|Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
|founding||March 7, 1916|
|Seat||Munich , Germany|
|Number of employees||133,778|
|sales||104.2 billion euros (2019)|
|As of December 31, 2019|
The Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft ( BMW AG ) is a global, publicly traded automotive and motorcycle manufacturer based in Munich , which under the brand name BMW Group occurs. The product range includes the automobile and motorcycle brands BMW, the automobile brands Mini and Rolls-Royce as well as the BMW sub-brands BMW M and BMW i .
Since the 1960s, the group has made a name for itself under the BMW brand as a manufacturer of high-priced, comfortably equipped and well-motorized touring cars with sporty aspirations, making it one of the so-called premium manufacturers . In addition, the Mini brand is targeting younger, lifestyle- oriented customers with retro models , while Rolls-Royce produces high-priced luxury limousines in small numbers . The core brand BMW goes back to the Rapp Motorenwerke founded in 1913 by Karl Rapp in Munich . They were expanded by Franz Josef Popp from 1917 and traded as a public limited company Bayerische Motorenwerke from 1918 and as Süddeutsche Bremsen-AG from 1920 . The engine construction department and the old company name were sold in 1922 and incorporated into Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG , which was founded in 1916 and has operated as BMW ever since.
With sales of 104.2 billion euros and around 134,000 employees in the 2019 financial year, BMW is one of the largest commercial enterprises in Germany and, with annual production of 2.54 million vehicles in 2019, was one of the 15 largest car manufacturers in the world. The company is both master - and preferred shares on the stock market listed, the ordinary shares in Germany's benchmark DAX and in DivDAX is represented. The largest shareholders with a total of around 46.8% are Susanne Klatten and Stefan Quandt , who belong to the industrial family Quandt . In addition, BMW is also listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) “World” and “Europe” as well as FTSE4Good in 2018 .
The following persons were or are chairmen of the board of management of Bayerische Motoren Werke AG:
- 1922–1942: Franz Josef Popp
- 1942–1944: Fritz Hille
- 1948–1957: Hanns Grewenig
- 1957–1960: Heinrich Richter-Brohm
- 1962–1965: Karl-Heinz Sonne
- 1965–1969: Gerhard Wilcke
- 1970–1993: Eberhard von Kuenheim
- 1993–1999: Bernd Pischetsrieder
- 1999–2002: Joachim Milberg
- 2002–2006: Helmut Panke
- 2006–2015: Norbert Reithofer
- 2015–2019: Harald Krüger
- since 2019: Oliver Zipse
BMW's predecessors were Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH, founded by Karl Rapp in 1913 . "As the basis of his company, Rapp bought the" company of Philipp Dörhöfer, who came from Berlin and was located at Clemensstrasse 46 in Munich . “ The company Schneeweis had recently acquired this in Chemnitz . Schneeweis built aircraft engines for the airship builder Albert Paul Veeh, among others . During Veeh's bankruptcy, Schneeweis got into trouble. These were obviously so big that the Dörhöfer an Schneeweis company got stuck with it and Rapp took over the company to manufacture aircraft engines. ”The reason for Dörhöfer's takeover of Schneeweis' company was that they were already building aircraft engines for Luftschiffbau Veeh GmbH and he was doing it could fall back on years of experience. Later he wrote to his son: "The origin of the BMW is the Schneeweis company in Chemnitz, which brought about the Rapp-Motorenwerke GmbH via the Luftschiffbau Veeh and the Flugwerk Deutschland, where my name is also mentioned." The resulting Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH changed changed its name to BMW GmbH in April 1917 and a year later, after the conversion into a stock corporation, to BMW AG. The first managing director was Franz Josef Popp until 1942 .
The aspiring engineer Max Friz quickly made a name for himself in the young company : in 1917 he developed the aircraft engine BMW IIIa with over-compression, which reduces the loss of power at altitude. This design worked so well, especially in the Fokker D.VII fighter aircraft , that BMW received an order for 2000 engines from the Army Administration . On June 17, 1919, a BMW IV, a further development of the BMW IIIa, set an unofficial world altitude record (Germany was not a member of the FAI ) of 9,760 meters.
With the end of the First World War and the Versailles Treaty , the end of the company seemed to have come: the peace treaty forbade the manufacture of aircraft engines in Germany - at that time the only product from BMW - for five years. Advertisements from 1920 show, however, that BMW did not quite follow the ban. In 1922 the main shareholder Camillo Castiglioni left the company and took the naming rights to BMW with him. He went to the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW).
These emerged from the Bavarian Aircraft Factory , registered on March 7, 1916 , which in turn had developed from the Gustav Otto aircraft factory , which went bankrupt at the beginning of the year, owned by Gustav Otto , a son of the Otto engine inventor Nikolaus Otto . This March 7, 1916 is considered to be the founding date of BMW in official company historiography. With the change from Castiglioni, the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) become BMW, at the company's headquarters in Lerchenauer Strasse 76, Munich 13 - Bayernmotor. However, the company, which was previously called BMW, became Südbremse and later then Knorr-Bremse .
In 1923 Max Friz and Martin Stolle developed the first BMW motorcycle, the R 32 , thereby laying the foundation for a new production line: motorcycles. It only took Friz five weeks to design the R 32. The basic principle of this motorcycle has been preserved to this day: boxer engine and cardan drive in a double tubular frame .
Start as an automobile manufacturer in Eisenach
In 1928, BMW took over the Eisenach A. G. vehicle factory , the manufacturer of the Dixi small car , and thus became an automobile manufacturer. On March 22, 1929, BMW produced its first series car in Eisenach, Thuringia . The model was called 3/15 PS or DA 2 and was a further development of the Dixi 3/15 DA model , which in turn was a modified licensed construction of the British Austin Seven . The car was assembled in Berlin with a body supplied by Ambi-Budd , which was similar to the Rosengart, which was also built under an Austin license. In 1932 the first “real” BMW of the BMW AM series followed with the designation AM1 (for “Munich Automobile Construction No. 1”), i. H. the first BMW-owned automobile construction, which was larger and technically more advanced than the BMW 3/15 (e.g. overhead valves, four-wheel brake, front swing axle). The first new design under the aegis of BMW was the 303 presented in 1933 with a 1.2 liter six-cylinder engine , a design by Fritz Fiedler (1899–1972). As a result of the greatly expanded aircraft engine production from 1933, the automobile and motorcycle division became almost a secondary purpose. Nevertheless, the new developments BMW 326 (1935), 327 (1937) and the 328 sports roadster presented in 1936 produced attractive models. The 328, in particular, impressed not only with its design, but also with numerous successes in sports car races, including the Mille Miglia 1940. This model established BMW's reputation as a manufacturer of sporty automobiles, which was remembered even after the war. In Great Britain the 328 was marketed as Frazer-Nash-BMW , with Frazer Nash serving as BMW general importer for the British Empire since 1934. The blueprints for the 326/327/328 series were later used to develop the Bristol 400 .
