accumulator


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cylindrical accumulator cell (18650) before assembly. Several thousand of these are integrated into a larger system called a traction battery , interconnected to form an electrical circuit, in order to take over the function of energy storage cells for the Tesla Model S electric car .
Lithium ion battery monitoring electronics (overcharge and discharge protection)

An accumulator or short battery is a rechargeable galvanic element , consisting of two electrodes and an electrolyte , and stores electrical energy on an electrochemical basis. The Latin word accumulator means "collector" ( Latin cumulus 'pile', accumulare ' to pile up '). An earlier term for accumulators was collector .

A single rechargeable storage element is called a secondary element or secondary cell , in contrast to the non (or only to a very limited extent) rechargeable primary cell . The charging process is based on the electrolytic reversal of the chemical reactions that take place during discharge by applying an electrical voltage . Secondary cells - like primary cells and all electrical energy sources - can be interconnected to form batteries , either in series (to increase the usable electrical voltage) or in parallel (to increase the usable capacity or because they are suitable for higher currents ). Both circuit variants lead to a corresponding increase in the total energy content (product of capacity and voltage, specified in watt hours (Wh)) of the arrangement.

For every type of battery , the nominal voltage of the battery cell is determined by the materials used; Since this is too low for most applications, the series connection is often used to increase the voltage (see picture of starter battery). The capacity and the possible current intensity, however, depend on the size. Therefore it is usually not necessary to connect several cells in parallel; instead, a battery with appropriately large cells is used.

Disambiguation

accumulator

Nickel-metal hydride accumulator cells in the standard format " AA " (Mignon)

Originally a single rechargeable storage element (secondary cell) was meant by accumulator . Today the term - at least in common language - also refers to rechargeable storage devices that consist of interconnected secondary cells. When it comes to the difference, more precise terms should be used:

  • single storage element: secondary cell, secondary element, accumulator cell, accumulator cell
  • interconnected storage elements: z. B. Accupack , battery from secondary cells

battery

In the technical sense, a battery is a combination of several similar galvanic cells or elements that are connected in series. There are batteries made from primary cells (not rechargeable) and those made from secondary cells (rechargeable). Originally, batteries were only meant to consist of primary cells. With the proliferation of rechargeable storage devices, this limiting definition has become obsolete.

In everyday language, however , battery is used as a generic term for (real) batteries, primary cells and secondary cells. The term “batteries” is therefore often used when only single primary cells or secondary cells (accumulator cells) are actually meant.

Both cell types are available on the market in interchangeable sizes , and both are called batteries in English , which should add to the confusion. Rechargeable batteries are rechargeable batteries or accumulators .

Electrical consumers that can be operated with both primary and secondary cells are therefore often simply called battery-operated . The term battery-operated is only preferred if rechargeability plays a special role in the daily use of the device . Due to the dominance of English, the term “rechargeable batteries” or “secondary batteries” is increasingly used in the technical and scientific context.

capacitor

Capacitors are also storage devices for electrical energy, but they do not store it in chemical form, but as an electrical field between their plates. Capacitors are therefore not accumulators in the conventional sense.

history

The first preform of an accumulator, which - in contrast to the cells by Alessandro Volta - was rechargeable after discharge, was built in 1803 by Johann Wilhelm Ritter . The most famous type of battery, the lead-acid battery, was designed by the physician and physicist Wilhelm Josef Sinsteden in 1854 . In 1859, Gaston Planté developed Sinsteden's invention considerably by arranging the lead plates in a spiral. At the turn of the 20th century, lead-acid batteries powered by wood, electric drives for automobiles. Battery technology developed rapidly over the years. The following text published by the Telegraphentechnisches Reichsamt in 1924 shows this using the example of telegraphy, which was established at the time, and telephony, which was still in its infancy . Accumulators are called "collectors" here, and "batteries" were collections of galvanic elements:

“[1899] For the telegraph as well as for the telephone, wet and dry elements were the main sources of electricity. Batteries mainly made of zinc-copper elements were used for the telegraph; In addition, the telephone service mainly used wet zinc-carbon and dry elements. As more powerful power sources, collectors, which had occasionally been used since 1895 to operate microphones in the largest telephone exchanges, were introduced on a larger scale after 1900. […] To charge the 12-cell battery, dynamo machines were set up at the office, which were equipped with their own power plant (mostly light or heavy oil engines) or were driven from the local high-voltage network and supplied the required direct current in the appropriate current strength and voltage. In the beginning, work was generally carried out in alternating loading and unloading operations. H. alternately one battery fed the office while the other was charged. Later (1921) one went over to taking the current for the office directly from dynamo machines, whose electrical properties had to be specially adapted for this purpose, and to connect a 'buffer' battery in parallel. "

technology

functionality

In an accumulator during charging is electrical energy into chemical energy converted . If a consumer is connected, the chemical energy is converted back into electrical energy ( see: Galvanic cell ). The nominal electrical voltage , efficiency and energy density typical for an electrochemical cell depend on the type of materials used.

