daimler stopped production of the B 250e in the third quarter of 2017.

It is expected that from 2018 Tesla Motors and Nissan will give the development another significant boost with their new models Tesla 3 and the new Leaf with increased ranges of 400 to 500 km at prices that correspond to their vehicle classes. The market leader in Europe for electric cars (as of 2015) Renault would like to respond to this initiative in the next few years with variants with greater range and a new electric motor for its ZOE and Kangoo ZE models . But Volkswagen, the European market leader in conventional incinerators , wants with the ID , a 2020 five-seat bring electric car with a range up to 600 kilometers on the market. In addition to its i3, BMW will bring the electric Mini in 2019 and an electrified X3, then the i4 in 2021 . Audi plans to offer the e-tron electric SUV at the end of 2018, and Daimler will follow in 2019 with the Mercedes EQC model . Hyundai launched the Ioniq Elektro in 2016 and the Kona Elektro in 2018 with ranges of up to 449 km.

commercial vehicles

Series production of the vans also began in 2016. In April 2016, Swiss Post announced that it would begin series production of the Streetscooter Work, with the first 2,000 vehicles to be produced by the end of the year; 1,000 vehicles had been produced by August 2016. In the long term, the entire fleet of around 70,000 vehicles is to be replaced by electric cars and vehicles may also be manufactured for other customers. From 2017, around 10,000 vehicles should be produced annually. In 2017 the range was expanded to include the Streetscooter Work L and the Streetscooter Work XL . In 2016, 1,669 and 2017 3,863 of the street scooters were produced. Volvo will go into series production with its Volvo FL electric as early as mid-2018 . Daimler plans to start large-scale production of the Fuso Ecanter in 2019 and thus enter the urban distribution transport with electric trucks. From 2021, MAN will begin series production of electric trucks for distribution transport with its eTruck .

In the field of light electric vehicles, electric commercial vehicles from manufacturers such as ARI Motors , Goupil or Tropos have also come onto the market in recent years , which, with their small dimensions, offer an alternative to conventional goods transport, especially in city traffic.

Charging infrastructure

The Light & Charge project also wants to create connections to the publicly accessible lantern parking lots for users without direct access to electricity at home. There are several projects in Germany to set up public charging networks along the motorways, such as the fast charging network for axles and metropolises, for short SLAM, funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy or the investment program of the motorway service station operator Tank & Rast , which, with a few exceptions, covers all motorway service stations and its petrol stations in Germany, to equip around 400 rest stops with fast charging stations, in order to offer the largest coherent network of fast charging stations on German motorways from 2018. In March 2018, 295 and one year later 318 of the Tank & Rast service stations were equipped with fast charging stations. But also the manufacturers of electric cars such as Nissan and especially Tesla with its own Tesla Supercharger system are helping to build a nationwide fast-charging network. In addition, ALDI Süd has decided to equip all those branches that have their own parking spaces, a potential of over 1,000 charging stations in southern Germany, with charging options. At the beginning of 2016, there were fast charging options at over 50 locations, in March 2019 at 87 locations, and at those close to the motorway with up to 50 kW. The charging infrastructure is also being improved in more and more smaller cities. B. as in Calw. In addition, through the formation of cooperations such as For example, the energy supply company EnBW and the hardware store chain hagebau have created the opportunity to charge the e-vehicle at fast charging stations while shopping.


Police electric car in the "VLOTTE" program

Funding programs and political initiatives

In 2009, three programs on energy research, automotive development and market preparation were started in Austria. In the same year, the model regions “VLOTTE” in Vorarlberg and “ElectroDrive” in Salzburg were launched, and the e-connected initiative for electromobility and sustainable energy supply was founded. In addition to the model regions established with national funding, an initiative called “Lebensland Kärnten” has been set up in Carinthia. The driving force behind this initiative is the Carinthian state government. In 2017/2018, the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Transport and the automotive industry are promoting the purchase of electric passenger cars, electric two-wheelers and the construction of charging stations with a total of 72 million.

Legal framework

In order to promote electromobility, the Austrian Federal Government has issued legal measures in addition to the subsidies.