Until the end of World War II
After the seizure of power of the Nazis BMW experienced a strong recovery by the war plans of Hitler. While 8,357 people still had their jobs in the German aircraft and aircraft engine industry in mid-1933, the number of employees had risen to almost 180,000 by the end of 1938. BMW also participated in this upswing. The company's turnover was 32.5 million Reichsmarks (RM) in 1933 and increased to 280 million RM by 1939. The aircraft engine production of the subsidiary "BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH" founded in 1934 took place in the new BMW aircraft engine factory Allach GmbH (today MTU Aero Engines ) and the BMW aircraft engine factory Eisenach GmbH ( Dürrerhof - dismantled after the end of the war). In 1939 this alone contributed 190 million RM to sales. With the takeover of Brandenburgische Motorenwerke in Berlin-Spandau in 1939, which subsequently traded as BMW Flugmotorenwerke Brandenburg GmbH , and the establishment of Niederbarnimer Flugmotorenwerke GmbH in 1941 with locations in Zühlsdorf and Basdorf , the aircraft engine division expanded to 90 percent of total sales. In 1944, around 56,000 employees, around 50 percent of whom were forced laborers , generated 750 million RM in sales .
In the Munich and Eisenach plants, “heavy Wehrmacht sidecars ” ( BMW R 75 motorcycles with powered sidecar) and, between 1937 and 1940, the light all-terrain BMW 325 standard car were built. The latter had to be manufactured by Stoewer and Hanomag in a largely identical design according to the specifications of the Wehrmacht .
As part of the upgrade, a new plant was built in Allach near Munich from 1936. The Munich-Allach plant was built in camouflage from the beginning and was designed as a pure aircraft engine plant and was intended primarily as a supplement to the Munich plant until 1938. From 1940/41 the factory was massively expanded and the series production of aircraft engines began. BMW used forced labor there to expand the plant and manufacture aircraft engines and, from 1942, also used concentration camp prisoners. They were housed in forced labor camps and in the Allach subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp . In 1944, 17,313 people were employed at the Allach plant, of which 11,623 (67.1%) were forced laborers.
The BMW 801 twin radial engine with up to 1,467 kW (2,000 hp) was one of the most important German aircraft engines. It was installed in the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 and Junkers Ju 88 , among others . At times, half of its production was carried out by Russian forced laborers. The number and performance of the BMW 801 engines had to be increased. It was not until 1943 that the company was able to meet the desired production target. The Luftwaffe complained, among other things, of piston seizures , valve damage or broken rocker arm in this engine. Other aircraft engines were the BMW 132 , BMW 802 and BMW 803 .
The company's situation was also affected by the war. In the spring of 1943 alone, 6,189 employees were drafted into the Wehrmacht, which meant the loss of important specialist knowledge in production. Allied air raids on the war-important factories in Milbertshofen and Allach severely disrupted engine production. The Reich Aviation Ministry decreed that production should continue in the seven-kilometer tunnel on the Sélestat - Saint-Dié railway near Markirch in Alsace. 1,016 machines were transported there and 3,000 people were deployed in the new environment. When the Allies approached, this project was ended again and production was relocated to the Allgäu. In Kempten (Allgäu) , the factory of the supplier Helmuth Sachse KG was designated for gear manufacturing, connecting rod parts for aircraft engines were produced in Blaichach , and further production sites were set up in Kaufbeuren , Immenstadt and the Upper Bavarian towns of Trostberg and Stephanskirchen .
New car registrations in the German Reich from 1933 to 1938
post war period
In 1945 the main plant in Munich was almost completely destroyed and the vehicle factory in Eisenach was taken over by the Soviet occupying forces . Since the Eisenach automobile factory owned all production tools, it was able to offer the pre-war types again immediately after the war. Initially, this also happened under the name “BMW”. Since BMW in Munich refused to accept that cars were offered under this name without having any influence on their production, the Eisenachers were legally forbidden to use the name “BMW” in 1951. The Eisenach makes were then offered under the name "EMW" (Eisenacher-Motoren-Werk). In 1952 the plant was declared a state-owned company (VEB) . Due to central planning requirements , the Eisenach plant was forced to switch the production of larger four-stroke cars in favor of smaller two-stroke vehicles based on the IFA F9 . In 1955 the last EMW 340 rolled off the production line . From then on, the company, now called VEB Automobilwerk Eisenach , produced the Wartburg .
Up to now, automobiles had never been produced in Munich, and the main plant was also bombed and dismantled. Initially, the company kept afloat with the manufacture of motorcycles, saucepans and vehicle brakes. In 1948, BMW launched its first post-war motorcycle with the R 24 , followed in 1952 by the BMW 501 , an exclusive luxury car with a six-cylinder engine . The car, which was also available with a V8 engine as the BMW 502 from 1954, was soon given the nickname “Baroque Angel” because of its curved body shape. The production of the type was so complex that BMW made a loss of around 4,000 DM for each copy sold. Another problem was the sharp decline in motorcycle sales from the mid-1950s. Even the Isetta microcar , which was put into production in 1955 and licensed by the Italian Iso Rivolta , was unable to avert the rapidly worsening financial crisis.
Crisis and near takeover
After high losses had been made in the 1958 and 1959 financial years, the dramatic annual general meeting took place on December 9, 1959. The board of directors and the supervisory board, both appointed by Deutsche Bank, submitted an offer to Daimler-Benz AG after BMW (Major shareholder also Deutsche Bank) and the small shareholders were almost expropriated. The fate of BMW seemed sealed, as Deutsche Bank represented around half of the share capital thanks to the voting rights of the custodian . But it turned out differently: A rejection front, formed by the workforce and works councils, BMW dealers and small shareholders, fended off the takeover offer by using the Darmstadt shareholder and coal merchant Erich Nold (1928–1995) and the Frankfurt lawyer Friedrich Mathern Let the balance sheet contest, for which 10 percent of the votes were enough. Indeed, the balance sheet was flawed, as the development costs for the new Model 700 had been written off within one year .
Beginning of the ascent and glass takeover
BMW remained independent, but at the beginning of 1960 the urgently needed mid-range model was still missing, for the realization of which there was still a lack of funding. This is where the industrialist Herbert Quandt from Bad Homburg vor der Höhe stepped in . He agreed to carry out a subsequent capital increase after a capital cut , in which he would take over the unsold shares himself. This also happened, the Quandt Group's capital share rose to around 60 percent and the banks lost their influence over BMW. As a result, as well as through the takeover of half of the shares in the BMW subsidiary Triebwerkbau GmbH and a loan of 20 million DM from MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg), BMW received sufficient financial means to implement the new mid-range model, the sedan character should combine with high engine power. In this segment, a competitor fell out of the market due to the bankruptcy of Borgward in 1961.
In 1961 the company presented the completely newly developed BMW 1500 of the "New Class" . After some initial difficulties, the type was supplemented by the BMW 1600, 1800 and 2000 models and became a great success, which was reinforced by its victories in touring car races. The resurgence of BMW finally got going with the two-door " Zero-Two " types 1602 , 1802 , 2002 , 2002ti / tii presented in 1966 . The success led to a greater need for staff, so that in 1960 the company decided to recruit mainly workers from Greece, who in 1967 already accounted for 52% of the foreign employees. BMW did not differentiate payment according to nationality, which was a special feature at the time.
In 1967, Hans Glas GmbH in Dingolfing was taken over and expanded into its own production site. Some models from the Glas product range continued to be produced for a while. They carried the brand name BMW-Glas and the BMW logo. With the discontinuation of these models, the name glass was also given up.