Accumulator types

The accumulator types are named according to the materials used:

Energy density and efficiency

Specific energy density (Wh / kg) of various commercially available secondary cells as a function of temperature; at low temperatures the energy density decreases more or less strongly.
Energy densities: energy / volume or energy / weight

The energy density is important for many applications, in particular for mobile devices in the field of entertainment electronics, hearing aids or vehicles . The higher this is, the more energy can be stored in a battery per unit of volume or mass. The mass-related energy density is often referred to as specific energy. In relation to the types available on the market, accumulators (secondary cells ) usually have a (often significantly) lower energy density than primary cells .

Batteries with a particularly high energy density are often disproportionately expensive or have other disadvantages, in particular a limited service life. Lead-acid batteries typically cost € 100 / kWh; Li-ion batteries, on the other hand, are currently (2012) typically 350 € / kWh (200 € / kWh 2013), and the trend is falling. The reasons are the start of mass production, which significantly reduces unit costs through better technology and economies of scale . However, the falling production costs are only passed on to customers with a delay, as there is little price pressure on this market, especially in Germany, due to the few offers .

When rechargeable batteries are charged and discharged, the internal resistance of the cells releases heat, which means that some of the energy used for charging is lost. The ratio of the energy that can be drawn to the energy that can be used for charging is referred to as the charging efficiency . In general, the charging efficiency decreases both through rapid charging with very high currents and through rapid discharge ( Peukert effect ), since the losses in the internal resistance increase. The optimal window of use is very different depending on the cell chemistry.

Accumulator type Energy density (Wh / kg) Charging efficiency (as of 2007) Specialty
Lead accumulator 30th 60-70%
Lithium-ion battery based on LiCoO 2 120-210 90% newer models can be charged quickly
Lithium polymer accumulator 140-260 90% practically any design possible
Lithium iron phosphate accumulator 80-140 94% Fast charging, high current capability, intrinsically safe
Lithium titanate accumulator 70-90 90-95% fast charging
Lithium-sulfur accumulator 350 90% Laboratory prototype
Sodium nickel chloride accumulator (zebra battery) 100-120 80-90% 300 ° C operating temperature, no self-discharge, but heating losses 10–20%
Sodium-sulfur accumulator 120-220 70-85% 300 ° C operating temperature, no self-discharge, but heating losses 15–30%
Nickel-iron accumulator 40 65-70% very insensitive to over- and deep discharge
Nickel-cadmium accumulator 40-60 70% Banned across the EU, with the exception of emergency systems and the medical sector
Nickel-metal hydride accumulator 60-110 70%
Nickel-hydrogen accumulator 60 75%
Nickel-zinc accumulator 50 65%
Silver-zinc accumulator 65-210 83% expensive, short-lived, sensitive, very high capacity
Tin-sulfur-lithium accumulator 1100 ? Experimental prototype
Aluminum ion accumulator 1000 ? fast charging, experimental prototypes

A comparison with the storage of electrical energy shows the advantages and disadvantages of rechargeable batteries compared to other storage methods.

Charge amount (capacity)

Li-ion battery for digital cameras

The amount of charge that an accumulator can store is specified in ampere-hours (Ah) and referred to as capacity (nominal capacity). This must not be confused with the capacitance of a capacitor , which is defined as the amount of charge that depends on the voltage and is specified in Farad (F). 1 F is one ampere second per volt (As / V). The specified nominal capacity of the battery always relates to a certain discharge current and decreases - depending on the battery type - to different degrees with higher discharge currents.