  • Tax relief: Electric vehicles are exempt from the standard consumption tax (NoVA) and motor-related insurance tax. There is no benefit in kind for the private use of electrically operated company vehicles .
  • New E-number plate: There is a new number plate for electrically powered vehicles: green letters on a white background.
  • The road traffic regulations allow the additional sign "Stopping and parking prohibited - except for electric vehicles".

Development and inventory

From 2010 to 2018, electromobility in Austria developed very dynamically:

  • Electric passenger cars: From 2016 to 2017, new registrations of electrically powered passenger cars rose by 42%, the increase in plug-in hybrids was 39%. As a result, the number of electrically powered passenger cars increased to 26,166 vehicles by November 2018.
  • Electric bicycles: More than 120,000 electric bicycles were sold in Austria in 2017. The market share of electric bicycles in the overall bicycle market grew from around 22% in 2016 to 29% in 2017.
  • Charging infrastructure: Austria has 35 e-charging stations per 100,000 inhabitants. These 3,008 stations (as of Nov. 2017) mean 5th place within the EU, behind Luxembourg (37), Sweden (38), Denmark (45) and the Netherlands (180 e-charging stations per 100,000 inhabitants). At the end of 2018, 23 fast charging stations were available on Austria's motorways and expressways. This corresponds to an average distance of 100 km. All charging stations are available with connector types CHAdeMO , Combo2 and type2 equipped and allow charging to 150 kW in 30 minutes.


Important reasons for buying an electric passenger car are:

  • Environment: The most important reason for consumers is climate protection. With currently 28% of the total emissions, traffic is the most important source of greenhouse gases in Austria. Electric cars have fewer CO 2 emissions.
  • Tax advantages: Since 2018, electric cars have been entitled to input tax deduction for company cars.
  • Image: Electric cars underline a company's environmental awareness. Private owners also attract attention with the green license plate.
  • Easy to use: electric cars can be refueled at normal sockets. The network of public charging stations is growing.
  • Operating costs: The average price is 3.50 euros per 100 kilometers. However, this value can fluctuate widely, depending on driving style, vehicle model, electricity price and the speed of the charging station. The maintenance and repair costs for electric cars are around 35% lower than for comparable gasoline or diesel vehicles because they are technically simpler.


Transfer of luggage and tourists in Zermatt with electric vehicles

Mendrisio pioneer community and other practical projects

Electric mobility has been propagated in Switzerland since 1994, when the largest European model region was founded in the municipality of Mendrisio . From 1994 to 2001 over 400 electric vehicles were launched there, two thirds of them for private use. The attempt should achieve the following goals:

  • Demonstration of everyday use of light electric vehicles (LEM)
  • Testing and evaluation of support measures for LEM
  • The integration of LEM in future-oriented, environmentally friendly mobility concepts.

The suitability for everyday use has been proven. Most of the private participants chose the LEM as their second car, but overall their mobility performance has not increased. H. On all routes covered with the LEM, there was a benefit for the energy and environmental impact. Mendrisio has shown one thing: if the purchase price of e-cars is too high compared to conventional vehicles, they will not be bought. So success is largely determined by the cost-effectiveness of e-cars compared to conventional ones.

The positive experiences and the sensitization in Ticino for electromobility led to a broad political debate in 2014 in order to make Ticino the pilot canton for electromobility. Among other things, a bonus-malus system is intended to ensure that more energy-efficient vehicles are put on the road. InfoVEL, the coordinating body at the time, is again involved in the preparations. The synthesis report on the large-scale experiment is available online as part of the 2001 annual report of the Federal Office of Energy. To mark the 20th anniversary of the globally groundbreaking “Mendrisio Project”, the Swiss eDay will be held for the first time on June 16, 2015.

This cannot be compared to a number of places where motor vehicles with internal combustion engines are not permitted and which are often referred to as car-free . These include the Swiss towns of Braunwald , Gimmelwald , Mürren , Niederrickenbach , Riederalp , Saas-Fee , Stoos , Wengen BE and Zermatt . Overnight guests who arrive by car must also leave their car in front of the locations. Electric vehicles operate here, but also tractors and machines with internal combustion engines, as well as other exceptions (doctor, fire department, garbage disposal, etc.), but no motorized individual traffic.