The luxury class car "2500" with six-cylinder engine presented in 1968, and later also the "2800" and "3.0 SI" models , impressed the experts with their smoothness and pulling power.
The era of Kuenheim
From 1970 to 1993 Eberhard von Kuenheim was chairman of the board. Under his aegis, sales of many new model series rose 18 times to around 28 billion DM, car production quadrupled and motorcycle production tripled. The number of employees grew from around 23,000 to 71,000 in the same period. New production sites were established in Germany ( Regensburg , Spandau ), Austria , South Africa and the USA .
In 1973 they moved into the so-called "four-cylinder" , the new main administration building designed by the Viennese architect Karl Schwanzer near the Munich Olympic site . In the spring of 1990 the “ Research and Innovation Center ” (FIZ) was opened, BMW's “think tank” with over 6,000 jobs. In the first few years, the abbreviation stood for “Research and Engineering Center”, but it did not get its current name until the late 1990s.
The Kuenheim era also saw several attempts to diversify and expand the company. So were u. a. a robot company, a software manufacturer ( Softlab ), a chemical specialist and, in 1990, took over the aviation division of Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz AG. While the former activities turned out to be failures and were sold again, KHD Luftfahrttechnik was incorporated into the joint venture BMW Rolls-Royce AeroEngines GmbH . This means that BMW AG, through its subsidiary, was again an aviation company for at least a decade. In the wake of the failed takeover of the British automobile manufacturer Rover in the mid-1990s and the associated financing problems, BMW's 51 percent stake was then sold to Rolls-Royce plc .
The Rover debacle
At the beginning of the 1990s, BMW believed that it could only survive in the long term as a large volume manufacturer on the world market. In order to avoid having to develop a front-wheel drive platform and the necessary technical components and to gain the necessary manufacturing capacity, BMW took over the British Rover Group with its Rover, MG , Mini and Land Rover car brands in 1994 . However, this turned out to be a serious mistake, costing BMW a total of nine billion German marks and costing CEO Bernd Pischetsrieder his post.
The collaboration with the Rover Group hadn't worked smoothly from the start. The works recorded losses that were compounded by the thirty percent appreciation of the British pound against the German mark in the period from 1994 to 2000. The Rover model range, which was created in the joint venture with Honda, turned out to be outdated and too conservative, and thus not very attractive. The processing quality also left a lot to be desired. The factories were largely outdated, too small and overstaffed. In addition, there were major weaknesses in sales , so that the expected sales figures were never achieved. There was also the “in-house” competition, because Land Rover vehicles competed with the SUV or X model range introduced by BMW in 1999 (only the X5 at the time ).
For these reasons, BMW took the consequences on March 16, 2000 and ended the Rover project. MG Rover was sold to a British investment community for the symbolic sum of ten pounds sterling. Land Rover went to Ford , but for a much higher price because the new Range Rover had already been developed. The small car brand Mini, on the other hand, was the only one to remain in the BMW Group.
In 2003, BMW received the trademark rights for Rolls-Royce automobiles from Rolls Royce plc and was then able to bring the already developed luxury sedan with the name Phantom onto the market, for which a new headquarters were created in Goodwood , England . Since then, the former factory in Crewe has only produced automobiles from the former sibling brand Bentley , which remained with Volkswagen .
BMW was the first in the world to develop hydrogen vehicles suitable for everyday use. Because fuel cells could not be used in series production for cost reasons , BMW therefore relied on the combustion of the hydrogen (H 2 ) with the oxidizing agent oxygen (O 2 ) from the ambient air .
The first 15 "hydrogen models" of a 750i (E38) model , with an additional hydrogen tank, made their rounds at the Expo site at the Expo 2000 . In 2007, another 100 vehicles of the 760Li (E68) model were equipped with a pressureless liquid H 2 tank, fueling and engine technology for hydrogen operation and leased to celebrities and politicians as BMW Hydrogen 7 .
In December 2009, BMW let the hydrogen practical test expire.
Around 2012, BMW then looked at the use of hydrogen in fuel cells. In 2015, BMW showed an electrically powered BMW 5 Series GT test vehicle , which can store enough of the energy carrier in cryogenic form in the tank developed by BMW to enable a range of 500 km. A small test fleet with four vehicles was set up for testing in Europe. BMW considers series production to be possible from 2020.
In 2008, the company's internal think tank project i was commissioned to align the company with the future framework conditions of mobility. The task of project i was to develop a solution for sustainable mobility with a focus on urban mobility and electromobility .
Project i's project work focused on:
- Analysis of the mobility requirements of all stakeholders involved in dialogue events in international metropolises.
- Investigation of the behavior and experience of electric vehicle users. The MINI E and BMW ActiveE pilot fleets , which were built in small numbers, were used in international field tests.
- Development of disruptive electrified vehicle concepts including the associated production and sales processes.
- Development of innovative micro-mobility concepts such as pedelecs or e-scooters.
- Development of innovative solutions for charging electric vehicles such as B. controlled charging, the dovetailing between electromobility and sustainable energy management such as B. Vehicle to Grid (V2G) or the secondary use of batteries in the energy network (Battery 2nd Life).
- Development of measurement methods for holistic eco-balancing of electric vehicles (well-to-wheel, taking into account the value chain).
- Positioning of e-mobility in the sporting sector (e.g. through MINI E Race, support vehicles for Formula E).
The best-known results of project i include the electrically powered BMW i3 , the plug-in hybrid super sports car BMW i8 and the electric scooter BMW C evolution . After the start of series production of the BMW i3 and i8, project i was transferred to the new BMW i product line .
- 1916: Foundation of the Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke (BFW)
- 1917: Renaming of the Rapp-Motorenwerke to Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH
- 1918: conversion to a stock corporation ; Franz Josef Popp becomes the first general director (= CEO) of BMW.
- 1922: The Bayerische Flugzeugwerke becomes BMW
- 1923: Construction of the first BMW R 32 motorcycle
- 1928: Takeover of the Eisenach AG vehicle factory
- 1929: Construction of the first BMW 3/15 PS or AM1 automobile in Eisenach
- 1934: Spin-off of the aircraft engine division into BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH
- 1939: Takeover of the Brandenburg Motor Works in the Spandau district ( BMW-Flugmotorenwerke Brandenburg GmbH )
- 1944: Air raids on the main factory in Munich-Milbertshofen with severe damage
- 1945: Permission to repair US Army vehicles and motorcycle production, but at the same time dismantling of the Munich and Allach plants
- 1948: First post-war motorcycle
- 1959: Historic general meeting at which the takeover by Daimler-Benz can be prevented
- 1960: BMW employs 7,000 people and generates annual sales of 239 million DM
- 1961: The legendary Paul G. Hahnemann ("Niche Paule") becomes director of sales
- 1962: Karl-Heinz Sonne takes over the chairmanship of the board.
- 1963: For the first time there is a dividend again.
- 1965: The slogan "For the joy of driving" (from 1969: "Driving pleasure") is used in marketing communication.
- 1967: Takeover of Hans Glas GmbH , then expansion to the Dingolfing plant
- 1967: Opening of the motorcycle factory in Berlin
- 1969: Relocation of the entire motorcycle division to the BMW plant in Berlin in Spandau
- 1969: BMW employs 21,000 people and generates annual sales of 1.5 billion DM.
