|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Dusseldorf|
|Height :||38 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||217.41 km 2|
|Residents:||621,877 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||2860 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0211, 0203, 02104|
|License plate :||D.|
|Community key :||05 1 11 000|
|LOCODE :||DE DUS|
|City structure:||10 districts
with 50 districts
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Thomas Geisel ( SPD )|
|Location of the state capital Düsseldorf in North Rhine-Westphalia and in the administrative district of Düsseldorf|
state capital of North Rhine-Westphaliaand the official seat of theadministrative district of Düsseldorf. Theindependent cityon theRhineisthe second largestcity inthe stateafterColognewith 621,877 inhabitants on December 31, 2019. InGermany, Düsseldorf is theseventh largest cityby population. Düsseldorf is part of theRhine-Ruhr metropolitan regionwith around ten million inhabitants and theRhineland metropolitan regionwith 8.6 million inhabitants. The city at the heart of thecentral European economicarea has long been in 6th place inMercerstudies on the cities with the highest quality of life worldwide.is the
In 1288 the place at the confluence of the river Düssel in the Rhine received the city charter . From the end of the 14th century to the beginning of the 19th century, the city was the seat of government of the countries of the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine : the Duchy of Berg , the Duchy of Jülich-Berg and Jülich-Kleve-Berg and the Grand Duchy of Berg , from 1690 to 1716 also residence of the Count Palatine and Elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz . From the 19th century onwards, it was the seat of the administrative district of Düsseldorf and was the parliamentary seat of the Rhine Province in Prussia until the 20th century . During the German Empire , Dusseldorf developed into the “ desk of the Ruhr area ” in the course of high industrialization in Germany and became a major city in 1882 when the 100,000 population mark was exceeded .
The metropolis on the Rhine is one of the five most important, internationally strongly intertwined economic centers in Germany. Düsseldorf is a trade fair city and the seat of many listed companies, including the DAX- listed Henkel group . It is also the German location with the highest turnover for auditing , corporate and legal advice , advertising and clothing fashion as well as an important financial and stock market . It is also a leader in the art trade in Germany.
Düsseldorf has several Rhine ports . Its airport is the intercontinental hub of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city is also home to 22 universities, including the renowned Düsseldorf Art Academy and the Heinrich Heine University . Düsseldorf is also well-known beyond the region for its old town (“longest bar in the world”), its Königsallee shopping boulevard (“Kö”), its Düsseldorf carnival , the Fortuna Düsseldorf football club and the Düsseldorf EG ice hockey club . Other attractions are numerous museums and galleries as well as the Rhine promenade and the modern media harbor . The cityscape is also characterized by numerous skyscrapers and church towers , the 240 meter high Rhine tower , many monuments and seven bridges over the Rhine . The large number of East Asian residents is remarkable , including the Japanese community , which is the largest Japanese community and the only Japantown in Germany. The center of this Japanese community is Immermannstrasse, which attracts tourists and locals alike with its various Japanese restaurants, shops and supermarkets.
Düsseldorf, which is predominantly on the right bank of the Rhine , is located in the central part of the Lower Rhine lowlands on a low terrace area crossed by numerous arms of the Rhine . Only the districts of Oberkassel , Niederkassel , Heerdt and Lörick are on the left bank of the Rhine .
The city is part of the prosperous Rhine line and borders the Ruhr area to the southwest . It is located in the heart of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region and in the transition area between the Lower Rhine and the Bergisches Land , to which the city, historically speaking, belongs. The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is an economic region and an urban agglomeration in western Germany. It is one of the largest agglomerations within the European megalopolis and the largest in Germany. In the 20 independent cities and ten districts of the region, around eleven million people live on almost 10,000 km² (as of 2005); Around nine million people live within a radius of 50 kilometers from the Düsseldorf regional center alone .
The central location in the largest metropolitan area in Germany, the function of the capital for the populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia, the large number of important companies as well as the facilities with infrastructures and offers of all kinds give the city great contact and agglomeration advantages , which significantly promote its growth and the emergence of innovative milieus . However, the city is spared some agglomeration disadvantages, such as a frequently collapsing transport network, an extremely burdensome urban climate or property prices at the top European level, because Düsseldorf itself is not a metropolis with a population of over a million, belongs to a polycentric network of cities and because it is surrounded by open spaces and recreational areas on all sides.
The location on the Rhine gives the city the opportunity to impressively stage the cityscape with its skyline in contrast to the river, which due to its size forms an expansive landscape area, and to merge the two into a memorable urban landscape .
The geographical center of Düsseldorf is in the Düsseltal , the point is marked with a bronze plaque.
Düsseldorf is in the center of the Central European Time zone .
The climate of the Düsseldorf area is characterized by the relief-related opening towards the North Sea oceanic / Atlantic . Düsseldorf lies in the Lower Rhine lowlands ; predominantly westerly wind currents bring humid air masses. The consequences are mild winters with little snow and moderately warm, humid and humid summers with changeable weather. With an annual mean temperature of 11.2 ° C, there is an average of around 790 mm of precipitation in the city . The Düsseldorf area is one of the areas with the mildest winters in Germany. Even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below freezing point. Occurring frosts usually stay in the upper range just below 0 ° C. According to the USDA classification of winter hardiness zones , Düsseldorf is in zone 8b, in inner-city microclimates even in zone 9a, which means that the average coldest annual temperature is above −6.6 ° C . With around 1550 hours of sunshine , Düsseldorf is one of the less sunny cities in Germany, which also ensures milder temperatures in winter due to the overcast sky and thus less temperature radiation . Because of the mild climate, many exotic and Mediterranean plants such as palms, olives, laurel , figs, pines and cypresses are cultivated outdoors in the Düsseldorf area .
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Düsseldorf
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
Air quality and environmental protection
Energy production, industry and transport are the main causes of anthropogenic, ie man-made air pollution. Due to the high air pollution, the Düsseldorf district government is drawing up air pollution control plans . The first clean air plan for the entire urban area of the state capital Düsseldorf came into force on November 1st, 2008. He combined all the plans drawn up up to that point into an overall plan. After the plan comes into force, the measures will be implemented by the relevant specialist authorities. The aim of this air pollution control strategy is to achieve compliance with the statutory limit values for the protection of the health of the people living and working in Düsseldorf as quickly as possible.
In the context of the previous air pollution control planning, it has been possible to achieve considerable successes for almost all air pollutants, especially fine dust, which was still critical at the beginning of the 2000s, and the limit values were observed. However, the limit value of 40 micrograms per cubic meter of air (annual average) that has been in force for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) since 2010 is still clearly exceeded in Düsseldorf. At the Corneliusstrasse measuring point, the 2017 annual mean value of 56 μg / m³ was still at a very high level of NO 2 pollution. For some time now, in addition to fine dust particle fractions, so-called ultra-fine dusts, especially in the vicinity of airports, have been the focus of attention.
Nitrogen dioxide can cause lasting damage to human health. A long-term increase in the NO 2 concentration in the outside air leads to a deterioration in lung function and an increase in the frequency of infection-related respiratory diseases such as cough or bronchitis. Persons with previous health problems with respiratory diseases as well as children and young people are particularly affected. Cardiovascular diseases and mortality also increase in the population as the NO 2 concentration rises .
The Düsseldorf NO 2 pollution area (" environmental zone ") covers a large part of the urban area with around 420,000 inhabitants, which corresponds to 68% of the population. In this respect, there is an urgent need for action to further reduce NO 2 pollution in the planning area.
The city districts with their associated districts
In contrast to other cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, the city districts in Düsseldorf do not have their own names, but are numbered from 1 to 10. District 3 has the most inhabitants with around 109,000 inhabitants, and Bilk (around 37,000 people live there) is also the most populous district in District 3. The smallest population, on the other hand, is District 10 with around 25,000 inhabitants, and the districts have the port with 123 inhabitants the smallest population.
The city districts and city districts are in detail:
- District 1 : Altstadt , Carlstadt , Derendorf , Golzheim , Pempelfort , city center
- District 2 : Düsseltal , Flingern- North, Flingern- South
- District 3 : Bilk , Flehe , Friedrichstadt , Hafen , Hamm , Oberbilk , Unterbilk , Volmerswerth
- District 4 : Heerdt , Lörick , Niederkassel , Oberkassel
- District 5 : Angermund , Kaiserswerth , Kalkum , Lohausen , Stockum , Wittlaer
- District 6 : Lichtenbroich , Mörsenbroich , Rath , Unterrath
- District 7 : Gerresheim , Grafenberg , Hubbelrath , Knittkuhl , Ludenberg
- District 8 : Eller , Lierenfeld , Unterbach , Vennhausen
- District 9 : Benrath , Hassels , Himmelgeist , Holthausen , Itter , Reisholz , Urdenbach , Wersten
- District 10 : Garath , Hellerhof
The city of Düsseldorf borders in the north on the independent city of Duisburg and the city of Ratingen , in the east on the cities of Mettmann , Erkrath and Hilden , in the south on the cities of Langenfeld (Rhineland) and Monheim am Rhein (all in the Mettmann district ) and in the west the cities of Dormagen , Neuss and Meerbusch (all Rhein-Kreis Neuss ).
|Neuss||Mettmann , Erkrath|
|Dormagen||Langenfeld , Monheim am Rhein||Hilden|
From the beginning to the early modern city
The medieval city of Düsseldorf was founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. Although it was founded near early medieval old settlements in the 19th century, it did not emerge directly from one of these old settlements as a new establishment - similar to, for example, in Alpen or Kalkar . The settlement was named after the small river Düssel , which flows into the Rhine south of the Altestadt street . The name Düssel probably originated from the Germanic term thusila and means the rushing one . The landscape was founded in Dusseldorf was before the emergence of the county Berg originally Franconian to Ripuarien called part of the county, in the recent research Duisburg Kaiserswerther County, a territory of Ezzonen .
The first written mention of Dusseldorp in a shrine map cannot be dated with certainty and dates from 1135 at the earliest. The Battle of Worringen took place on June 5, 1288, followed by Count Adolf V von Berg Düsseldorf on August 14, 1288 City rights granted. The city of only 3.8 hectares was secured early on with a city wall and a moat that marked the western border of the county of Berg .