Switzerland lacks its own automotive industry, which is why the public sector, namely the federal government, is clearly reluctant to subsidize or promote electromobility. Another practical project started in 2010 with the “alpmobil” project, in which vacationers could rent an electric car for CHF 70 per day and thus explore the region electrically. Users made their first experiences with electromobility, the providers collected information about possible obstacles and difficulties. The fact that 80% of the customers were satisfied with the offer shows that the acceptance for electric cars is high and, despite some breakdowns, the quality of the test cars, here it was the Think small car , is sufficient even in a mountain region.

The annually updated reports “Electromobility on site” by the “VillE” commission shed light on the status of local electrification strategies in Switzerland and present useful tips and recommendations for action for municipalities, energy suppliers and other local stakeholders with many practical examples.

Political Initiatives

In order to further increase this acceptance, a number of associations and interest groups are now committed to electromobility. With the “Swiss Electric Mobility Forum”, a new competence center for electric mobility was created in 2011 by the Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) and the Touring Club Switzerland . The aim of the competence center is to offer all players and interest groups practical decision-making aids when entering the electric mobility market. As a special highlight, the Swiss Electric Mobility Forum has been organizing its annual congress since 2010. The “Lucerne Charter” emerged from the first edition of the congress, a declaration of intent by all those involved in the development of electromobility. In the following year, the “Charter” resulted in the “Lucerne Challenge”. This obliges the signatories to present their goals and achievements for the coming years. For example, by 2020 all two- and three-wheeled vehicles and most of the delivery vehicles of the Swiss Post are to be operated electrically. In 2012 the “Swiss Road Map” was presented at the 3rd Congress, which is supported by 30 companies. The focus of this road map is on the immediate measures required by public and private stakeholders to accelerate the market launch of plug-in electric vehicles in Switzerland.

The Swiss eMobility Association was founded in autumn 2012. The Swiss Road Map Electromobility serves as the content-related working basis. With the EVite project, the privately financed development of a nationwide fast-charging network for electric cars across Switzerland began. In addition, the association is launching the national day of electromobility, the Swiss eDay, for the first time on June 16, 2015, in order to give as many people as possible access to electromobility.

rental car

The mountain community of Eischoll in the Swiss canton of Valais bought an electric car in 2015 with sponsorship so that it could be rented to anyone on a daily basis.


Contractual bases and planning

On February 9, 2009, the French government published the Pacte Automobile , in which it specifies its intentions and goals in the development of electric mobility. In addition to the establishment of a working group to expand the infrastructure, the paper contains specific figures on the planned funding. A total of 250 million euros in loans are to be made available for the development of “green products”. In addition, 50 million euros were immediately paid into the “fonds démonstratuer”, which by 2012 totaled 400 million euros for the development of prototypes and demonstration models from To provide electric cars. A first call for tenders from the fund has already been completed; 11 projects were supported with a total of 57 million euros. The application for a second tender ended in June 2009. In addition, the French government supports the purchase of electric cars with a bonus of 5000 euros when purchasing a car with less than 60 g / km CO 2 emissions. The goal by 2012 was to have 100,000 electric cars on French roads.

On October 1, 2009, the Ministry of Sustainable Development presented a national plan for developing “clean” cars. This includes a budget of 1.5 billion euros, which the state is to invest in 14 projects by 2020. Together with the participation of automobile manufacturers and suppliers, investments amounting to 4.75 billion euros are targeted by 2020. In addition to the previously announced plans, such as B. the state participation in the construction of a battery factory near Paris by Renault, new goals were set and existing ones were specified. One focus is on the development of a standard for charging systems and the expansion of the charging infrastructure, whereby only 10% of the charging options should be in public places, the remaining 90% should be at home and at work. Further tenders have been announced in the near future for their development. In addition, it was decided that state and private companies should purchase 100,000 electric vehicles by 2015. The French government sees the number of 2 million electric cars on French roads in 2020 as the goal of the plan.


In the first week of December 2011, the city of Paris launched a public rental system for electric cars. Initially 250 vehicles were ready, in summer 2012 there should be 3,000 cars.