- 1970: Eberhard von Kuenheim takes over the chairmanship of the board, he will hold it until 1993. Establishment of the Herbert Quandt Foundation .
- 1972: Completion of the new administration building ( "four-cylinder" ) next to the Olympiapark in Munich
- 1972: Construction of the plant in Rosslyn near Pretoria (South Africa)
- 1973: The Landshut plant opens
- 1975: Alexander Calder designs the first BMW Art Car
- 1978: Presentation of a 5 Series with a hydrogen engine in cooperation with the DLR
- 1978: BMW employs 30,000 people and generates annual sales of DM 6.0 billion.
- 1979: Opening of the engine plant in Steyr (Austria)
- 1984: Opening of the new motorcycle factory in Berlin-Spandau
- 1985: Start of construction for the Research and Innovation Center (FIZ)
- 1985: Foundation of BMW Technik GmbH for advance developments
- 1987: The Regensburg plant opens
- 1990: Official opening of the FIZ
- 1990: BMW employs 70,900 people and generates annual sales of DM 27.1 billion.
- 1992: The factory opens in the USA
- 1993: Bernd Pischetsrieder becomes CEO
- 1994: Acquisition of the Rover Group including the Mini brand
- 1995: Takeover of DesignworksUSA , now BMW Group DesignworksUSA
- 1998: The fourth generation of the 3 series starts in May
- 1999: BMW signs a contract with the Russian company “Avtotor” from the city of Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg); Start of car manufacturing
- 1999: Joachim Milberg takes over the chairmanship of the board
- 2000: Establishment of the Eberhard von Kuenheim Foundation
- 2000: Opening of the CKD plant in Thailand ( BMW Manufacturing (Thailand) )
- 2000: Sale of MG-Rover and LandRover
- 2001: Opening of the BMW factory in Hams Hall
- 2002: Helmut Panke becomes CEO. Start of construction for the BMW plant in Leipzig
- 2003: Acquisition of the naming rights from Rolls-Royce
- 2003: Foundation of the joint venture BMW Brilliance Automotive for production and sales with Brilliance China Automotive Holdings in China
- 2004: Announcement that a production vehicle with a hydrogen engine will be launched on the market as part of the current 7 Series ( 2001–2008 ), see BMW Hydrogen 7
- 2004: Start of construction for BMW Welt (delivery center for BMW automobiles) in Munich
- 2005: Official opening of the new BMW plant in Leipzig on May 13, 2005
- 2005: Official opening of the new Central Parts Delivery (Plant 2.70) in Gaubitzhausen near Dingolfing on June 15, 2005
- 2006: Norbert Reithofer becomes CEO
- 2007: CKD plant in Chennai opens
- 2007: BMW Motorrad takes over Husqvarna Motorcycles
- 2007: BMW Welt opens in Munich
- 2008: Reopening of the BMW Museum in Munich after four years of redesign on June 19, 2008
- 2012: Expansion of the cooperation with Toyota
- 2013: Sale of Husqvarna Motorcycles to Pierer Industrie , the owner of KTM AG
- 2013: Introduction of the Chinese automobile brand Zinoro by BMW Brilliance Automotive
- 2015: Harald Krüger replaces Norbert Reithofer as CEO
- 2016: BMW celebrates the 100th anniversary and announces an alliance with Intel and Mobileye , with the aim of introducing a self-driving vehicle into series production in 2021 .
- 2017: In February 2017, it was announced that the Slovak Jozef Kabaň , who has been chief designer at Škoda Auto in the Czech Republic since 2008 , is moving to BMW in the same position.
- 2018: Together with the Chinese Great Wall Motor Company Limited , the joint venture Spotlight Automotive Ltd. is founded in July 2018. based in Zhangjiagang for the development and production of electric cars .
- 2019: Oliver Zipse replaces Harald Krüger as CEO
Start until 1976
- 1917: BMW IIIa high-altitude aircraft engine , six-cylinder series, 19 liters, water-cooled, 136 kW (185 hp). Endurance flight record on December 30, 1921 in the USA.
- 1918: BMW IV high-altitude aircraft engine , six-cylinder series, 22.9 liters, water-cooled, 184 kW (250 hp)
- 1919: M4 A1 truck engine, four-cylinder in-line, 8,000 cm³, overhead camshaft, 44 kW (60 hp)
- 1920: M4 A12 boat engine, four-cylinder in-line, 8,000 cm³, overhead camshaft, reverse gear, 44 kW (60 PS)
- 1921: Compound engine for passenger cars, four-cylinder series, 8,000 cm³, overhead camshaft, attached two-speed gearbox, 44 kW (60 PS)
- 1922: Small engine M2 B15, two-cylinder boxer, 500 cm³, first series production of a boxer engine , 4.8 kW (6.5 PS)
- 1923: The first BMW motorcycle, the R 32 , comes with a longitudinally installed two-cylinder boxer engine ( side-controlled (SV) ), 500 cm³, 6.25 kW (8.5 hp), a blocked three-speed gearbox, cardan drive and a double tubular steel frame on the market
- 1924: Series production of the improved aero engine BMW IV, 22.9 liters, now with 228 kW (310 hp)
- 1925: R 37 motorcycle with overhead steering (OHV) two-cylinder boxer engine, 500 cm³, 12 kW (16 hp), steel cylinder
- 1925: First motorcycle with a single cylinder engine: R 39 (OHV), 250 cm³, 4.8 kW (6.5 PS)
- 1926: BMW V aero engine, six-cylinder in-line engine, 24.3 liters, 235 kW (320 hp), first block design
- 1926: BMW Va aircraft engine, six-cylinder in-line engine, 22.9 liters, 235 kW (320 hp)
- 1926: BMW VI aero engine, twelve-cylinder V-shape, 60 degrees, 46.9 liters, 405 kW (550 hp), the most popular water-cooled BMW aircraft engine
- 1926: R 42 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (SV), 500 cm³, 8.8 kW (12 hp)
- 1927: BMW VII a aircraft engine, twelve-cylinder V-shape, 60 degrees, 46.9 liters, 441 kW (600 hp)
- 1927: R 47 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (OHV), 500 cm³, 13 kW (18 hp)
- 1928: BMW VIII U aircraft engine, six-cylinder in-line engine, 22.9 liters, 390 kW (530 PS), reduction gear
- 1928: BMW "Hornet" aircraft engine, nine-cylinder radial engine , 27.7 liters, 386 kW (525 PS), air-cooled (license for the Pratt & Whitney Hornet A )
- 1928: R 52 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (SV), 500 cm³, 8.8 kW (12 hp)
- 1928: R 57 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (OHV), 500 cm³, 13 kW (18 hp)
- 1928: R 62 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (SV), 750 cm³, 13 kW (18 PS) (first 750 cm³ machine)
- 1929: First BMW car: BMW 3/15 ( "BMW-Dixi" ), four-cylinder engine, 750 cm³, 11 kW (15 PS), license from the English Austin Seven
- 1929: R 63 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (OHV), 750 cm³, 18 kW (24 hp)
- 1930: BMW X a aircraft engine, five-cylinder radial engine, 2.9 liters, 50 kW (68 hp), air-cooled
- 1930: R 11 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (SV), 750 cm³, 15 kW (20 hp), first pressed steel frame
- 1930: R 16 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (OHV), 750 cm³, 24 kW (33 hp)