1380 was Count Wilhelm II. Of King Wenceslas in the Imperial Prince collected. In the same year the new duke decided to express his imperial political function and position to give up the relatively remote castle on the Wupper as the seat of government and to develop Düsseldorf on the Rhine into a new residence . A castle was first mentioned in a document in 1382 for the planned Bergisch capital Düsseldorf , which was expanded into Düsseldorf's residential palace in the following centuries . The Duke and his wife Anna resided there since 1386 . Between 1384 and 1394 the city was expanded considerably; the construction of the brick Gothic hall church of St. Lambertus and its rich furnishings with relics and benefices date back to this time. Through a clever marriage policy , the Dukes of Berg united the Duchies of Jülich and Kleve with their own to form the Duchy of Jülich-Kleve-Berg . From 1538 to 1543, Düsseldorf was the capital of a network of territorial states which, in addition to Jülich-Kleve-Berg, also included the Duchy of Geldern , the counties of Mark , Ravensberg and Zutphen, and the rule of Ravenstein . Under William the Rich in particular , the region became a center of humanistic science and liberal catholicity . Under his rule, however, an anti-Judaic line prevailed against Jews with the Police Ordinance of 1554, which required the expulsion of all Jews . In 1585, when the Hereditary Prince Johann Wilhelm married Margravine Jakobe von Baden, what was probably the most splendid documented wedding of the 16th century. Under the title Orpheus und Amphion , an operatic theatrical drama with song and music was performed for the first time . Wilhelm the Rich took care of the reconstruction and expansion of the Düsseldorf Palace by the Renaissance master builder Alessandro Pasqualini . After the Jülich-Bergisch-Klevian regent tribe died out in 1609 and during an inheritance dispute between Brandenburg and Pfalz-Neuburg , the Spanish general Ambrosio Spinola occupied the city as imperial commissioner in 1614.
Bergische residence and state capital
After the settlement of the Jülich-Cleves succession dispute Dusseldorf belonged to the Duchy of Jülich-Berg for the time initially Protestant house Neuburg , a branch of the noble family of the Wittelsbach family . In the first phase of Palatinate rule, there were serious disputes between Roman Catholic , Lutheran and Reformed officials at court and in the city. Under the influence of his wife, Magdalene von Bayern , Hereditary Prince Wolfgang Wilhelm converted to the Roman Catholic denomination in 1613 , which enabled him to secure the support of the Catholic League in the political disputes of his time . With the assumption of the dignity of Palatine and Duke in 1614, Wolfgang Wilhelm's conversion led to a repression of the Protestant denominations in his territories and to a favored Roman Catholic Church. The Jesuits who frequented the court played a key role in the Counter-Reformation that was now beginning .
Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz , called "Jan Wellem" by the Lower Franconian- speaking people of Düsseldorf, regent of Jülich-Berg as Palatine Hereditary Prince since 1679, and finally Elector of the Palatinate and Duke of Jülich-Berg since 1690 , also held Düsseldorf as sovereign Main residence fixed, especially since the former electoral main residence in Heidelberg had been destroyed by the War of the Palatinate Succession . During the reign of Johann Wilhelm, Düsseldorf experienced considerable economic, cultural and urban development due to the presence of the glamorous court , which continued under Elector Karl Theodor of the Palatinate , who founded palaces, collections, institutes and had Carlstadt built. Outstanding and famous was the picture gallery founded by Johann Wilhelm and also sponsored under Karl Theodor . However, Düsseldorf lost the status of an electoral main residence back to Heidelberg in 1718. In 1720 this function was transferred to Mannheim and in 1778 to Munich , from where Karl Theodor ruled the territories of Kurpfalz-Bavaria and Jülich-Berg. The city flourished again briefly under the electoral governor Johann Ludwig Franz Graf von Goltstein . In 1769, Düsseldorf became the seat of the Jülich-Bergischer Higher Appeal Court .
Fortified since 1732 , the city was occupied by the French during the Seven Years' War in 1757 and after the Battle of Krefeld in 1758 it was captured by Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig by surrender, but soon abandoned. In the course of the coalition wars unleashed by the French Revolution , Düsseldorf surrendered to the French Revolutionary Army in 1795 and remained under French occupation until it was returned to Electoral Palatinate Bavaria in the Peace of Lunéville in 1801 .
This was followed by the contractually required razing of the fortifications. However, as a result of an exchange of territory, which was stipulated in the Treaty of Schönbrunn and the Treaty of Brno between the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria, Prussia and France, the city came under French influence again from 1806. Before the exchange of territory, Elector Maximilian IV had the world-famous collection of paintings, which was state property of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg , removed and illegally incorporated into the Bavarian art collection. Düsseldorf became the state capital of the Grand Duchy of Berg . The Grand Duchy left the Holy Roman Empire on the basis of the Rhine Confederation Act as a sovereign state allied with France and existed in fact until the end of 1813. Joachim Murat was Grand Dukes until 1808, then Napoleon himself, and finally from 1809 under Napoleon's reign, his underage nephew Napoléon Louis Bonaparte . Significant social and administrative reforms took place under the new government. In 1810 Napoleon introduced the Bergische Code civil , which among other things brought about the breakthrough in the direction of equality for Jews , which Heinrich Heine welcomed . Demanding measures for urban renewal and beautification of Düsseldorf were carried out, in particular based on designs by the landscape architect Maximilian Friedrich Weyhe . So they planted the Neue Allee , the later Königsallee , and the boulevard Napoléon , the later Heinrich-Heine-Allee for the first time as elegant esplanades ; the courtyard garden was further expanded to become an English landscape garden . Nonetheless, the Grand Duchy was ultimately only of relevance for France in the context of its imperialist expansion as a satellite and buffer state and as a resource for financial income and troop raising. In addition, the Grand Duchy was increasingly falling into a severe economic crisis because the French tariffs that were levied on its western and northern state borders in the wake of the continental blockade cut it off from important market areas. The turning point brought the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig , as a result of which the French troops and top officials left the Grand Duchy of Berg .
Prussian provincial town and industrialization
The Grand Duchy of Berg, abandoned by the French, was occupied by Prussian troops from the end of 1813 and administered on an interim basis by Prussian officials as the Berg Generalgouvernement . On the basis of the reorganization of Europe, which had been negotiated between 1814 and 1815 at the Congress of Vienna , the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III. the territory and its capital Düsseldorf on April 5, 1815 finally in possession. From April 21, 1815 it was legally part of Prussia . Düsseldorf became the seat of the Düsseldorf district in 1816 . Düsseldorf itself was initially an independent city , but as early as 1820 the city was incorporated into the Düsseldorf district. On April 22, 1816, the district government of Düsseldorf began its work. With the creation of the Rhine Province Dusseldorf was in 1822 the seat of the provincial governor and in 1823 the seat of the county council .
As a result of its incorporation into Prussia, after more than 400 years, Düsseldorf had lost the status of a state capital and thus all of the state government authorities. Düsseldorf was thus only the center of a province and an official city, after the fortifications had been demolished, it was surrounded by a closed ring of extensive parks, which was followed by the first urban expansion in the classicist style. According to contemporary descriptions, the city offered a comparatively harmonious cityscape overall during the Biedermeier period , as Carl Julius Weber remarked : "The cheerful Düsseldorf is doubly pleasing when you come from the dark Cologne." However, the political and administrative importance of the city was due the loss of capital city functions was not as high as the status of intellectual and artistic life at that time, which was largely based on the re-establishment of the Düsseldorf Art Academy (1819) and the Düsseldorf School of Painting (1819–1918) that emerged from it, and its reputation as an art and entered garden city . During the pre-March period and the German Revolution , the bourgeois milieus represented in the city with the personalities Lorenz Cantador , Ferdinand Freiligrath , Ferdinand Lassalle and Hugo Wesendonck were a focal point of the emerging democratic and labor movement .
From the mid-1830s onwards, the social and economic upheaval triggered by industrialization affected the small Prussian provincial town. The replacement of Cologne's stacking right by the Mainz Act (1831), steam navigation on the increasingly regulated Rhine, the establishment of a free port (1831) and the establishment of the first West German railway lines (1838) created the prerequisites for Düsseldorf's development into an industrial city. The steamship company for the Lower and Middle Rhine operating between Rotterdam and Mannheim was founded in Düsseldorf in 1836. In 1837 the first trade exhibition took place in Flinger Strasse , in addition to the provincial trade exhibition for Rhineland and Westphalia in 1852, a basis for the later development into a trade fair city. From 1850 the first steelworks settled in Oberbilk, among other places . Numerous other industrial companies followed, such as the Gerresheimer Glashütte . However, the textile industry still dominated until 1870. Düsseldorf has had a professional fire brigade since 1872.
In 1872 Düsseldorf was again independent. Around 1880 it consisted of six districts: the old town (the original Düsseldorf) with narrow and irregular streets and the two mouths of the northern and southern Düssel, the Carlstadt on the south side of the old town (laid out in 1767), the new town some distance away, which was built 1690-1716, the Friedrichstadt at the southeast end, the Königstadt and finally Pempelfort in the north and northeast. In 1880 the Rhenish-Westphalian Trade Exhibition took place in Düsseldorf , which attracted over a million visitors and gave the city further impetus for growth. According to the census of December 1, 1880, 95,458 people lived in the city on 49 square kilometers. The easily accessible and geographically central Prussian city, which 50 years earlier had little to show from a political and economic point of view, stood thanks to advancing industrialization , developed transport infrastructures, rapid population growth and the removal of customs barriers, which came into being with the establishment of the German Customs Union from 1834 had revealed, on the threshold of development into one of the important large and industrial cities of the national state of the German Empire , founded in 1871 , whose federal framework now included Prussia as a member state. In the period from 1880 to 1900, the population more than doubled to 215,000 inhabitants.