In the case of primary cells and accumulators, the nominal capacity is stated in ampere-hours (Ah), and in the case of smaller units also milli- ampere hours . The prefix for units of measurement Milli stands for one thousandth. The statement that an accumulator delivers 1000 mAh, i.e. one ampere-hour, does not say much about the performance of the battery if the voltage is not known. The voltage is strongly dependent on the load on the cell, as it has an internal resistance. Theoretically, it delivers its maximum power at half the nominal voltage. Then internal and load resistance are equal and the discharge efficiency reaches 50 percent. Since the cell becomes very hot in the process, such high loads are only possible for a short time. An example of this are starter batteries in cars, which give off a few hundred amps for a few seconds when they are started. Some cell types cannot withstand such high loads and have protective circuits to prevent this.

Figures in Wh or kWh (often found in traction batteries) always relate to a specific load profile. In order to compare the performance of batteries, you have to know which load profile was used when measuring the capacity.

State of charge

Inflated batteries from a third-party manufacturer with presumably incorrectly reproduced control electronics

An important characteristic of devices operated with secondary batteries is the state of charge of accumulators ( English State of Charge , SoC or SOC). It is usually given in percentages, with 100% representing a fully charged accumulator. 100% minus the value of the state of charge gives the degree of discharge (DoD or DOD).

Various methods are used for determination: chemical, voltage-dependent, current-integrative (charge balancing), pressure-dependent and measurement of the accumulator impedance .

Self-discharge - recommended storage

If a battery is not used, it will lose part of its stored energy over time. This process is called self-discharge . The degree of self-discharge depends on the type and age of the battery and on the storage temperature.

The following is usually recommended for the storage of batteries: ( Note: The state of charge is seen relative to the final discharge voltage . This means that if a battery has a state of charge of 0%, then it means that it has reached its final discharge voltage, with NiCd and NiMH batteries, this is e.g. 0.9 V or 1.0 V.)

  • Li-Ion : state of charge 60%, 20 ° C; Self-discharge monthly <2%
  • Lead accumulator : state of charge 100%, store as cool as possible; Self-discharge monthly 5–10% (lead-acid) or 2–5% (lead-gel), a battery that has been discharged for a long time is destroyed
  • NiMH : state of charge 40%; Self-discharge monthly by 15-25%, newer types than NiMH with low self-discharge with only about 15% per year
  • NiCd : state of charge 40%; Monthly self-discharge by 10%
  • Alkaline manganese RAM cells : state of charge 100%; Cell voltage should not drop below 1.2 V.

Sanyo launched a modified NiMH battery called Eneloop in 2005 (market launch in Europe in August 2006) , which is subject to self-discharge of only 15% per year. These are so-called LSD batteries (Low Self Discharge), which are sold as pre-charged batteries due to their low self-discharge and therefore, unlike conventional batteries, do not have to be charged by the buyer before the first use.

All information on self-discharge relates to a room temperature of approx. 20 ° C.

Service life and cycle stability

Best-selling Nissan Leaf electric car since 2010. Some have driven more than 200,000 km. These have no problems with the batteries.

According to the manufacturer, lithium iron phosphate batteries achieve more than 5000 cycles at a respective depth of discharge of 80%, and after 7000 cycles still 70%. BYD is the world's largest manufacturer of lithium iron phosphate batteries and has developed a wide range of cells for cycle-resistant applications, such as those used in stationary storage systems, through precise manufacturing. After 6000 cycles with 100% loading and unloading at a rate of 1 C, they still have a remaining capacity of at least 80%. With a full cycle per day, this corresponds to a service life of at least 20 years.

The Sony Fortelion lithium iron phosphate battery has a remaining capacity of 71% after 10,000 cycles with 100% discharge . This accumulator has been on the market since 2009.

Lithium-ion accumulators used in solar batteries sometimes have a very high cycle stability of more than 10,000 charge and discharge cycles and a long service life of up to 20 years.

Varta Storage gives a guarantee of 14,000 full cycles and a service life of 10 years on its Engion Family and engion home product families.

The service life of stationary batteries at a constant room temperature of 10–25 ° C can only be achieved with drive batteries through thermal management. Unequal temperature fluctuations of the cells within the drive battery lead to differences in capacity and different aging of the cells. The available capacity of a lithium battery decreases as the operating temperature falls, especially below the 25 ° C operating temperature at which the nominal capacity is determined, and should not fall below the freezing point of the electrolyte due to ice formation. On the other hand, the higher the operating temperature, the faster a cell ages, with a strongly increasing tendency above approx. 40 ° C. The aim of thermal management is that all cells in the volume have the same temperature at the same time, which provides the highest possible performance with little aging.