- 1931: BMW VIII aero engine, six-cylinder in-line engine, 22.9 liters, 390 kW (530 hp)
- 1931: BMW IX aircraft engine, twelve-cylinder V-shaped engine, 60 degrees, 46.9 liters, 588 kW (800 hp)
- 1931: R 2 motorcycle with single-cylinder engine (OHV), 200 cm³, 4.4 kW (6 PS)
- 1932: Passenger car AM1 to AM4 with four-cylinder in-line engine, 795 cm³, 14.7 (20 HP), (first in-house design)
- 1932: R 4 motorcycle with single-cylinder engine (OHV), 400 cm³, 10 kW (14 PS)
- 1933: Three-wheeled transport car with a single-cylinder engine, 200 or 400 cm³, 4.4 or 10 kW (6 or 14 HP), cardan drive
- 1933: First BMW car with a six-cylinder engine, BMW 303 , 1175 cm³, 22 kW (30 PS)
- 1933: 68 hp small engine, an air-cooled radial engine with 11½ l / h average fuel consumption for sport aircraft
- 1934: BMW 132 Dc aircraft engine , nine-cylinder radial engine, 27.7 liters, 625 kW (850 PS), engine replacement in 25 minutes, further development of the Pratt & Whitney Hornet B
- 1934: BMW 309 , passenger car with four-cylinder in-line engine, 875 cm³, 16 kW (22 hp)
- 1934: BMW 315 , passenger car with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,490 cm³, 25 kW (34 hp)
- 1935: BMW 315/1 , passenger car with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,490 cm³, 29 kW (40 hp)
- 1935: BMW 319 and 319/1, passenger car with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,911 cm³, 33 or 40 kW (45 or 55 PS)
- 1935: BMW 320 , passenger car with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,975 cm³, 33 kW (45 hp)
- 1935: R 12 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (SV), 750 cm³, 20 hp
- 1935: R 17 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (OHV), 750 cm³, 24 kW (33 PS), introduction of the telescopic front wheel suspension in a pressed steel frame
- 1936: BMW 326 passenger car with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,975 cm³, 38 kW (50 hp), torsion bar suspension on the rear axle
- 1936: BMW 328 Roadster with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,975 cm³, 59 kW (80 PS)
- 1936: BMW 329 Cabriolet with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,975 cm³, 33 kW (45 hp)
- 1936: R 3 motorcycle with single-cylinder engine (OHV), 300 cm³, 8.1 kW (11 PS)
- 1936: R 20 motorcycle with single-cylinder engine, 200 cm³, 5.9 kW (8 PS)
- 1936: R 5 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (OHV), 500 cm³, 18 kW (24 hp)
- 1936: R 6 motorcycle with two-cylinder boxer engine (SV), 600 cm³, 13 kW (18 hp), reintroduction of the double tubular steel frame
- 1937: BMW 327 Coupé and Cabriolet with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,975 cm³, 40 kW (55 PS)
- 1937: BMW 325 , light standard car for the Wehrmacht , six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,975 cm³, 38 kW (50 hp), all-wheel steering and all-wheel drive
- 1937: R 35 motorcycle with single-cylinder engine (OHV), 350 cm³, 10 kW (14 PS)
- 1938: Motorcycles R 51 (OHV), R 61 (SV), R 66 (OHV), R 71 (SV) with two-cylinder boxer engine, for the first time with sprung rear wheel (straight-way suspension)
- 1939: Start of development of the BMW 003 jet engine at Brandenburgische Motorenwerke GmbH (Bramo) in Berlin
- 1940: Series production of the 14-cylinder double-star aero engine BMW 801 for the Fw 190 fighter aircraft and the Ju 88 fighter aircraft
- 1940: R 75 motorcycle with powered sidecar for the Wehrmacht
- 1952: BMW 501 , luxury class car with six-cylinder in-line engine, 1,971 cm³, 48 kW (65 hp)
- 1954: BMW 502 , first BMW car with an eight-cylinder engine (V8), 2,580 cm³, 74 kW (100 PS)
- 1955: BMW 507 sports car , “Italian” body, V8 engine for the US market, only 258 units built
- 1961: Presentation of the four-door mid-range BMW 1500 ("New Class") at the IAA - with this vehicle the company laid the foundations for economic success 15 years after the end of the Second World War
- 1965: BMW 700 LS Coupé (design by Michelotti, Italy)
- 1966: Discontinuation of the eight-cylinder series ( BMW 3200 CS ), introduction of the two-door BMW 1600-2 , two years later the legendary BMW 2002 ti
- 1968: Presentation of the 2500 with a six-cylinder in-line engine
- 1969: Presentation of the completely newly developed / 5 motorcycles with plain bearing motors: R 50/5, R 60/5, R 75/5
- 1972: BMW 520 and 520i replace the four-door New Class as the first models in the 5-series .
- 1973: BMW 2002 Turbo - first German production car with a turbocharger
- 1974: Further development of the / 5 motorcycle series into the / 6 series: R 60/6, R 75/6, R 90/6 and the legendary R 90 S as the top model
- 1975: The first BMW 3 series with the designation E21 appears on the market.
- 1976: Successor models / 7: R 60/7, R 75/7 (later R 80/7) and R 100/7 as well as the first fully clad series machine R 100 RS with 51 kW (70 PS)
- 1977: The 7 Series replaces the 2500 - 3.3 Li sedans; BMW is also introducing the ABS anti-lock braking system .
- 1980: With the R 80 G / S , the first series travel enduro is presented. The model was a great success and ensured the continued existence of BMW motorcycle production.
- 1981: The second generation of the 5 series is presented at the IAA .
- 1982: The second generation of the 3 series is launched in November
- 1983: K 100 motorcycle series with longitudinally installed four-cylinder in-line engine, 1,000 cm³, 66 kW (90 PS)
- 1985: Motorbike series K 75 with longitudinally installed horizontal three-cylinder in-line engine, 750 cm³, 55 kW (75 PS)
- 1985: Presentation of the 325i Cabriolet as a full convertible without a roll bar
- 1986: Second generation of the 7 series (for a reference, see 1987 750i)
- 1987: BMW 750i with 12-cylinder BMW M70 engine ; the first German series twelve-cylinder engine since the Second World War
- 1988: Third generation of the 5 series
- 1989: Start of production for the futuristic roadster BMW Z1 , of which exactly 8,000 units are built within two years (vertically lifting doors)
- 1989: The luxury class Coupé 850i with a 12-cylinder BMW M70 engine is presented at the IAA .
- 1990: At the end of the year, the four-door sedan of the third generation of the 3-series is presented.
- 1991: Introduction of the xenon light in the 7 series (E32)
- 1992: Presentation of the 2-door version (now referred to as “Coupé”), third generation of the 3 series (see 1990 for reference).
- 1993: Presentation of the third generation convertible in the 3 series (see 1990 for a reference).
- 1994: Replacement of the traditional two-valve two-cylinder boxer engine for motorcycles by a newly developed four-valve unit in order to be able to meet stricter environmental requirements.