Rise to the economic metropolis and decline
At the turn of the 20th century, Düsseldorf was a bustling and emerging industrial city . In 1902 a large trade, industrial and art exhibition with over 2500 exhibitors was organized on a 70 hectare site on the banks of the Rhine, which attracted worldwide attention. Good financial health, low taxes, and urban incentives attracted wealthy people and companies from across the empire. Thanks to the concentration of administrations and company-related services as well as the settlement of a stock exchange, large banks and a number of important industrial associations, the city established itself as the “ desk of the Ruhr area ” at the beginning of the 20th century . In 1909 a Zeppelin airfield was set up on the Golzheimer Heide. In the same year the first major incorporations took place since the Middle Ages. As a result, the city grew by 62.5 km² and reached a total population of 345,000 with an increase of around 63,000 inhabitants. The city took its new layout as an opportunity to hold an International Urban Development Exhibition in August 1910 , to the success of which, in addition to major German cities, Chicago, Boston, London, Zurich, Copenhagen, Stockholm and Helsinki also contributed urban planning exhibits. In the 1912 city exhibition Düsseldorf for Rhineland, Westphalia and neighboring areas , plans for the “city of Düsseldorf” were presented. The American publicist and reformer Frederic C. Howe praised Düsseldorf's urban development as exemplary. The growth of the city seemed unstoppable to contemporaries. The outbreak of the First World War hit Düsseldorf completely by surprise.
On July 31, 1914, the military took over executive power, and general mobilization was announced the following day. Life in the city soon changed noticeably. The Düsseldorf industry switched to war production and became one of the largest arms manufacturers in the empire. The city turned into a replenishment center and hospital location. In 1915, 46,000 reservists were stationed in Düsseldorf; in 1917 there were around 8,000 hospital beds. Due to the economic decline, the port turnover fell to below 30% of the pre-war level. The birth rate decreased by 42%; there was a shortage of food and clothing; death rates rose massively; over 10,000 soldiers did not return. In June 1917 there were protests and the looting of shops because of the hunger in the population. The state of siege was announced several times.
On November 8, 1918 contributed from Cologne coming sailors November Revolution in the city. A provisional workers 'and soldiers' council was formed which, in cooperation with the city administration, was able to maintain public order. As a result of the Compiègne armistice , the end of the First World War, Belgian troops occupied the districts on the left bank of the Rhine on December 4, 1918. Himmelgeist and Benrath , which was still independent at the time, were occupied by the British. The rest of the city was in the demilitarized zone according to Articles 42, 43 of the Versailles Treaty . The soldiers formally resigned from the workers' and soldiers' council, and the workers' council was reformed.
From 7 to 9 January 1919, following strikes, the occupation of newspaper editors and a mass demonstration against the Ebert - Scheidemann government , an executive council of the workers' council made up of members of the Spartacus League and the USPD took power. The aim of these groups was a revolution based on the Russian model. The main station, the police headquarters and the telephone exchange were occupied. Around 150 inmates were released from the Ulmer Höh prison . Lord Mayor Oehler , District President Kruse and several other public figures were able to escape to the Belgian-occupied Oberkassel , other respected citizens were taken hostage. City officials stopped work on January 10th in protest. An executive council of the workers' council declared the appointment of Karl Schmidtchen as Lord Mayor. There were strikes and bloody clashes with numerous dead and seriously injured in Graf-Adolf-Strasse. After five weeks, on February 28, 1919, the city was conquered by the Lichtschlag Freikorps and the Executive Council was deposed. Nevertheless, until mid-April 1919 there were repeated armed clashes between the Spartacists and the reactionary Freikorp troops, especially during the general strike movement on the Ruhr from April 8th to 13th. The district of Oberbilk was fiercely contested and could only be captured with artillery support. Until 1933, Düsseldorf remained largely a “red” city in Prussia, shaped by the labor movement , which in 1918 had become a republic in the German Reich as the Free State of Prussia overturned the Hohenzollern Monarchy .
On March 8, 1921, around noon, French and Belgian troops marched into Düsseldorf and other cities in the Ruhr area and occupied them. The background to this was the refusal of the Reich government to recognize reparation payments from the Versailles Treaty in the amount of 269 billion gold marks. Two years later, the French began to occupy the Ruhr area from their bridgeheads in Duisburg and Düsseldorf . The occupation ended with the adoption of the Dawes Plan on September 1, 1925 by the German government. On this occasion, President Paul von Hindenburg came to Düsseldorf and gave a patriotic speech in the Rheinstadion in front of around 50,000 listeners.
In 1929 the district of Düsseldorf was largely absorbed into the new district of Düsseldorf-Mettmann , the northern part was added to the cities of Duisburg and Mülheim . Düsseldorf-Mettmann was renamed the Mettmann district during the 1975 district reform .
On April 13, 1931, the criminal trial of one of the most spectacular criminal cases of the Weimar Republic began in Düsseldorf. The serial killer Peter Kürten , who had lived in Düsseldorf from 1894 to 1921 and returned to Düsseldorf in 1925, was in court. The tabloid press called him the “Vampire of Düsseldorf” because of his preference for the blood of his numerous victims. The trial, which also attracted great international attention - around ninety foreign correspondents had announced themselves - ended on April 21, 1931 with a death sentence, which was carried out on July 2, 1931 in Cologne. In Germany, the event sparked renewed debate about the admissibility of the death penalty . The criminal case inspired the director Fritz Lang to write his film M - A City Seeks a Murderer , one of the first sound films.
The time of National Socialism and World War II
After the handover of power to the National Socialists , the first incineration of "unwanted literature" by the German student body took place on April 11, 1933 in Düsseldorf , including books by Heinrich Heine . The NSDAP Gauleiter Friedrich Karl Florian promoted the mass memorial of Albert Leo Schlageter at the Schlageter National Monument , which was built in 1931, as well as the personnel restructuring of the city administration and authorities. The previous police president Hans Langels (Center Party) was deposed and replaced by SS group leader Fritz Weitzel . Numerous opponents of the regime were arrested, ill-treated or killed. As the capital of the Gaus Düsseldorf (1930–1945), Düsseldorf was the seat of numerous NS associations and security police institutions: the State Police Headquarters Düsseldorf , the Higher SS and Police Leader West (from 1938), the inspector of the Security Police and the SD , the SS Upper Section West , the SD Upper Section West, the SA Group Lower Rhine, the 20th SS Standard, a HJ ban (No. 39, Upper Area West, Area Ruhr-Lower Rhine), from 1936 an army base administration and a military district command of the Wehrmacht . The propaganda shows of the Reich Exhibition Creative People (1937) and Degenerate Music (1938) were among the cultural-political “highlights” .
On November 10, 1938, during the pogrom night, the synagogues on Kasernenstrasse and in Benrath were burned down, the city's Jewish population was persecuted and at least 18 people were murdered. The deportation of almost 6,000 Jews from the entire administrative district was in the hands of the “Judenreferat” of the state police headquarters in Düsseldorf. On October 27, 1941, the first train with a total of 1003 Jews from Düsseldorf and Lower Rhine drove from the Derendorf freight yard to the German concentration camps in occupied Poland (see Jewish life in Düsseldorf ). Over 2200 Düsseldorf Jews were murdered. In 1944, around 35,000 foreign civilian workers, several thousand prisoners of war and concentration camp prisoners who had to do forced labor lived in the approximately 400 camps in Düsseldorf.
Since 1987 the Düsseldorf memorial in the former police headquarters on Mühlenstrasse ( town hall ) has been commemorating the victims of National Socialism in Düsseldorf . There are also numerous memorial sites in Düsseldorf for victims of National Socialism .
The first bombs fell on Düsseldorf in 1940 during the Second World War . The people of Düsseldorf experienced the first major attack on the night of August 1, 1942. By 1945, the Allied air raids claimed more than 5,000 civilians dead. Around half of the buildings were destroyed, around 90 percent were damaged. All Rhine bridges, most of the roads, flood dikes, underpasses and overpasses as well as the urban drainage network were largely destroyed. The amount of debris was estimated at around ten million cubic meters. From February 28, 1945, in the course of the formation of the Ruhr basin , Düsseldorf became a front-line city with continuous American fire from the left bank of the Rhine and in March more and more encircled.
In April, some citizens tried Düsseldorf resistance to Attorney Karl August Wieden Hofen at police commander Franz Jürgens fixing the Chief of Police August Korreng to obtain to the city to surrender without a fight to the Allies. The coup attempt initially succeeded, but was then betrayed. After Korreng was liberated by forces loyal to the line of Gauleiter Friedrich Karl Florian , who had five of the resistance members shot dead (including Jürgens), the last two members, lawyer Wiedenhofen and architect Aloys Odenthal, managed to escape and reach the American armed forces advancing in the east of the city and avert the final destruction of the city by an already prepared large air raid.
Reconstruction and development into the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia
US Army units coming from Mettmann occupied Düsseldorf on April 17, 1945, almost without a fight. Only about half of the residents lived in the largely destroyed city, which came under British military administration in the course of the division of Germany into occupation zones , which a German local government set up as early as June 1945. At the end of the fighting there were still around 235,000 people in Düsseldorf; at the end of 1945, 394,765 people were already living in the city again. After preliminary decisions at the London Foreign Ministers ' Conference, on August 23, 1946, the British founded the state of North Rhine-Westphalia with Düsseldorf as the capital as a successor state to the Free State of Prussia, which only existed de jure , in order to allocate the country's important industrial resources to the political influence of the Soviet Union and France revoke. The geographical centrality, in particular the increased function as an economic decision-making center (" desk of the Ruhr area "), and the existence of undamaged administrative buildings were the decisive factors in determining Düsseldorf as the political center of the new state . With housing emergency programs, around 70,000 apartments had been made available by 1947. In 1947 the first trade fair was held again in Düsseldorf. In 1949, the year the Federal Republic of Germany was founded, Düsseldorf's population almost reached the pre-war level again, and systematic reconstruction began in the early 1950s. From 1949 to 1952, Düsseldorf was the seat of the International Ruhr Authority , a forerunner of the European Coal and Steel Community . Thanks to the Igedo marketing association and because of its proximity to the textile industry , the trade fair and exhibition grounds at the Ehrenhof were able to establish themselves as the new German location for the fashion trade with the Düsseldorf sales and fashion week .
The 1950 reorganization plan laid the foundations for further urban development over the next few decades, which was to decisively change the cityscape and traffic management, largely following the model of the car- friendly city . Numerous streets were widened and destroyed buildings were rebuilt two to three storeys higher. The first high-rise buildings were built in the mid-1950s. Düsseldorf developed into an administrative city. Nevertheless, Düsseldorf remained an important industrial location until the 1980s. Due to the proximity to the Ruhr area and the then federal capital Bonn , numerous associations and interest groups from the steel sector settled in the city. The 1960s and 1970s saw great changes. The city had the highest population in its history at this time. From 1961, Garath, a completely new district in the form of a satellite town, was built on the southern outskirts. In 1965 Düsseldorf became a university town . The opening of the new theater followed in 1970 , the New Fair in 1971 and the new Tonhalle in 1978 . The largest incorporation since 1929 took place in 1975. Two new bridges over the Rhine were built and the construction of an underground light rail system began, the first line of which was inaugurated in 1981.