Furthermore, the BMS has a significant influence on the capacity of the cells connected in series, which is determined by the weakest cell during passive balancing . As a result, the overall capacity is reduced and the weakest cell is used the most and ages the fastest. In contrast, the complex active balancing can carry out a charge equalization from the cells of high capacity to those of low capacity and keep the service life and the capacity of all cells available even in an older battery that is no longer homogeneous. Depending on their technology, the manufacturers grant widely differing guarantees on the service life of drive batteries.

The organization Plug in America conducted a survey among drivers of the Tesla Roadster regarding the service life of the installed batteries. It was found that after 100,000 miles = 160,000 km the batteries still had a remaining capacity of 80 to 85 percent (no information about the measurement in the source). This was independent of the climatic zone in which the vehicle was driven. The Tesla Roadster was built and sold between 2008 and 2012. Tesla gives an 8-year guarantee with unlimited mileage for its 85 kWh batteries in the Tesla Model S.

The best-selling electric car is the Nissan Leaf , which has been in production since 2010. In 2015, Nissan stated that until then only 0.01 percent of the batteries had to be replaced due to defects or problems, and that only due to externally inflicted damage. There are a few vehicles that have already driven more than 200,000 km. These would also have no problems with the battery.

loading time

The charging time of a rechargeable battery or a battery made of rechargeable battery cells depends on various factors. These include parameters such as the internal resistance, which has a direct influence on the charging current and is in turn influenced by the temperature. Shorter charging times mean higher current load and higher wear and tear, so they conflict with the lifespan of the battery. Depending on the application, cell chemistry and technical implementation (air conditioning, monitoring), the practically achievable charging times are very different.

The charging current recommended / permitted by the manufacturer is described using the C-factor and may be. a. also depending on the state of charge. The charging voltage is determined by the cell chemistry and the structure of the battery. These two parameters result in an upper limit for the maximum charging power, which is often reduced in favor of a longer service life. The practically achievable loading times are therefore usually higher than the technically possible loading times. In addition to the temperature, the available voltage and current sources and the charging method used should be mentioned as external factors . The battery cell manufacturers specify the parameters and usage windows to be observed in their data sheets, which must be observed by the manufacturers of the end products.

BYD e6 taxi. Charges to 80 percent in 15 minutes

For classic batteries such as lead, NiCd and NiMH, normal charging rates of 0.1 C to 0.2 C are common. This corresponds to charging times of 5–10 hours. With modern lithium batteries, the manufacturer's data sheets usually specify normal charge as 0.5 C, which corresponds to a charging time of 2 hours. In addition, a maximum permitted, higher charging current is specified, for example 3 C, which would enable charging in 20 minutes. In practice, charging times of 1.5 to 4 hours are common in the mobile device sector. Electric cars such as Tesla Model S , Renault ZOE , BMW i3 , Nissan Leaf etc. can charge their batteries to 80 percent at current (2017) fast charging stations within about 30 minutes. However, today's lithium batteries can often be charged much faster. In the model building sector, charging times of 10 to 15 minutes are usual for fast charging. In practice, the upper limit of the charging capacity is no longer determined by the accumulator cells, especially for larger batteries in electric vehicles, but by the structure of the traction battery (air conditioning) and the available charging technology. New fast charging systems can charge electric cars with appropriately designed traction batteries to 80 percent in around 15 minutes.

Battery research

Researchers at Justus Liebig University in Giessen , together with scientists from BASF SE, have developed a new reversible cell based on sodium and oxygen. Sodium superoxide occurs as the reaction product .

Scientists from the University of Oslo in Norway have developed an accumulator that can be recharged in less than a second. In the opinion of the scientists, this accumulator would be interesting u. a. for city ​​buses , which could be charged at any stop and would therefore only need a relatively small battery. According to the researchers, one disadvantage is that the larger the battery, the greater the charging current. Thus, the battery cannot be very large. According to the researchers, the new battery could also be used as a buffer in sports cars to provide short-term power. For now, however, the researchers are thinking of areas of application in small and micro devices.

In laboratories of the company StoreDot from Israel, according to reports, the first laboratory samples of unspecified batteries in cell phones (battery capacity in the range of 1 Ah) can be charged in 30 seconds as of April 2014.