- 1994: BMW enters the compact class with the more simply designed and cheaper to manufacture E36 offshoot "Compact".
- 1994: Presentation of the new 7 Series E38 . At the beginning, six and eight-cylinder engines with the world's first navigation system ex works as an extra, completely integrated into the vehicle's fittings. Functions: navigation, DSP, TV, radio, on-board computer.
- 1995: Presentation of the Z3 in the feature film " James Bond 007 - Goldeneye "
- 1995: Presentation of the BMW 5 Series (E39) at the IAA Frankfurt
- 1998: The fourth generation of the 3 series starts in May
- 1999: The first "Sports Activity Vehicle" from BMW, the SUV X5 , is presented
- 2001: Introduction of the electronic operating concept iDrive in the 7-series ( E65 / 66 )
- 2002: The Z4 Roadster is introduced.
- 2003: Production of the new 6 Series Coupé begins.
- 2004: The ones are introduced.
- 2005: At the Geneva Motor Show in spring, BMW presented the 5th generation of the 3-series sedan .
- 2006: An in-line six-cylinder bi-turbo engine with 225 kW (306 hp) and 400 Nm maximum torque is presented at the Geneva Motor Show. Another feature is the use of magnesium and aluminum for the engine block .
- 2006: Presentation of the Z4 Coupé .
- 2006: The new BMW X5 of the E70 series offers up to 7 seats
- 2007: The BMW Hydrogen 7 is ready for series production and is produced in limited quantities at the BMW plant in Dingolfing .
- 2007: The new 3 Series Convertible appears with a three-part folding roof made of lightweight sheet steel.
- 2007: Expansion of the 1 series to include a three-door, a coupé and a convertible
- 2008: In April, BMW presented the supersport motorcycle S 1000 RR with 147 kW (200 hp) from 1 liter displacement.
- 2008: The X6 is the first off-road coupé, opening up a new vehicle category.
- 2008: September facelift of the 3 Series , October presentation of the BMW Concept X1 at the Paris Motor Show
- 2008: November new edition of the 7 series
- 2008: 12 BMW Z4 M Coupé works racing cars are built.
- 2009: The new Z4 is presented
- 2009: October world premiere of the 5 Series Gran Turismo , X1 and Concept Vision Efficient Dynamics at the IAA in Frankfurt
- 2009: Presentation of the new edition of the 5 series ( F10 )
- 2010: January world premiere of the BMW Concept ActiveE at the NAIAS
- 2010: March facelift of the 3-series convertible and coupé as well as the X5 and X6
- 2010: April world premiere of the BMW Gran Coupé
- 2011: September IAA presentation of the new edition of the 1- series ( F20 )
- 2011: October 14th: Official presentation of the new edition BMW 3 Series ( F30 )
- 2012: December 4 Series Coupé (F32)
- 2013: January world premiere of the 3 Series Gran Turismo
- 2013: April world premiere of the SUV - coupe X4 , a scaled down version of the X6
- 2013: At the end of July, presentation in London, New York and Beijing of the BMW i3 (I01) electric car , the first series vehicle with a passenger cell made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)
- 2013: September presentation of the plug-in hybrid sports car BMW i8
- 2014: four-door BMW 4 Series Gran Coupé F36
- 2015: The 5 Series GT with fuel cell from the Toyota Mirai is shown, its rear axle is driven by a 180 kW (245 PS) electric motor.
- 2015: Premiere of the 7 Series G11 at the IAA
- 2016/7: Presentation of the new edition of the 5 series G30 / G31
- 2017: Presentation of the BMW Concept 8 Series Coupé in May
- 2017: The second generation of the X3 (G01) is presented at the IAA in September . It has a c w value of 0.29.
- 2017: Presentation of the i8 Roadster at the LA Auto Show in December
- 2018: In March the small crossover X2 (F39) goes into series production, in April the first X4 (G02) of the second generation are to be delivered. The all-electric BMW Concept iX3 will be presented for the first time at Auto China 2018 in Beijing , which includes the introduction of the fifth generation of e-drive technology.
- 2018: The third generation of the Z4 is presented in August .
- 2018: In October, the seventh generation of the 3-series sedan and the new X5 , both of which use the new CLAR platform , will be shown at the Paris Motor Show .
- 2018: At the end of October, the BMW X7, the largest BMW SUV to date, is presented, and the 8 Series Convertible in November .
- 2019: The seventh generation of the Dreier went on sale on March 9th .
- 2019: The third generation of the 1 Series was presented at the IAA and the two-door Coupé Concept 4 as a preview of the next 4 Series .
- 2020: BMW wanted to present a near-series study of the BMW i4 at the Geneva Motor Show . Due to the COVID-19 pandemic , the auto salon was canceled, which is why the BMW Concept i4 was presented on the Internet. The vehicle has a revised BMW brand logo, the outer black ring of which shows the vehicle color.
- 2020: The BMW R 18 , a cruiser in retro design with a 1.8 liter boxer engine, will go on sale in April .
The sign language of the logo of the predecessor company Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH was used for the trademark of Bayerische Motoren Werke . The black ring now bears the letters B M W. In the round center field, instead of a stylized black horse (a knight figure from a chess game ), there is a four-part circle. In view of the first part of the name, this was designed in the Bavarian national colors. However, since the use of state emblems was forbidden by law for private companies , they managed to reverse the order of the colors. Instead of the white and blue national colors, the corporate colors were blue and white. The Bayerische Flugzeugwerke , which later became part of BMW , had a very similar logo in terms of sign language. As a state-owned company, they were allowed to use the white and blue diamonds as a trademark without any changes. Since an aircraft engine brochure from 1929, the quartered inner circle has been interpreted as a view through a propeller. Since this interpretation is far more poetic, it has been heavily cultivated. The logo was printed for the first time in 1918 on the operating instructions for the "Bayern aircraft engine type BMW IIIa". The BMW logo was first seen on a vehicle, the BMW R 32 motorcycle, in 1923 . The first BMW automobile with the logo was the BMW 3/15 PS in 1929.
In 2020, a revised form of the logo was shown with the Concept i4 : on this, the outer and previously black ring shows the vehicle color. It should not be used on the vehicles themselves, but for communication purposes such as at trade fair stands and on the Internet.
|Timeline of the glass series models from 1955 to 1969|
|Type||independent (Hans Glas GmbH)||BMW|
|Small car||Isar ("large Goggomobil")|
|Lower middle class||1004, 1204, 1304|
|Middle class||1700||1800 SA, 2000 SA / 1804, 2004 |
|1300 GT, 1700 GT||1600 GT |
|2600 V8, 3000 V8||3000 V8 |
Timeline of the pre-war models
|Timeline of the Dixi , BMW and EMW models from 1927 to 1955|
|Small car||Dixi 3/15|
|Lower middle class||309|
|upper middle class||335|
|Roadster / Coupé / Convertible||BMW Wartburg||315/1 / 319/1||327||...||327||EMW 327|
Post War Model Timeline
|Timeline of the glass series models from 1955 to 1969|
|Type||independent (Hans Glas GmbH)||BMW|
|Small car||Isar ("large Goggomobil")|
|Lower middle class||1004, 1204, 1304|
|Middle class||1700||1800 SA, 2000 SA / 1804, 2004 |
|1300 GT, 1700 GT||1600 GT |
|2600 V8, 3000 V8||3000 V8 |
Another business area of BMW is the development and production of motorcycles , which have been manufactured since 1923. Automobile production was only added in 1928. Today BMW is the only large-scale manufacturer of large-capacity motorcycles in Germany and one of the top-selling in Europe. At the beginning of 2014, 488,572 BMW motorcycles were registered in Germany, which corresponds to a share of 12.0%. The most important and best-selling model is the BMW R 1200 GS travel enduro .