The city decided some time ago to ban diesel cars from the city in 2024 - just in time for the Summer Olympics. From 2030, petrol cars will no longer be allowed in the French capital.

Great Britain

In Great Britain, the Technology Strategy Board's “Low Carbon Vehicles Innovation Platform” supports research, development and demonstration projects on electric mobility. In the meantime, several tenders have been published, for example at the end of February 2009 for more cost-effective and more powerful hybrid and electric vehicles in the amount of ₤ 10 million.

On July 26, 2017 it was announced that from 2040 no vehicles with internal combustion engines will be sold. In London, you are no longer allowed to drive. The aim is to make traffic completely emission-free by 2050.


The head of government of the country Nicola Sturgeon plans to phase out diesel and gasoline by 2032.


The plan is to end new registrations of vehicles with combustion engines in 2030 and to make traffic completely CO 2 -neutral by 2040 . This should also include shipping and eliminate heavy oil as a means of propulsion there.


At the beginning of 2009, the Italian Ministry of Economic Affairs provided 180 million euros as part of the Industria 2015 project. Mobility in general, but especially the electric car, should be promoted here.

Rome has pledged to ban diesel vehicles from the city center by 2024.


In March 2016, the parliament in the Netherlands decided to develop a strategy to only allow all-electric new vehicles from 2025. The transition to this point should be designed with an action plan. In addition to financial incentives from the state, the state has a very good charging infrastructure: there are 5,200 public and 5,850 semi-public charging stations (for comparison: 4,800 charging stations in Germany). The city council of Amsterdam plans to ban public buses with combustion engines from 2022, sports boats, motorcycles and mopeds from 2025 and vehicles based on diesel and petrol in the city from 2030. The aim is for city dwellers to switch to electric and hydrogen vehicles. Up to 23,000 charging stations for electric vehicles are planned for this purpose.


In Portugal, one focus of the promotion of electromobility is the establishment of a nationwide charging infrastructure. To this end, the Mobi.E project was started in 2010, which is intended to make it easier for private investors to set up publicly accessible charging connections through a market-oriented and user - oriented open access approach. The connections from different providers can be used with a universal smart card that the customer can purchase in retail outlets. Around 1,300 charging stations and 50 fast charging stations should be set up by mid-2011.


Charging station in Barcelona 2011

In Spain, the Movele pilot project of the Institute for Energy Diversification and Storage (IDEA) and the Spanish Ministry of Economics and Tourism are to demonstrate the technical, economic and energy-related feasibility of electric cars. By 2014, one million electric cars should be on the streets here. In 2009/2010, 10 million euros will be made available for the introduction of 2,000 electric cars and 500 public charging stations.

In November 2018, a bill was presented according to which only electric cars should be newly registered from 2040. This means that gasoline and diesel vehicles as well as hybrids are banned. A decision is expected by the end of the year. Since 2018, only petrol engines built after 2000 and diesel engines built after 2006 have been allowed to drive in Madrid.


The Swedish Ministry of Transport, together with the Energy Agency and Vinnova, has launched the Joint Vehicle Research Program in the form of a Private Public Partnership (PPP). From 2009 to 2013, 90 million euros are to be invested here annually for the development of future-oriented technologies in the areas of safety, the environment and traffic flow.


Norway is one of the lead markets for electromobility. From 2025, all newly registered private cars, buses and light trucks are to be "zero-emission vehicles". The internal combustion engine is thus effectively forbidden. In the past, the government has set several incentives for buying electric vehicles: On the one hand, buyers will be exempt from VAT , and on the other hand , they will not pay any import or vehicle tax for electric vehicles. In addition, depending on the municipality , drivers of electric cars enjoy various privileges, such as free parking and charging or the elimination of tolls . In view of the growing market for electric cars, in Oslo , for example, one is currently confronted with the problem of insufficient charging stations; At the end of 2017, around 50,000 electric cars and 30,000 plug-in hybrids that were registered in Oslo came to just 1,300 publicly accessible charging stations. As a result, the local electric car association currently only recommends buying an electric car if there is a private charging facility. More than every third car sold in Norway in 2017 was already an electric vehicle (more precisely: 39.2% of new registrations).