In the 1980s, the cityscape was once again permanently changed with further urban development projects, the new building of the state parliament , the development of the media harbor and the construction of the Rhine bank tunnel , the completion of which took until the 1990s. Car traffic has been flowing underground since 1993 and the old town has moved back to the Rhine with the Rhine promenade . In the 1990s, a new office, business and leisure district developed in the Medienhafen. In 1996 a major fire destroyed a terminal at Düsseldorf Airport. The airport and the connection to the city were completely rescheduled. The work was completed in 2003.
On July 27, 2000, ten people were injured, some of them life-threateningly, in an explosive attack at Düsseldorf-Wehrhahn train station , and one pregnant woman lost her unborn child. After an arson attack on the New Synagogue in Düsseldorf on October 2, 2000, the then Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder made an appeal to the German public, calling for an " uprising of the decent ". On May 25, 2009, the city received the title “ Place of Diversity ” awarded by the federal government .
On the part of the city administration, Düsseldorf is declared debt-free, but this is being questioned by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and its statistical office. The different views result from different evaluations and are also motivated by party politics at the state and city level. As of December 31, 2013, the city had liabilities totaling 383 million euros. This makes Düsseldorf the least indebted independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia.
After Bilk, Derendorf and Golzheim had already been incorporated into Düsseldorf in 1384, Hamm in 1394 and Volmerswerth in 1487, there were regional reforms in the last century in 1909, 1929 and 1975 , which resulted in further urban development and more efficient administration due to that which began in the second half of the 19th century Industrialization and again in the 1950s to 1970s strongly growing and merging region of Düsseldorf should ensure. In detail, the following cities , municipalities and parts of municipalities were incorporated into Düsseldorf from 1908 (the numbers in brackets indicate the increase in area):
- on April 1, 1908
- on April 1, 1909
- Stockum , previously part of the rural community Lohausen (3.72 km²),
- Rath (14.23 km²),
- City of Gerresheim (5.35 km²),
- Eller (10.68 km²),
- Heavenly Spirit (7.04 km²),
- Heerdt including the residential areas Oberkassel , Niederkassel and Lörick (13.52 km²) and
- Parts of the rural community Ludenberg (4.37 km²);
- on August 1, 1929
- City of Kaiserswerth (3.27 km²),
- Lohausen (10.57 km²),
- Benrath including the residential areas Itter , Holthausen , Hassels , Reisholz , Urdenbach and Garath with the new district of Hellerhof, which was split off in 1971 (26.63 km²),
- Parts of Wittlaer (41 ha),
- Parts of Kalkum (91 ha),
- Parts of Eckamp (90 ha),
- Parts of Schwarzbach (70 ha),
- Parts of Ludenberg (4.44 km²),
- Parts of Erkrath (2 ha) and
- Parts of Büderich (1 ha)
- on January 1, 1975
- Wittlaer including Kalkum (23.17 km²),
- City of Angermund (8.32 km²),
- Hubbelrath with the settlement areas Dorf, Stratenhof and Rotthäuser Weg (11.92 km²),
- City of Monheim without Hitdorf 1 (26.69 km²),
- Parts of the community of Hasselbeck-Schwarzbach with the settlement area Knittkuhl (2 km²),
- District of Unterbach of the city of Erkrath (4.98 km²) and
- the area around the Elbsee of the city of Hilden (5.53 km²)
- on January 1, 1980
- Parts of the city of Ratingen (48 ha)
1 The Hitdorf district of Monheim (5.30 km²) was incorporated into Leverkusen . Due to the law on territorial changes in the reorganization area of Düsseldorf, Monheim was spun off again with effect from July 1, 1976 and declared an independent city. Only a small, barely inhabited part of the Urdenbacher Kämpe remained near Düsseldorf. The former Hitdorf district remained with Leverkusen.
On December 31, 2012, the “ official population ” for Düsseldorf was 593,682 inhabitants based on the 2011 census. Of these, 308,014 were women (51.88%) and 285,668 men (48.11%). The proportion of foreigners was 16.55%, i. H. 98,235 inhabitants. According to the city census, the Turks made up the largest group of non-Germans with 15,191 people in 2006 , followed by the Greeks with 10,591 and the Italians with 6,890 people. Of the non-European countries of origin, Asians (excluding Turks) make up the largest group with 14,639, including Japanese with 4951, Iranians with 1419, Chinese with 1375 and Koreans with 1003 people. The number of Chinese residents of the state capital is increasing sharply as a result of the settlement of around 300 Chinese companies (as of 2011). As of December 31, 2010, Düsseldorf had the largest proportion of foreigners compared to the other cities and municipalities in North Rhine-Westphalia. According to the State Statistical Office, 19.3 percent of Düsseldorf residents had a foreign passport. Not only did most of the Japanese (namely 59 percent of all Japanese in North Rhine-Westphalia) live in Düsseldorf, but also most of the country's Swedes , Ghanaians , South Koreans , Irish , French and Moroccans .
With the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, Düsseldorf began to experience strong population growth. While the population of the city was around 20,000 in 1834, it exceeded the limit of 100,000 as early as 1882, making Düsseldorf a major city . In 1905 the city had 250,000 inhabitants, by 1933 this number had doubled to 500,000. In 1962 the population reached its historic high of 705,391. In the following years, however, the population fell sharply again. This trend could not be reversed by the local reorganization in the 1970s, as a result of which some surrounding communities were incorporated into Düsseldorf. The move to the surrounding communities led to the fact that the population in the 1980s and 1990s leveled off at 570,000 inhabitants. Only at the turn of the millennium did the trend reverse. On June 30, 2005, the “official population” for Düsseldorf was 573,449 according to an update by the State Office for Information and Technology in North Rhine-Westphalia (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices ).
On July 20, 2014, the 600,000. Born in Düsseldorf. For the first time since 1978 there are more than 600,000 residents in Düsseldorf. That was determined by the Office of Statistics. For the year 2030, 611,970, 623,600 and 645,000 inhabitants are forecast. In terms of population density , Düsseldorf ranks second among the cities of North Rhine-Westphalia with 2730.7 inhabitants per km² behind Herne and before Oberhausen (as of December 31, 2012).
According to the population register of the city of Düsseldorf, which has been generating its population since 2016 from the statistical deduction of the population register instead of the update of the census from 1987, the number as of December 31, 2016 was 635,704 inhabitants. On the same key date, the state statistical office determined the official population of 613,230, i.e. 22,474 fewer than the population register shows. According to the population register, the population as of December 31, 2018 was 642,304.
The in Dusseldorf in only a few environments spoken dialect belongs to the Limburg , which by the Benrather line (maache-Maake limit) to the spoken in parts of Düsseldorf Ripuarian is deferred. The Uerdinger line (isch-ick border) in the north distinguishes it from the north-Lower Franconian . Nowadays, Platt is mostly spoken and understood only by the older generation. Instead of the original Düsseldorfer Platt , a so-called Regiolekt , called Rheinisches Deutsch , has been used in recent times .
At the end of 2018, 28.6 percent of the population were Roman Catholic and 16.9 percent Protestant. 54.5 percent belong to other denominations or religions or are non-denominational. With around 7,000 members, Düsseldorf has the third largest Jewish community in Germany after Berlin and Munich. According to the results of the census on May 9, 2011 , 202,370 residents of Düsseldorf belonged to the Catholic Church. 131,880 inhabitants were Protestant, 2,900 were members of the Evangelical Free Church, 20,260 were Orthodox and 4,560 were Jewish. 220,790 inhabitants were assigned to the categories “other” or “not belonging to any public religious community”. According to a calculation from the census figures for people with a migration background, the proportion of Muslims in Düsseldorf's population in 2011 was 8.3 percent (around 48,900 people).
From the beginning, Düsseldorf belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne and was subordinate to the archdeaconate of the cathedral dean. Although the majority of the Reformation initially gained a foothold, Catholics continued to live in the city. They belonged to the Neuss deanery until 1627 , before Düsseldorf itself became the seat of a deanery. The early fall of the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1813 prevented Napoléon from establishing a diocese of Düsseldorf. Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg had already strived for one for his main residence.
Since 1394 Apollinaris of Ravenna , whose relics rest in the Apollinaris shrine in the city church of St. Lambertus , has been venerated as the patron saint and city patron of Düsseldorf. On the occasion of his name day on July 23, the Düsseldorf rifle festival with the largest fair on the Rhine takes place. A lesser known highlight of these celebrations is the procession with the Apollinaris shrine. Significantly more people take part in the central Corpus Christi procession of all Düsseldorf parishes (with the exception of the Benrath deanery) through the old town and Carlstadt.
In 2013, around 191,000 Catholics lived in Düsseldorf, which corresponds to a share of the population of around 32%. Because of the shortage of priests and the decline in church members, the cooperation between several parishes in pastoral care areas began in the 1980s . Today there are parish associations in Düsseldorf
- Catholic parish community Angerland / Kaiserswerth with the parishes of St. Agnes , St. Lambertus , St. Remigius and St. Suitbertus ,
- Parish Association Flingern / Düsseltal with St. Elisabeth and Vinzenz , St. Maria Himmelfahrt and St. Paulus ,
- Pastoral care area Unter- and Oberbilk, Friedrichstadt and Eller-West with St. Antonius , St. Apollinaris , St. Josef , St. Martin , St. Peter and St. Pius X. ,
- Parish community Eller-Lierenfeld with St. Gertrud , St. Michael and St. Augustine ,
- Pastoral care unit Düsseldorfer Rheinbogen with St. Maria Rosenkranz , St. Maria in den Benden , St. Nikolaus , St. Joseph and St. Hubertus and
- Church community association Benrath-Urdenbach with St. Cäcilia and Herz-Jesu .