In addition to automobiles and motorcycles, BMW also produces engines for external companies. Customers include: B. Wiesmann (BMW engines and BMW drive components in all models), the Morgan Motor Company (BMW V8 petrol engine and BMW drive components in the Aero 8 model), Yanmar Marine (BMW diesel engines for marine applications ) and Siemens (4L- V8 in the Combino Duo ). BMW motorcycle boxer engines are used for the “Fox” portable pump from Rosenbauer .
In September 2010, a contract was signed with SAAB for the delivery of 1.6 l 4-cylinder engines.
In July 2011, a contract for the delivery of four-cylinder engines was signed with Fisker Automotive , Inc. The engine is to be used in a mid-size sedan with electric drive to extend the range of the range extender .
In December 2011, a contract was signed with Toyota Motor Corporation for the supply of fuel-efficient 1.6 l and 2.0 l diesel engines.
In December 2011, a contract was signed with Roding Automobile GmbH for the delivery of 3.0 l in-line six-cylinder engines with turbocharging for the two-seat, mid-engined sports car Roding Roadster .
In spring 2012, a contract was signed with PGO Automobiles SA for the delivery of 1.6 l in-line four-cylinder engines with turbocharging for the two-seater mid-engine coupes / hatchbacks Speedster II, Cevennes and Hemera .
Previous customers included Opel (BMW inline six-cylinder diesel engine in the Omega model), Land Rover (BMW V8 petrol engine in the Range Rover model ), Rolls-Royce (BMW twelve-cylinder petrol engine), as well as Kaelble and Magirus (where BMW engines are used as Drive source for trucks were installed).
BMW bicycles have been around since the end of World War II. BMW applied for the first patent for a bicycle frame back in 1950. In the nineties of the 20th century, the Munich-based automotive company developed a series of foldable bicycles that were specially tailored to the needs of automotive customers. In 2005, a completely new generation of bicycles was presented that included a wider range of models and was equipped with commercially available components. The new generation of bicycles have received a number of notable international awards, including a. the red Dot Design Award , the iF Design Award and the Design Award of the Federal Republic of Germany. These bicycles are sold through BMW dealerships and a Berlin bicycle dealer.
The BMW M GmbH, a company for individual automobiles is a subsidiary of the car manufacturer BMW and responsible performance for the development and production modifications of some BMW models . One of the first results of M GmbH was the BMW 3.0 CSL, built with significant assistance from Alpina . This significantly lightened model of the BMW E9 was a successful first step.
In February 2011, BMW announced that it would be offering sustainable mobility solutions under the BMW i sub-brand from 2013 , e.g. B. to offer electric models. The ideas that have been developed since 2007 under the name project i are incorporated here.
In July 2011, BMW presented concept vehicles of both models. The BMW i3 is powered exclusively by a 125 kW electric motor on the rear axle. It has four seats and an approximately 200 liter trunk. The maximum achievable speed is limited to 150 km / h, since consumption would increase disproportionately at higher speeds.
The i8, on the other hand, is a plug-in hybrid. The electric motor in a slightly modified form from the i3 drives the front wheels, and a 170 kW three-cylinder petrol engine also drives the rear wheels. Acceleration of less than 5 seconds to 100 km / h is possible, the standard consumption is less than three liters.
In 2018, the all-electric BMW Concept iX3 was shown at Auto China in Beijing and at the Paris Motor Show , which includes the introduction of the fifth generation of e-drive technology. In addition, the electric motor should get by without rare earths . In the future, the vehicle architectures from BMW should also be able to use an electric drive; all-electric BMWs will then be called BMW i .
The BMW Group today
After the end of the Rover project, the BMW Group realigned itself and focused primarily on vehicles in the premium segment. Today, the BMW Group offers a wide range of products with the brands Mini , BMW and Rolls-Royce, from small cars to high-end luxury sedans. Within the last few years the worldwide sales could u. a. will be increased to over 2.2 million vehicles per year through new model series, at the same time BMW is the most profitable automobile manufacturer after Porsche and Toyota with approx. 9% return on sales (2015) and still independent. The BMW Group operates plants in Germany, Austria, Great Britain, South Africa, USA and China , where BMW (literally “Bao-Ma”) is understood as a “noble, precious horse”.
The BMW Group is a leader among the so-called premium manufacturers when it comes to reducing CO 2 emissions from vehicles. Accordingly, in 2008 the company was the only European automobile manufacturer to meet the requirements of the ACEA - the voluntary commitment to reduce CO 2 emissions.
On March 1, 2005, production of the 1 series (E87) and 3 series (E90) started in the new BMW plant in Leipzig .
The plants are located in Munich (parent plant), Dingolfing (largest plant), Regensburg , Landshut (replacement engine production, exterior, interior, cardan shaft production, foundry), Leipzig (production start 2005), Berlin-Spandau (motorcycles), Greer (South Carolina) ( USA) ), Rosslyn ( South Africa ), Oxford ( UK , Mini), Hams Hall (UK, engines), Steyr ( Austria , engines), Swindon (UK, pressed parts and components), Goodwood (UK, Rolls-Royce), Eisenach , Wackersdorf (CKD shipping) and Shenyang , China.
BMW Motoren GmbH (Steyr plant) produced over a million engines (4- and 6-cylinder, gasoline and diesel engines) in 2012. Thus around 80% of the engines used in BMW vehicles come from Steyr. All BMW diesel units are also developed at the Steyr plant (diesel competence center in the BMW Group).
There are also works for assembling so-called CKD sets and the like. a. in Araquari ( Brazil ), Kaliningrad ( Russia ), Cairo ( Egypt ), Chennai ( India ), Rayong ( Thailand ), Malaysia and Indonesia .
Distribution in Germany
Sales are carried out via the company's own branches, which are located in selected cities such as Bonn , Dresden , Düsseldorf or Hamburg and thus cover certain regions, and authorized dealers who do not have branches in other cities (e.g. Cologne ) and those of BMW Regions such as B. the Rhein-Sieg district are widespread, settled.
Motorsport and other activities
BMW is involved in motorsport , u. a. in touring car racing ( WTCC and 24h races ) as well as in various junior series ( Formula BMW ). Between 2002 and 2010, the company sponsored the BMW Oracle Racing team in regatta sailing . BMW Oracle Racing won the 33rd America's Cup in 2010 . The subsidiary BMW DesignworksUSA works for customers in the industrial sector; u. a. for pleasure craft shipyards. BMW ended its participation in Formula 1 with BMW-Sauber after the 2009 season.