In 2014, researchers from Singapore developed a battery that can be charged to 70 percent after 2 minutes. The batteries use lithium-ion technology. However, the anode, the negative pole in the battery, is no longer made of graphite, but a titanium dioxide gel. The gel significantly accelerates the chemical reaction and thus ensures faster charging. In particular, these batteries are intended to be used in electric cars. Researchers at the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich discovered the basic principle back in 2012.

Solid-state accumulators are a special design in which both electrodes and the electrolyte are made of different solid materials. Since there are no liquids present, there is no problem with leaks should the accumulator be damaged.

Work is also being carried out on accumulators made of organic material.

Scientists at Stanford University in California have developed a new type of battery with very favorable properties. In the aluminum-ion secondary battery , the anode is made of aluminum and the cathode consists of graphite. The battery manages more than 7500 charging cycles without any loss of quality. The materials required to manufacture the battery are very inexpensive and also very light. The battery cannot catch fire even if the battery is pierced. The charging process takes one minute. In addition, the battery is flexible and can therefore be bent and folded into a desired shape. The battery is not yet ready for the market because the voltage and energy density are still too low.

According to estimates, lithium-sulfur and lithium-air battery technology will be usable in the automotive sector by 2025 or at the latest by 2030. Both have a higher energy density than the lithium-ion technology used in 2015 and promise greater ranges in electric mobility.

In Germany, the BMBF has been supporting research on a magnesium-air accumulator that works without lithium since 2013 . Such accumulators have a high capacity and the raw material is available in sufficient quantities, but the service life has so far been short.

A team led by Yan Yu at the Chinese University of Science and Technology in Hefei developed a battery that has a high capacity and voltage even after being charged and discharged 2,000 times (96% capacity retained). It is based on tri-sodium-di-vanadium-triphosphate (Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ) inside a graphene mixed material. Scientists at the Japanese Nagoya Institute of Technology also examined sodium as a battery material and identified the sodium-vanadium compound Na 2 V 3 O 7 as a suitable cathode material. Because of the low energy density, stationary use is initially considered.

Price development

Between 2009 and 2015, the cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric cars in the US decreased by 73%.

Lead-acid batteries typically cost € 355 / kWh. The prices for Li-ion batteries have fallen significantly in recent years: in 2007 the costs were more than 1000 US dollars / kWh, in 2014 they were still 300 dollars / kWh, and the trend is still falling. So gave z. For example, the head of General Motors, Mary Barra, announced that the battery costs of the Chevrolet Bolt , whose series production will start at the end of 2016, should be around 145 dollars / kWh. For 2022, she expects battery costs of 100 dollars / kWh. Eric Feunteun, head of the electric vehicle division at Renault, announced in July 2017 that one kWh battery costs $ 80 for Renault. The market prices for Li-ion batteries, including the profit margin, are also expected to fall below $ 100 / kWh by 2030.

For 2015, the US Department of Energy put the cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric cars at around $ 250 / kWh; The target is a value of 125 $ / kWh in 2022. The reasons for the price decline are increasing mass production, which has reduced unit costs through better technologies and economies of scale .

According to a study by McKinsey, battery prices fell by 80 percent between 2010 and 2016.

use

Areas of application

12 V starter battery consisting of six lead secondary cells with 2 V each in series

Accumulators are often used when an electrical or electronic device is to be operated without a permanent connection to the fixed power grid or to a generator . Since they are more expensive than non-rechargeable primary batteries, they are mainly used in devices that are used regularly and have a non-negligible power requirement, such as cell phones , laptops or cordless tools .

In motor vehicles, too, a rechargeable battery in the form of a starter battery is used to supply power for lights, on-board electronics and, above all, the starter for starting the internal combustion engine. If the motor, the accumulator is on the operating as a generator alternator recharged. The same applies to ships and aircraft.

In the electric drive of electric vehicles , their batteries are then referred to as traction batteries to distinguish them from mere starter batteries and are interconnected to form traction batteries (often referred to as drive batteries). Drive and traction batteries are used in electric cars , electric motorcycles , electric scooters , battery buses and electric trucks . Pedelecs , a special electric bike, are becoming increasingly popular . Electric aircraft for short-haul flights are also under development .

Accumulators are also used in the form of battery storage power plants or solar batteries to compensate for fluctuations in the regenerative generation of electricity with wind and / or sun. Battery storage power plants are u. a. used to cover peak loads in the power grid and also to stabilize the grid in power grids. It is also possible to operate as a stand-alone system in an isolated network when a remote point of use or only at disproportionate cost can be connected to the mains. Often such consumption points are also equipped with an emergency power generator that kicks in before the batteries are charged, e.g. B. is no longer sufficient after several days of calm. Examples of such installations are not only remote huts, cell phone base stations in less developed regions or space satellites , but also many parking ticket machines , where connecting to the power grid would be more expensive than installing a solar cell and a battery.