Another nine of the 33 Düsseldorf parishes, i.e. St. Lambertus Düsseldorf, Holy Trinity , St. Antonius and Benedictus , Holy Family , St. Franziskus Xaverius , St. Margareta , St. Bonifatius , St. Antonius and Elisabeth as well as St. Matthew , originated from the merger of neighboring parishes and, like the pastoral care areas, extend over several parts of the city. All but one of the parishes belong to one of the five deaneries North, Mitte / Heerdt, Ost, Süd and Benrath in the city deanery of Düsseldorf. City dean is usually the pastor of St. Lambertus. A special case is the parish of St. Mary's Assumption in Unterbach , which has a branch in the neighboring Erkrath-Unterfeldhaus and, with St. John the Baptist in Erkrath, has formed a pastoral community in the Hilden dean's office, Mettmann district dean of the Archdiocese of Cologne , since January 1, 2010 .
The Reformation was able to prevail in part from 1527 onwards, favored above all by the reform Catholicism of Duke Wilhelm V. In addition to the psalm song , communion was introduced in both forms in the collegiate church of St. Lambertus . This was the foundation of the Lutheran church. In 1571 there was another change at the court, according to which the Protestants were suppressed. The Lutheran and Reformed congregations founded in 1573 then met in secret until the oppression ended in 1590. From 1609, the Protestants were initially able to hold their services in public: the Reformed in their preaching house on Andreasstrasse, the Lutherans on Berger Strasse. In 1614, suppression began again under the Roman Catholic ruler Wolfgang Wilhelm . Until the middle of the 17th century, Protestants could only hold their services in secret. Then they were given the right to practice their religion freely. The first evangelical sermon that has been handed down in Düsseldorf was given in the preaching house on Bolkerstraße , which has been preserved from 1651. In 1683 the Reformed congregation was able to build its own church, which was named Neander Church in 1916 . The tower was completed in 1687. In the same year the Lutheran church was built on Berger Strasse. While the Protestant congregation in Düsseldorf belonged first to the Cologne class and later to the Bergische Synod (1589), Düsseldorf became the seat of its own class in 1611 (church administrative district).
After the transition to Prussia, the two Protestant parishes united in 1825 (→ about the unification to the Union in Prussia: agendas dispute ) to form the "Evangelical Community of Düsseldorf", which belonged to the superintendent of Düsseldorf. As early as 1815, Düsseldorf had become the seat of the Prussian senior consistory of the Jülich-Kleve-Berg province , but this moved to Cologne in 1816 . In 1827 there was a synod in Düsseldorf.
The Protestant community in Düsseldorf grew steadily and other churches were built, such as the Johanneskirche on Martin-Luther-Platz (1881), the Christ Church (1899), the Friedenskirche (1899) and the old Matthäikirche (1899) as well as the Kreuzkirche (1910) . In 1905 the parish of Eller-Wersten was formed from parts of the parishes of Urdenbach and Gerresheim . Through incorporations there were other parishes in the city area. On October 1, 1934, the seat of the consistory of the Rhenish Provincial Church in Prussia and the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland was relocated from Koblenz to Düsseldorf. Today's church administration is in Hans-Böckler-Strasse in the Golzheim district . There is also a "House of the Church" in Bastionstrasse in Carlstadt. In 1936 a general association was founded for all Düsseldorf evangelical congregations. In 1948 the parish in Düsseldorf was split up. There were also changes in the parishes in the outskirts.
In 1964, the Düsseldorf church district was divided into the Düsseldorf-Mettmann, Düsseldorf-Nord, Düsseldorf-Ost and Düsseldorf-Süd church districts, with the Düsseldorf-Mettmann church district mainly comprising parishes outside the city of Düsseldorf. The three church districts in the urban area formed the Düsseldorf Church District Association within the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland until mid-2007 . On June 16, 2007, the synod of the newly formed church district in Düsseldorf met for the first time. It emerged from the merger of the church districts Düsseldorf-Nord, Düsseldorf-Ost and Düsseldorf-Süd and represents 24 Protestant congregations and thus 116,550 Protestants in the state capital, who make up around 20 percent of the population.
In response to the union of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia and some Reformed churches to Uniate Evangelical Church in Prussia by cabinet order of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. In 1817 and 1830 the Evangelical Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church of Prussia was formed . The Old Lutherans insisted on recognizing the Lutheran creed. They called for full Lutheran worship, constitution, and teaching. After a period of severe persecution by the state and with the approval of the new Evangelical Church of the Union, they were able to be constituted in 1841 under King Friedrich Wilhelm IV and were recognized. From 1844, Lutheran services were celebrated again in Düsseldorf in a congregation made up of Lutherans from the congregation before the forced unification and immigrants from Saxony and Bavaria. In 1882 the congregation consecrated its own church in Kreuzstrasse, which was destroyed in an air raid on June 12, 1943. In 1884 the municipality was recognized as a legal entity by the Prussian state. Since the property in Kreuzstrasse could no longer be built on after the war for urban planning reasons, the community acquired its current property and consecrated its Erlöserkirche on April 2, 1956 in Eichendorffstrasse in Stockum. The parish today belongs to the Rhineland church district of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK). In this parish also Silvia Sommerlath, who would later become Queen Silvia of Sweden , was confirmed by Superintendent Nagel.
In Düsseldorf the commission of the Orthodox Church in Düsseldorf is based with parishes of the
- Greek Orthodox Church in Hassels , Am Schönenkamp,
- Georgian Orthodox Church in Hamm on Fährstrasse, she celebrates her services in the Jan Wellem Chapel ,
- German-speaking Orthodox Parish of the Holy Archangels in Wersten , Werstener Feld,
- Russian Orthodox Church ,
- Romanian Orthodox Church and Serbian Orthodox Church ,
- Coptic Church in Grafenberg on the Pöhlenweg and
- ukrainian orthodox church .
Anglicans and Old Catholics
The Anglican Church , which is in full communion with the Old Catholic Church , has a congregation in Rotterdamer Strasse on Nordpark. The parish church of the old Catholic parish in Düsseldorf is the Thomaskirche, the former Klarenbach chapel in Steubenstrasse in Reisholz.
In addition to the major Christian denominations, numerous free churches with parishes are also represented in Düsseldorf . This includes the
- Apostolic Community with its German seat and the main parish in the city center on Cantadorstrasse and the parish in Eller (Klein Eller),
- Pentecostal movement with the Christian Center Düsseldorf on theBruchstrasse in Flingern ,
- Baptists with the congregations on Luisenstraße in Friedrichstadt and Ackerstraße in Flingern as well as the Evangelical Free Church congregation Christophstraße on Werstener Straße in Bilk ,
- Methodist Church in the Matthias Church in Lichtenbroich ,
- Free Evangelical Congregation in the city center on Bendemannstrasse,
- Salvation Army ,
- Moravian Brethren in Heerdt ,
- Pentecostal movement in the Jesus House on Grafenberger Allee and
- Mosaic community currently in Derendorf .
The special Christian communities also include Jehovah's Witnesses , who are represented with 18 assemblies (congregations) and four groups in Düsseldorf. The meetings (church services) are held in five Kingdom Halls in the city of Düsseldorf. The largest hall center (with four halls) is in Flingern-Süd. In addition to several meetings in German (two meetings), meetings in English, Russian, Polish, Greek, Italian, Romanian, Croatian / Serbian, Tagalog, Chinese and German sign language are held here. In the Eller Kingdom Hall Center (with two halls), meetings are held in German, Russian, Spanish, Hindi and Twi. Further Kingdom Halls are located in Oberkassel, Pempelfort and Hellerhof. Meetings are held here in German (three meetings), Japanese and Vietnamese. There are also several special events, such as B. a Bible exhibition, preferably held in the Kingdom Hall Flingern-Süd open to the public.
Other churches and special Christian communities
The Christian Community , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and the New Apostolic Church are also represented in Düsseldorf with five congregations in Benrath, Derendorf, Eller, Flingern and Gerresheim. There is also the Russian-speaking Jewish messianic community of Beit Hesed in Düsseldorf , which also publishes the German-language magazine Kol Hesed .
The Jewish community Dusseldorf has about 7,500 members, the largest in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third largest in Germany. The new synagogue was built in 1958 and is located on Zietenstrasse in the Golzheim district . It is guarded by the police around the clock. Predecessor buildings were the old synagogue and the great synagogue in Kasernenstrasse on what is now Handelsblattverlag's property, which was set on fire during the November pogroms in 1938 and demolished.
The municipality as a corporation under public law is a unified municipality according to its statutes . This means that all religious directions are respected. The services are in accordance with the Orthodox rite. Until July 2011, the rabbi was Julien Chaim Soussan , one of the youngest community rabbis in Germany. 90% of the parishioners come from the former Soviet Union . The community includes u. a. a kindergarten and a primary school, the Yitzhak Rabin School. It is a state-approved primary school and a Jewish denominational school that provides kosher nutrition for the children. In a nationwide comparative study, it turned out that the school is one of the 25 best primary schools in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The community also has a sports club ( Makkabi ), a youth center and a cemetery .
There are also a number of Muslim communities in the state capital . However, these do not form a uniform association, but are organized according to the national affiliation of their members as Turkish, Bosnian, Moroccan and other mosque associations. The largest Turkish association, the Turkish-Islamic Union of the Institute for Religion e. V., owns three mosques in Düsseldorf . You are in Lörick, Eller and Derendorf. There are around 20 mosques in total in Düsseldorf. The Friday prayers are visited according to the various supporting associations of around 4,000 faithful, the two largest mosques in Derendorf Flingern and up to 1000 participants can accommodate. Is preached u. a. in Turkish, Arabic, Berber , Bosnian , Albanian , Romani and German.
Even Alevis in Dusseldorf with a community in the district Eller represented. The country of origin of almost all Alevis is Turkey . In addition to religious work, cultural and musical projects are also implemented in the Düsseldorf community. In North Rhine-Westphalia the Alevi Community Germany has the status of an independent religious community recognized according to the Basic Law and co-ordinates Alevi religious instruction as a regular school subject. The Alevis in Düsseldorf also belong to this umbrella organization.
In the district of Niederkassel on the left bank of the Rhine, the only Buddhist temple in the tradition of Jōdo-Shinshū in Europe is located on the property of the Japanese Ekō house. It is built as a concrete structure in the Japanese style and is surrounded by a Japanese garden. The Japanese in Düsseldorf founded the Japanese cultural center with the Ekō house in 1993. It is also a traditional Japanese tea ceremony house, library and kindergarten.