Share and shareholder structure
The company's share capital is divided into 656 million shares. The voting portion of this is around 602 million ordinary shares . Of these, 53.2% are in free float . As of August 2019, BlackRock Inc. is the only reportable free float shareholder with a stake of 3.18% of the ordinary shares. The portion considered as permanent property is distributed as follows:
|proportion of||Shareholders (data only refer to share capital with voting rights)|
|9%||AQTON SE, Bad Homburg vd Höhe (voting rights are assigned to Stefan Quandt)|
|16.6%||AQTON GmbH & Co. KG für Automobilwerte, Bad Homburg vd Höhe (voting rights are assigned to Stefan Quandt)|
|20.7%||Susanne Klatten Beteiligungs GmbH, Bad Homburg vd Höhe (voting rights are assigned to Susanne Klatten)|
(As of February 16, 2018)
BMW shares are not only in demand on the stock exchange, but also increasingly in the area of historical securities .
The so-called nonvaleurs from BMW are very popular, especially those that were issued immediately after the name change. In their capacity as collector's items , these Reichsmark shares not only delight fans of scripophilia , but are also increasingly in demand among BMW friends (e.g. as decorative wall decorations or unusual gift ideas).
|2000||834.519||-||-||74,397||€ 35.356 billion||€ 1,026 billion|
|2001||880,677||24,980||-||84,713||€ 38.463 billion||€ 1.866 billion|
|2002||913.225||144.119||-||92,599||€ 42.411 billion||€ 2.020 billion|
|2003||928.151||176,465||300||92,962||€ 41.525 billion||€ 1.947 billion|
|2004||1,023,583||184,357||792||92.266||€ 44.335 billion||€ 2.242 billion|
|2005||1,126,768||200,428||796||97,474||€ 46.656 billion||€ 2.239 billion|
|2006||1,185,088||188.077||805||103,759||€ 48.999 billion||€ 2.874 billion|
|2007||1,276,793||237,700||1,010||104,396||€ 56.018 billion||€ 3.134 billion|
|2008||1,202,239||235.019||1,212||104,220||€ 53.197 billion||€ 0.333 billion|
|2009||1,068,770||216,538||1.002||82,631||€ 50.681 billion||€ 0.210 billion|
|2010||1,224,280||234.175||2,711||99,236||€ 60.477 billion||€ 3.234 billion|
|2011||1,380,384||285.060||3,538||104,286||€ 68.821 billion||€ 4.907 billion|
|2012||1,540,085||301,526||3,575||106,358||€ 76.848 billion||€ 5.111 billion|
|2013||1,655,138||305.030||3,630||115.215||€ 76.059 billion||€ 5.329 billion|
|2014||1,811,719||302.183||4,063||123,495||€ 80.401 billion||€ 5.817 billion|
|2015||1,905,234||338,466||3.785||136,963||€ 92.175 billion||€ 6.396 billion|
|2016||2,003,359||360.233||4.011||145.032||€ 94.163 billion||€ 6.910 billion|
|2017||2,088,283||371,881||3.362||185,682||€ 98.678 billion||€ 8.706 billion|
|2018||2,125,026||361,531||4,107||162,687||€ 97.480 billion||€ 7.207 billion|
|2019||2,185,793||347,474||5,100||175.162||€ 104.210 billion||€ 5.022 billion|
BMW had agreed with its dealers in the European Economic Area (EEA) not to deliver any vehicles to customers outside the EEA. The Swiss could not purchase BMWs from foreign dealers either. In October 2010 the Competition Commission (Weko) opened an investigation against BMW. The Federal Administrative Court assessed this as an inadmissible competition agreement and fined the car company CHF 156 million. imposed. The federal court confirmed the information released on November 10, 2017 decision of this preliminary decision of the Federal Administrative Court. A complaint from BMW was rejected. The Comco responded to numerous complaints from Swiss customers who had tried unsuccessfully to purchase a new BMW or Mini car abroad. The export clause has been included in dealer agreements since 2003. Between autumn 2010 and 2011, cars in the euro zone cost an average of 20 to 25% less than in Switzerland.
Head of Politics, d. H. Thomas Becker has been the chief lobbyist of the group since December 2007. Since June 2009, Markus Heß has been the leading BMW lobbyist in Brussels for the representation of interests vis-à-vis European institutions. Before that, he was head of the EU policy department in the Federal Ministry of Economics, for which he has worked since 1999. Since October 2009 the former Federal Foreign Minister, Vice Chancellor and Greens Chairman Joschka Fischer has been lobbying for BMW.
In 2006, BMW employees came into the focus of the public prosecutor's office as part of the bribery affair involving the automotive supplier Faurecia . Several employees were investigated. One of them was the head of the purchasing department at BMW, who confessed to having accepted a total of around one million euros from various suppliers. The purchasing manager was sentenced to three years in prison by the Munich Regional Court .
Another employee in the BMW purchasing department who worked in the USA had accepted bribes of up to € 500,000 from Faurecia for several years and preferred the French supplier when placing the order. As a result, the Munich Regional Court sentenced the former buyer to two years and nine months' imprisonment in nine cases for bribery. The defendant had previously made a confession and repaid € 400,000 to BMW and € 168,000 to the tax office.
Data protection in the car
Using the example of a BMW 320d , studies by the computer magazine C't in 2016 showed that this vehicle records considerable amounts of data on driving operations, driving style and personal use and transmits it to BMW via the specialist workshop's diagnostic device. The procedure is called "FASTA" ("Vehicle operating and service data transfer and analysis").
In addition, the infotainment system stores the phone books of connected cell phones, SMS and other personal data with barely effective protection mechanisms, which can probably be reconstructed even after deletion (via the infotainment system). (These data will probably not be transmitted to BMW.)
A BMW i3 REX was even more communicative . B. sends data directly to BMW every time it is switched off (unencrypted), including GPS location. A movement profile of the vehicle can also be created, which enables personal conclusions to be drawn. GPS data is also collected and sent if GPS positioning is "switched off" in the settings menu. Much of this data can also be easily read out / reconstructed from the control unit at a later date, e.g. B. by the buyer of a used car or a workshop technician, which allows conclusions to be drawn about the use of the (previous) vehicle user in the last few weeks.
Role in the exhaust scandal - diesel retrofitting
BMW also delivered diesel cars to the Euro5 emissions standard in Germany without an SCR catalytic converter , although this retrofit was already planned for some models and only an exhaust pipe was installed instead of the SCR catalytic converter. ZDF Frontal21 researched that BMW had been equipping diesel cars for the US market with it as standard since the end of 2008. When asked, BMW justified the different equipment with the different legal situation in the USA at that time.
In February 2019, BMW was obliged by the Munich Public Prosecutor's Office (I) to pay a fine of 8.5 million euros for negligent breach of duty of supervision. Since no fraud was proven, the amount of the fine was small compared to the other automobile manufacturers .
- BMW Motorsport
- BMW Foundation Herbert Quandt
- Vehicles: BMW cars , minis , Rolls-Royce , list of BMW motorcycles
- Formula 1 teams: BMW-Sauber , Williams
- BMW Group research and innovation center
- Media: factory museum and advertising films from BMW, BMW magazine and other media from the group
- Research: European Research Association for Environment and Health in the Transport Sector
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- BMW Germany
- BMW automobiles
- BMW motorcycle
- BMW Group
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