Gasoline or diesel powered vehicles will no longer be registered in Israel from 2030. Only electric cars and trucks as well as natural gas vehicles are still allowed.

United States

By Electrify America were 2020 thousands of charging stations set up in the United States.

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is providing US $ 2.4 billion under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to support the development of electric vehicles, including US $ 1.5 billion for research and development in the field of batteries. The aim is to achieve the milestones of a five-year development plan that aims to double energy density, triple service life and reduce battery costs by 30%, and which will see one million plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles on America's roads by 2015. At the beginning of August 2009 the DOE announced a list of 48 projects to be funded with these funds.


In the states of Asia, electromobility is developing in very different vehicle segments. Compared to the automotive four -wheeler sector, the introduction takes place more strongly via two-wheelers and three-wheelers as well as in local buses, where electrification can also be implemented without a more sophisticated battery and vehicle industry. The spread of electromobility in Asia is characterized by a pronounced urban-rural divide, which, in addition to different infrastructure densities, is characterized by widely differing living standards. In some countries, low average purchasing power has hindered sales of electric cars, which is only partially offset by political subsidies. In-house developed electric cars are produced in China, Japan and India , for example - and increasingly for the international market. Electric cars are also used in smaller countries such as Bhutan , Sri Lanka and Singapore .


The Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has drawn up a roadmap for vehicle batteries that aims to triple energy density and reduce costs to 20% of today's levels within the next ten years. This is to be done through close cooperation between industry, government and universities. Japan's “New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization” (NEDO) plays a key role in the implementation of the battery research goals. NEDO directs u. a. the project “Development of High Performance Battery Systems for Next-Generation Vehicles” (Li-EAD), which was set up for the period 2007 to 2011, and started a program in spring 2009 with 22 partners from industry and research, the aim of which is to improve energy density of Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles to five times the level attainable today. For this purpose, a joint research center was set up at Kyoto University. From 2050, according to a resolution by the government and the country's car manufacturers, vehicles with pure passenger cars with internal combustion engines will no longer be produced.


The development of electric mobility in China initially lagged behind the plans. According to the plan, half a million cars with electric or hybrid drives should be on the road in the world's largest new car market in 2015; several million were earmarked for 2020. In fact, fewer than 18,000 such cars were sold in China in 2013; In 2012 it was less than 14,000 (less than 0.07 percent of total sales). Since then, the number of electric vehicles sold has increased rapidly. In 2017, 777,000 all-electric new cars were sold. In 2016 there were 336,000. Due to changes in the regulatory environment, etc. a. the reduction in subsidies for certain models, sales in 2019 (1,204,000 vehicles) fell by 2% compared to the previous year (1,255,000 vehicles). China already had a large network of charging stations in 2020 and was considered the lead market for electric vehicle sales.

In 2014, the central government set up twelve new funding regions to support sales of the new drive technology. These include the three smog- plagued cities of Shenyang , Changchun and Harbin in northeast China. A total of 40 urban centers received special subsidies.

Starting in 2019, automobile manufacturers will be forced to present so-called “eco-points” of at least 10% of their sales annually by means of a quota system , with an electric car earning around four such points and a plug-in hybrid two. In addition, other factors such as regional added value are included in the calculation. This quota regulation was initially criticized several times due to a misinterpretation by many media; It was assumed that the government would force the share of electric cars in new registrations from just over 2% in 2017 to 10% within two years, which is actually not the aim of the points program.

See also


  • Achim Kampker, Dirk Vallée, Armin Schnettler (eds.): Electromobility: Basics of a future technology. 2nd Edition. Springer Vieweg, Berlin / Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-662-53136-5 .
  • Nadine Appelhans, Jürgen Gies, Anne Klein-Hitpaß (eds.): Electromobility: in the field of tension between technological innovation, municipal planning and social acceptance. [Difu-Impulse Bd. 1] German Institute for Urban Studies, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-88118-544-8 .
  • Achim Brunnengräber , Tobias Haas (Ed.): Construction site electromobility. Social science perspectives on the transformation of (auto) mobility. transcript, Bielefeld 2020, ISBN 978-3-8376-5165-2 ( for download ; PDF; 2.94 MB).

Web links

Commons : Electrically-powered transport  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Electromobility  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

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