There are also a number of Buddhist centers in Düsseldorf of all well-known traditions of Buddhism. A selection: Rigpa (Tibetan Buddhism, teacher Sogyal Rinpoche ), Amitabha Foundation (also Tibetan Buddhism) as well as Kanzeon Sangha ( Zen tradition) and Diamond Way Buddhism (Lama Ole Nydahl ) as well as other Buddhist groups and centers. Thus the Buddhist groups in Düsseldorf offer a wide range in North Rhine-Westphalia.
At the head of the city of Düsseldorf in the 13th century were the lay judges , who until 1806 represented the highest and most powerful class in the city administration. A mayor has been named since 1303 , who was also a lay judge at the beginning. In addition, there was also a council from 1358 , which was partly divided into an old and a young council. The members were either elected for life (Old Council) or determined annually (Young Council). As a ducal representative, a mayor was also involved in the administration of the city, who carried the title of "bailiff". Since around the 15th century there has been a community committee of 12 people ("twelve") in addition to the above-mentioned bodies, which participated in the election of the mayor and was called upon to make important decisions, but actually did not represent any real citizen participation. Only in French times there was a municipal council, from 1815 a municipal council with 30 members. Since 1856 it was the “city councilors”, later councilors, whose total number changed several times. In French times, the city was run by the mayor , who was supported by three aldermen . Since the Prussian period, the mayor has held the title of Lord Mayor . In 1856, the Rhenish Town Code was introduced.
During the time of the Nazis , the Mayor of that was NSDAP used. After the Second World War , the military government of the British Zone of Occupation appointed a new Lord Mayor and in 1946 introduced the local constitution based on the British model . Then there was a popularly elected “City Council”, whose members were called “City Councilors”. The council initially elected the mayor from among its members as chairman and representative of the city, who exercised his office on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, from 1946 the council also elected a full-time senior city director as head of the city administration. In 1999 the dual leadership in the city administration was given up. Since then there has only been the full-time mayor. He is chairman of the council, head of the city administration and representative of the city. He was elected directly by the citizens for the first time in 1999.
Lord Mayor since 1815
The mayor is elected by the citizens in a general, direct, free, equal and secret ballot in accordance with the regulations of the municipal code for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The full-time Lord Mayor has been the head of the city since October 1st, 1999; he is chairman and representative of the council of the municipality. The Lord Mayor heads the city administration, with the support of the city director, the treasurer and five full-time councilors.
The city council elects three honorary deputies who are called “mayor”. The general representative of the Lord Mayor is called "City Director" in Düsseldorf.
- 1815–1820: Engelbert Schramm
- 1820–1822: Lambert Josten
- 1822-1824: Joseph Molitor
- March – October 1824: Leopold Custodis
- 1824–1828: Friedrich Adolf Klüber
- 1828–1833: Philipp Schöller
- 1833–1848: Joseph von Fuchsius
- 1848–1849: Wilhelm Dietze
- 1849: Ludwig Viktor von Villers
- 1849–1876: Ludwig Hammers
- 1876–1886: Wilhelm von Becker
- 1886–1899: Ernst Heinrich Lindemann
- 1899-1910: Wilhelm Marx
- 1911-1919: Adalbert Oehler
- 1919–1924: Emil Köttgen
- 1924-1933: Robert Lehr , DNVP
- 1933–1937: Hans Wagenführ , NSDAP
- 1937: Otto Liederley , NSDAP
- 1937–1939: Helmut Otto , NSDAP
- 1939–1945: Carl Haidn , NSDAP
- 3rd - 17th April 1945: Werner Keyßner , NSDAP
- April 17 - September 18, 1945: Wilhelm Füllenbach
- 1945–1946: Walter Kolb , SPD
- 1946–1947: Karl Arnold , CDU
- 1947–1956: Josef Gockeln , CDU
- 1956–1959: Georg Glock , SPD
- 1960–1961: Willi Becker , SPD
- March 28 - November 17, 1961: Fritz Vomfelde , CDU
- 1961–1964: Peter Müller , CDU
- 1964–1974: Willi Becker , SPD
- 1974–1979: Klaus Bungert , SPD
- 1979–1984: Josef Kürten , CDU
- 1984–1994: Klaus Bungert , SPD
- 1994–1999: Marie-Luise Smeets , SPD
- 1999–2008: Joachim Erwin , CDU
- 2008–2014: Dirk Elbers , CDU
- since September 2, 2014: Thomas Geisel , SPD
City directors 1946–1999
- 1946: Walter Kolb
- 1946–1964: Walther Hensel
- 1964-1976: Gilbert Just
- 1976–1987: Gerd Högener
- 1987–1994: Karl Ranz
- 1994–1999: Peter Hölz
Currently there is the following distribution of seats in the city council according to parliamentary groups (as of October 2018):
|CDU||SPD||Green||FDP||left||Animal protection / FW||non-attached||total|
|Animal Welfare Free Voters||
In October 2014, the SPD, Greens and FDP signed a cooperation agreement. These three parties have exactly half of the seats in the city council (41 of 82). Together with the mayor's vote, they have a majority of one vote.
In each city district there is a district council with 19 members. The chairperson bears the designation of district mayor. In 1975 these 'district parliaments' were brought into being in order to increase the citizens' ability to influence and shape. The district representatives are re-elected by the district residents at each local election for a period of five years.
The district representatives are to be heard on important matters affecting the city district. In matters of the city district that are not part of the day-to-day administration and for which the city council is not exclusively responsible, the district councils make decisions in accordance with the municipal code, taking into account the concerns of the entire city and within the framework of the general guidelines issued by the council.
The city administration is entrusted with all public tasks of the city and is led by the mayor. The full-time councilors and treasurers together with the mayor form the administrative board. The mayor presides and decides in the event of differences of opinion. The councilors report directly to the mayor, they represent him in their department. The councilors are municipal electoral officials. They are elected by the council for a term of eight years.
The administration runs the operative business and implements the political goals on its own responsibility. The predictability, continuity and uniformity of decisions and administrative action must be guaranteed. The heads of administration must be accountable to the elected city council. The delimitation of competencies is laid down in the city constitution.
The Düsseldorf administration is divided into nine departments (departments). Various offices are assigned to the departments. The offices are the lowest organizational units of the administration. The largest locations where the many offices perform their services are the town hall complex around the market square in the old town, the service center on Willi-Becker-Allee at the main train station and the technical town hall in the Bilk district.
The total debt of the city of Düsseldorf (of the public sector) at the end of 2012 was 872.2 million euros. That is 1478 euros per inhabitant. Of the 103 independent cities in Germany, Düsseldorf was 100th in terms of per capita debt; that is, only in three other urban districts was the per capita debt lower.
For the 2014 budget year, the city of Düsseldorf has estimated a budget surplus in ordinary income and expenses (including financial income and expenses) of EUR 3.1 million (EUR 5 per inhabitant) in the overall result plan. The city of Düsseldorf is one of only three independent cities in North Rhine-Westphalia (along with Krefeld and Münster ) that did not show a budget deficit in the overall result plan in 2014 .
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In the silver shield is the erect, double-tailed, blue-crowned and blue-armored red lion of the Dukes of Berg , who holds a lowered blue anchor in his paws."|
Foundation of the coat of arms: The original coat of arms of the city of Düsseldorf - only with the anchor - was created at the same time as the city elevation. The anchor points to the relationship of the city and its citizens to the Rhine as well as to Rhine shipping and the Bergisch Rhine toll. Since the end of the 17th century, this simple coat of arms was joined by a second one, which was modeled on the seal of the Düsseldorf aldermen used since the middle of the 16th century by order of the sovereign. It shows the Bergische Löwen , the heraldic animal of the Bergische dukes, who holds the anchor in his paws. By the middle of the 18th century, this elaborately designed image had finally replaced the older city arms. After numerous modifications in the 19th and 20th centuries, the heraldist Otto Hupp freed the coat of arms from later ingredients in 1938 and gave it the shape that is common today.
The associated city flag is red and white, covered with the coat of arms.
For private and business purposes, a city coat of arms was created in February 2002, which differs from the official city colors and can be used without the approval of the city administration. In the red and white divided shield there is a silver double-tailed, erect, silver-crowned and armored lion with a lowered black anchor in its paws.
In official correspondence and publications, the city of Düsseldorf uses a logo that indicates the loop of the Rhine in the Düsseldorf urban area in a square in the left half and shows the Bergische Löwen with anchor in the upper right quadrant. The city logo is used in different colors, with each of the currently eight departments being assigned a color tone.
In 2011 the city started a process of developing an umbrella brand to improve its marketing and public awareness . A brand core analysis was followed by a public competition that resulted in over 2000 photo, video and text contributions. In March 2012, an expression of interest in a competition among creative agencies began. The subsequent competition to develop the umbrella brand was won by the BBDO Proximity agency , which presented the logo of the new umbrella brand, the Emoticon : D , to the public on November 26, 2012. The Düsseldorf “smiling: D” is executed in red, the color of the Bergisch lion, and in the Helvetica font . In particular, it has the task of transporting “the emotional, likeable Düsseldorf”. The procedures for the introduction of the new umbrella brand and its logo were accompanied by a public controversy.
Düsseldorf maintains eight classic city partnerships :
- Reading ( United Kingdom ), since 1947/1988
- Chemnitz ( Germany , Saxony ), since 1988
- Haifa ( Israel ), since 1978/1988
- Warsaw ( Poland ), since 1989
- Moscow ( Russia ), since 1992
- Chongqing ( China ), since 2004
- Palermo ( Italy ), since 2016
- Chiba ( Japan ), since 2019
There is still a friendly relationship with:
Culture and sights
Düsseldorf also enjoys a reputation for culture, art and modern architecture. In addition to the large art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia and a number of other museums and galleries, there is also the internationally renowned Düsseldorf Art Academy , which produced the Düsseldorf Painting School in the 19th century and the Düsseldorf Photo School in the 20th century . Well-known stages are represented in the city with the Schauspielhaus and the Kom (m) ödchen . In addition, some of Germany's popular musicians and poets were born in the city or were based there. Important architects have not only implemented their projects in the Medienhafen .
Classic and modern spoken theater
Düsseldorf has a theater tradition that can be traced back to the 16th century. The first theatrical events are dated to 1585. Today's Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus with its modern curved architecture was completed in 1970. It is located on Gustaf-Gründgens -Platz, which is named after the former director. The largest stage in Düsseldorf is well known in German-speaking countries.