Conventional submarine drives consist of diesel engines with generators (driving and charging the batteries when the trip is not submerged / snorkeling) and electric motors powered by batteries (diving trips).

In systems for uninterruptible power supply  (UPS), batteries are also used for short to medium-term bridging of failures in the stationary energy supply. Important areas that need to be secured with an emergency power supply include: B. data centers, alarm systems and life support systems in hospitals. If high outputs are required or longer periods of time have to be bridged, a diesel generator is also installed; the batteries then only take over the supply as long as the diesel generator needs to start up and reach the rated speed. If the time to be bridged in this way is only short, systems other than accumulators can also be used, in particular on the basis of centrifugal masses or even capacitors.

Selection criteria

Criteria for choosing a battery type for a particular application include:

  • The gravimetric energy density, also known as specific energy. It states how much electrical energy an accumulator can deliver per unit of mass (e.g. kilograms). This value is particularly interesting for electrically powered vehicles. Conventional lead-acid batteries achieve around 30 Wh / kg, lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) up to 140 Wh / kg.
  • The volumetric energy density. It states how much Wh of electrical energy an accumulator can deliver per volume (for example per liter of volume). Here the value for conventional lead-acid batteries is approx. 50 Wh / l, for Li-Ion batteries approx. 500 Wh / l.
  • The maximum possible discharge current. It is important for all applications where there is a short-term very high power requirement. This is the case, for example, when starting vehicle engines, but also with power tools and autofocus cameras, especially those with integrated flash units .
  • The possible dimensions (dimensions and weight) and designs of the battery cell. They are crucial if the accumulator is to be integrated into electronic devices in the smallest possible space. A gas-tight construction, for example of a gel lead-acid battery, enables it to be used in any position without the risk of leaking electrolyte or corrosive gases
  • The memory effect with NiCd or the battery inertia effect with NiMH occurs depending on the charging and discharging process and can lead to considerable reductions in capacity (NiCd) or voltage (NiMH). In applications in which the accumulator is not regularly fully discharged and then fully charged again, types of battery should therefore be used that are not susceptible to these effects, for example lead batteries or Li-ion batteries.

The application of the above criteria results in a number of typical areas of application for each battery type, with the transitions flowing particularly smoothly with NiCd, NiMH and Li-Ion batteries:

Further development

As a further development of conventional accumulators, fuel cell systems are used that generate electrical energy with the help of hydrogen or methanol from chemical energy and can also reverse this process ( reversible fuel cell ). Fuel cells generate electrical energy without exothermic combustion and additional conversions. Since the fireplace insert itself cannot store any energy, it is therefore always necessary to use a storage system whose space requirements and weight must be taken into account. The storage media hydrogen, methanol and similar gases or volatile liquids have different technical requirements than conventional accumulators. The terms electrochemical cell and redox flow cell were created in parallel.

Competing energy storage systems are hydraulic storage systems in which the energy is usually stored mechanically.

literature

  • Edmund Hoppe: The accumulators for electricity . Julius Springer, Berlin 1892.
  • Thomas B. Reddy (Ed.): Linden's Handbook of Batteries. 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York 2011, ISBN 978-0-07-162421-3 .
  • Lucien F. Trueb, Paul Rüetschi: Batteries and accumulators. Mobile energy sources for today and tomorrow . Springer, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-540-62997-1 .
  • Martin Winter, Jürgen O. Besenhard : Rechargeable batteries. Part 1: Batteries with aqueous electrolyte solution. In: Chemistry in Our Time . 33, No. 5, 1999, pp. 252-266. ( doi: 10.1002 / ciuz.19990330503 or PDF )
  • Martin Winter, Jürgen O. Besenhard: Rechargeable batteries. Part 2: Batteries with non-aqueous electrolyte solution. In: Chemistry in Our Time. 33, No. 6, 1999, pp. 320-332. ( doi: 10.1002 / ciuz.19990330603 or PDF )
  • DIN 40 729 accumulators - Galvanic secondary elements - Basic terms .

Web links

Wiktionary: Accumulator  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Accu  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Accumulators  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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