Other larger theaters in the North Rhine-Westphalian metropolis are the Forum Free Theater , consisting of Juta (youth theater) and chamber plays , which offers a wide range of theatrical art, the Comedy Düsseldorf , a classic boulevard theater , the Theater an der Kö , which mainly offers comedies and has to offer modern theater plays and is run by the well-known Heinersdorff family , the Theater an der Luegallee in Oberkassel, the KaBARett FLiN in Flingern and the Savoy Theater . The Theater of Sounds is a frequent guest at JUTA . It is a touring theater that has existed since 1987, which, under the direction of Jörg Udo Lensing, goes on mostly short tours every year with a new production.
The Takelgarn theater atelier is particularly interesting for children with comedy , cabaret, puppet and children's theater . The puppet theater on Helmholtzstrasse , like the Düsseldorf Marionette Theater, is aimed at children and adults alike. The latter was founded in 1956 and is located in the Palais Wittgenstein, which is also home to other cultural projects.
Opera, musical theater and variety show
The Tonhalle Düsseldorf , built as a planetarium in 1925, is the venue for concerts and other musical events from the fields of classical, jazz, pop and cabaret.
The Kom (m) ödchen is the oldest still existing cabaret stage in Germany. It was founded in 1946 by Kay and Lore Lorentz . Many later important cabaret artists were able to prove themselves here for the first time.
The Tanzhaus NRW is located in Düsseldorf , the institution offers not only a stage program but also numerous courses.
Museums, exhibition institutes and libraries
The city has a wide range of exhibitions. The 18 city museums alone have regularly attracted over a million visitors every year since 2001; in 2006 it was 1.34 million people. In addition, several private museums, collections and numerous galleries attract visitors. The most visited museum is the Aquazoo in the north park.
Düsseldorf has a long tradition as a city of art. The elector Johann Wilhelm zu Pfalz-Neuburg , or Jan-Wellem for short, and his wife Anna Maria de Medici created the first large collection of paintings . The collection was housed in the Gemäldegalerie Düsseldorf , built between 1709 and 1714 , one of the earliest independent museum buildings in the world. Under Elector Maximilian IV , later King Maximilian I Joseph, the collection was largely brought to Munich in 1805 , where it formed the basis of the Alte Pinakothek .
The Düsseldorf Art Academy gained importance as one of the most important training centers for landscape and genre painters as early as the 19th century under the name of the Düsseldorf School of Painting . The Art Association for the Rhineland and Westphalia was founded in 1829 to offer painters trained in Düsseldorf the opportunity to present their works in changing exhibitions.
Some of the exhibits from the electoral painting gallery that remained in Düsseldorf, as well as a number of works from the Düsseldorf painting school, have been transferred to the Museum Kunstpalast . It also includes graphics, drawings, paintings and sculptures from all style eras from antiquity to the 21st century. In addition to European exhibits, the collection also focuses on Japanese woodcuts and netsuke . It is integrated in the Ehrenhof complex , which is also home to the NRW Forum .
The second high point in the development of Düsseldorf as an art city followed in the second half of the 20th century, when u. a. Joseph Beuys taught at the art academy. As the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia, Düsseldorf is home to the North Rhine-Westphalia art collection . It is divided into the K20 on Grabbeplatz, the K21 in the Ständehaus and the Schmela-Haus on Mutter-Ey-Straße. It specializes primarily in art from the 20th and 21st centuries, according to the naming of the sub-collections, divided into locations. The Kunsthalle Düsseldorf is located opposite the K20 on Grabbeplatz and focuses on contemporary national and international contemporary art. On the other hand, the KIT (Kunst im Tunnel), which is affiliated to the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, has a very unusual location . It is located on Mannesmannufer and is an underground exhibition space for contemporary art.
Museums for literature, theater and film
Two museums in Düsseldorf are dedicated to poets. The Goethe Museum , located in Jägerhof Palace in the north-eastern part of the courtyard garden, deals with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . The very extensive, now significantly expanded collection from private ownership is housed on several floors. Among other things, it contains the original fair copy of Goethe's famous poem Gingo biloba .
Heinrich Heine , probably the most famous son of the city, is the Heinrich Heine Institute in Carlstadt. It shows u. a. Original documents and writings by and about Heine, pieces from his estate and his death mask.
Natural history and garden art
The most visited museum in Düsseldorf, with over 400,000 visitors per year, is the Aquazoo . It has been in the north of the city in Nordpark since the late 1980s . It was previously housed in a bunker across from the zoo . In addition to aquatic life, molluscs and geological exhibits are also shown there. The Düsseldorf Zoological Garden was destroyed in the Second World War and not rebuilt.
Another attraction of the North Park is the Japanese Garden , which was donated by the Japanese community and opened in 1976. However, as early as 1904, Düsseldorf was the first German city to have a Japanese garden, which was located roughly at the site of the courtyard of honor , also located on the Rhine .
Spread across the entire city area, Düsseldorf is criss-crossed by gardens, which can be traced back to the model of urban development during industrialization, which in turn further developed the horticultural facilities of the 18th and 19th centuries and established Düsseldorf's reputation as a garden city. The Museum of European Garden Art, which belongs to the Benrath Palace and Park Foundation, takes this into account, as does the Natural History Museum, in which the various habitats in the region, from the Rhine to the Loess Plateau, are depicted in dioramas. In 1987 the Federal Garden Show (BUGA) took place in Düsseldorf, the grounds of which today form the Südpark .
Permanent historical exhibitions
The city museum in the old town has a large exhibition that traces the development of the city of Düsseldorf historically and chronologically. The Düsseldorf memorial site commemorates the victims of Nazi rule in the 20th century. It is located in historical rooms that were used as offices, interrogation rooms and detention cells for the police during the Nazi era, and contains the permanent exhibition “Persecution and Resistance in Düsseldorf 1933–1945”.
Customs, technology and everyday things in the museum
Carnival is one of the classic customs in Düsseldorf. The Carnival Museum in the old town is dedicated to him in the House of Carnival . The Maritime Museum in the castle tower is also located in the old town . It is located in the castle tower on the banks of the Rhine and shows the development of shipping on the Rhine from antiquity to modern times. The mustard museum pays tribute to the tradition of almost 300 years of mustard production. The Hetjens Museum ( German Ceramics Museum ) is located in Palais Nesselrode in Carlstadt and is the only institute in the world to show ceramic products from various cultures from all eras in a permanent exhibition. The Ehrenhof complex is home to the NRW Forum , which shows temporary exhibitions on various topics, especially photographic works.
For the third and, for the time being, last time, the Quadriennale took place from April 5 to August 10, 2014 . Under the motto Beyond Tomorrow , several cultural institutes presented a cultural festival with special exhibitions and an accompanying program.
The University and State Library (ULB) Düsseldorf emerged from the library of the Medical Academy between 1965 and 1969 and was founded in 1970. The ULB has a central library and five other locations that hold a total of around 2.4 million media. There are around 23,000 regular users.
The city of Düsseldorf maintains a city library with a central library, 14 district libraries and a car library . A total of around 800,000 media are offered. The more than 1.4 million visitors lent over 4.7 million items of media each year.
Düsseldorf has a rich musical tradition that began before the 19th century. Important musicians such as Johann Hugo von Wilderer , Friedrich August Burgmüller , Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and the couple Clara and Robert Schumann had temporarily found their place of work in the city.
But even in the 20th century, Düsseldorf played a leading role in styles as diverse as jazz, the Neue Deutsche Welle or punk rock.
The most important concert hall in the state capital is the Tonhalle Düsseldorf with more than 200 events a year. The Tonhalle is also the seat of the Düsseldorf Symphony Orchestra , which function as the concert orchestra of the state capital and as the opera orchestra of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein. The concert hall , a former planetarium, was extensively renovated in 2005 and has had good acoustics ever since .
The Düsseldorf courts of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries already produced a lively musical life. It is associated with the names Martin Peudargent , Giacomo Negri, Egidio Hennio, Giovanni Battista Mocchi, Georg Andreas Kraft , Sebastiano Moratelli , Stefano Pallavicini , Valeriano Pellegrini, Giorgio Maria Rapparini , Agostino Steffani and Francesco Maria Veracini . From 1807 the family of the musician Friedrich August Burgmüller worked in Düsseldorf , who produced two well-known composers of the Romantic period , Friedrich and Norbert Burgmüller . The Städtische Musikverein zu Düsseldorf was founded in 1818 and organized the first of many Lower Rhine music festivals that had international significance in the 19th century, also thanks to the participation of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and Robert Schumann , both music directors in Düsseldorf. The Städtische Musikverein can refer to an unbroken and historically extraordinary history from 1818 to today and is considered the city's musical ambassador in all major concert halls in Germany and Europe. In Düsseldorf Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy composed the Vespergesang in 1833 , the oratorio Paulus from 1834 to 1836 , and in 1850 Robert Schumann composed his famous 3rd symphony ("Die Rheinische") .
There is also a lively and diverse choral scene in Düsseldorf, including the Bachverein Düsseldorf with an equally long tradition, or choirs and choir school at St. Margareta in Gerresheim .
With the Maxkirche there is a church music location in Düsseldorf's old town, whose history goes back to the 17th century and where in the 19th century a. a. Norbert Burgmüller, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and Robert Schumann worked.
From 1982 to 1987, Neue Töne organized a series of concerts for new music.
One of the most famous jazz musicians with roots in Düsseldorf is Klaus Doldinger , who is also known as the composer of film music ( Das Boot , Tatort ). He has been the patron of the Düsseldorf Jazz Rally for several years . The "Düsseldorfer Jazz-Rally" festival has been held in Düsseldorf since 1993 - initially as the Brussels Jazz Rally - and thus in 2020 for the 28th time.
In 1994 Jazz in Düsseldorf e. V., who presents modern jazz through concerts in the jazz forge with musicians from all over the world. With the jazz forge, jazz has again a permanent venue in Düsseldorf. Hundreds of visitors come to the Hofgarten concerts by the jazz forge on four Saturdays in the summer.
From the 1970s onwards, Düsseldorf was a leading center for electronic pop music in the popular music sector. Internationally known were and are above all Kraftwerk , whose historic Kling-Klang-Studio was in Düsseldorf's Friedrichstadt , but also New! and La Düsseldorf . In its title Trans-Europa-Express and the accompanying music video, the Kraftwerk group addresses the lifestyle of Düsseldorf business people in an avant-garde way, who, thanks to the transnational railway network, enjoy a lifestyle with alternating stays in major European cities. In the tradition of these 'Düsseldorf schools' of the seventies, the internationally acclaimed band Kreidler still stands today . In the electropop sector , the band Susanne Blech, based in the Düsseldorf area, is currently attracting attention, in the deep house genre the Düsseldorf artist Loco Dice , in indie rock the band PDR . A well-known DJ from Düsseldorf is Lukas Langeheine, alias DJ Rafik .
At the beginning of the 1980s, along with West Berlin and Hamburg , Düsseldorf was a stronghold of German punk and NDW music. The most important bands were and are Die Toten Hosen , Broilers , German American Friendship , Propaganda , Rheingold , Die Krupps , Fehlfarben , Der Plan , KFC , Male , lunch break , Asmodi Bizarr , Tommi Stumpff , Family 5 and Nachzehrer. Cryssis is the band of the drummer of the Toten Hosen, from Ritchie . The "Beatlesons" offer trash polka, specifically without Beatles songs.
Marius Müller-Westernhagen was born in Düsseldorf and went to school (Humboldt-Gymnasium). In his title At 18 , the chicken Hugo from Düsseldorf's old town is mentioned. Along with Heino, Die Toten Hosen and Kraftwerk, he is one of the most successful and well-known musicians of Düsseldorf origin.
A number of metal bands, some of which are internationally known , also come from Düsseldorf: Warlock (with Doro Pesch , who continued solo under Doro from 1989 ), Stormwind , Callejon , Warrant and Falkenbach .
The Düsseldorf dialect band Alt Schuss is one of the well-known in the greater Düsseldorf area. The band Halve Hahn also belongs to this genre of music . The roots of both groups lie in the Unterbacher Carnival.
With Farid Bang , Blumio , Antilopen Gang , NMZS , Plattenpapzt , Toony , Al-Gear and many others, Düsseldorf has produced an important scene of German-speaking rap ( gangsta rap , hip hop ). In the album Asphalt Massaka 2 , Farid Bang paid special tribute to his hometown with the title Ich bin Düsseldorf . His colleague Kollegah , known for his “ pimp rap ”, is also at home in Düsseldorf. In the electro-rap sector, JayJay is a well-known artist who lives in the Düsseldorf Fortunafans milieu , who, in the title Knüppel Klopp, presents his spoken vocals largely in Düsseldorf Rheinisch. Tbo and Glenn A. from DIU go beyond the gangsta rap scheme by treating social problems such as discrimination , violence, hatred, poverty, injustice, unemployment, materialism and stigmatization in a differentiated manner. DTC (D-Town Chillaz) represent an English-language version of Düsseldorf Rap . Nabil M. mixes German, Arabic and French in his rap. The roots of German-speaking rap are not far from Ratingen-West , where the Fresh Familee group created the title Ahmet Gündüz around 1990 and launched it as the first rap song in German. With Selfmade Records , Banger Musik and Alpha Music Empire , three of Germany's most important hip-hop labels are at home in Düsseldorf.
The city of Düsseldorf was just as popular as a place to stay and study for artists as it was as a location for art collections and museums. Some museums in Düsseldorf are primarily dedicated to the art of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Establishment of the art tradition through the electoral collection
The existing small electoral collection of paintings in Düsseldorf was expanded into a famous art gallery under Elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de 'Medici . In the early 19th century, however, the collection, including important works by Rubens , was transported to Munich, where it forms the core of today's Alte Pinakothek .
From the Düsseldorf school to the paint box
In the 19th century, the Düsseldorf School of Painting , from which u. a. Oswald Achenbach emerged , important influence on painting. The academy was founded in 1810 by Peter von Cornelius , who initially directed it; from 1826 Wilhelm von Schadow was director. The academy diversified and produced particularly socially critical genre painting and important landscape painters. Her students came not only from the Rhineland, Westphalia and Old Prussia, but also from other German countries as well as Poland, Russia, the Scandinavian countries and the United States of America. There is a special Düsseldorf era in Finnish art .
After the revolution of 1848, artists and scholars came together in the Kunstverein Malkasten in Düsseldorf. In 1846 the association for the establishment of a painting gallery in Düsseldorf, which mainly bought works from the Düsseldorf School of Painting, was founded. The Kunstpalast and finally the Museum Kunstpalast emerged from the initiative of this association .
From Rhenish Expressionism to the Center of Modernism
After the First World War , the group Das Junge Rheinland was the most active artist group in town. To her belong u. a. Otto Dix , Max Ernst and Walter Ophey . The center of the group of artists was the Altstadt-Galerie Junge Kunst - Frau Ey , which was run by Mother Ey , who is still known in Düsseldorf today . Many of the artists in the association were associated with Rhenish Expressionism .
After the Second World War, Joseph Beuys was formative and Düsseldorf was considered a “world art capital” in the 1970s and 1980s , not only because of his work at the Düsseldorf Art Academy . Today, some Beuys students like Katharina Sieverding and Anselm Kiefer have an influence on the development of the international art scene. The photographer Bernd Becher , who took over a professorship at the Düsseldorf Art Academy in 1976, together with his wife Hilla Becher trained many photographic personalities who today are outstanding representatives of German photography from an international perspective. Boris Becker , Laurenz Berges, Elger Esser , Andreas Gursky , Candida Höfer , Axel Hütte , Simone Nieweg, Thomas Ruff , Jörg Sasse , Thomas Struth and Peter Wunderlich belong to this “Düsseldorfer Photo School” .
Art in public space
In addition to traditional monuments and statues such as the Marian column or the Schadow monument , Düsseldorf has numerous other art objects to offer in public spaces. The Südpark is home to many artistic fountains, sculptures and other art objects, the most famous of which is probably Klaus Rinke's time field . Also noticeable in the city center are the so-called column saints, sculptures of realistically reproduced everyday citizens on advertising pillars by Christoph Pöggeler . Some works of art have long been controversial, such as the Heine monument of Bert Gerresheim . The stations of the Wehrhahn Line also contribute to art in public space , each with its own artistic design.
Buildings and architecture
The business street with the highest turnover and one of the most important shopping streets in Germany is Schadowstrasse . However, the Königsallee , or “the Kö” for short, is better known for its urban development and its exclusive shops . The city moat runs in the middle, at the northern end of which is the Triton group , a fountain from 1902, as a landmark of the Kö .
In the old town you will find many houses that are under monument protection . The districts of Kaiserswerth and Gerresheim have other preserved historical centers . The village character of the centers of Angermund , Kalkum , Oberlörick , Heerdt , Hamm , Himmelgeist and Urdenbach has largely been preserved.
Castles and Palaces
Possibly the oldest building in the city is the ruins of the Kaiserpfalz in Kaiserswerth . It goes back to a castle that was built in 1016. This in turn is due to a monastery that was built around the year 700. Expanded into a fortress around 1193, it was destroyed by French troops in the War of the Spanish Succession in 1702 .
The original Kalkum Castle is also very old . The castle developed from a Fronhof, which was first mentioned in the 9th century. It was rebuilt from 1810 to 1819. The origins of Heltorf Castle in Angermund are said to go back to the 11th century. A renovation took place in the years 1822 to 1827.
The castle tower on Burgplatz in the old town was originally part of Düsseldorf Castle , one of the city's landmarks, which was built in the 13th century and expanded into the 16th century. The tower was rebuilt in 1845 by the Düsseldorf architect Rudolf Wiegmann in the Italian Neo-Renaissance style. The tower is the only remaining part of the Düsseldorf Palace, which was destroyed by fire in 1872.
In the 14th century, Angermund Castle was built as the northernmost bastion of the Counts of Berg, just like the predecessor of Eller Castle . Today's Eller Castle, on the other hand, was built in 1826 and rebuilt and expanded in 1902.
The baroque and rococo ages left their mark on horticulture and palaces in Düsseldorf. Garath Castle was built at the beginning of the Baroque era . It was built in the 16th century, alterations and additions were made until the 18th century. Jägerhof Palace was built north of the court garden between 1752 and 1763 . It was built by the architect Johann Joseph Couven . Today it houses the Goethe Museum. The Hofgärtnerhaus , which is located in the Hofgarten and contains the theater museum , has a similar architectural style . The architect of the court gardener's house was Nicolas de Pigage .
Benrath Castle also goes back to de Pigage . It was built from 1755 to 1773 on behalf of Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz . The listed ensemble of pleasure palace, hunting park, ponds and canal system is considered to be the most significant architectural work of art in Düsseldorf and was proposed by the city for inclusion in the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage in 2012 , but was not considered by the jury.
However, the Unterbach house is not part of the urban area , although it is the original cell of Unterbach , a district of the state capital Düsseldorf since the regional reform in 1975 . In contrast to the Unterbach district, the Unterbach house is located east of the confluence of Erkrather Strasse ( Kreisstrasse 7) and Gerresheimer Landstrasse, on the northeast side of the latter. Since today's city limits run along these two streets (sections), the Unterbach house is still located in the area of the city of Erkrath . The Unterfeldhaus , which belonged to Unterbach before the regional reform in 1975 and which had only been comprehensively redesigned and expanded a few years earlier, remained with the city of Erkrath and became one of its districts, since then the Unterbach house has also been part of it.
Altstadt and Carlstadt
Within the Düsseldorf old town is St. Lambertus on Stiftsplatz one the oldest church. It was built in Gothic style from 1288 to 1394 , and the church was consecrated on July 13, 1394. St. Lambertus has been the papal minor basilica since 1974 . The Kreuzherrenkirche in Ursulinengasse, which was built between 1445 and 1455, is much younger .
The also Catholic Church of St. Andreas in Andreasstrasse, on the other hand, is a baroque building that was built as a court and Jesuit church in the course of the Counter Reformation between 1622 and 1629 . The first church of the Lutheran congregation in Düsseldorf was the Berger Church in Berger Strasse, which was built from 1683 to 1687. At the same time, the Reformed Congregation built its first church in Düsseldorf, the Neanderkirche at Bolkerstraße 36. St. Maximilian , usually called “Maxkirche” for short, on Schulstraße, at the corner of Citadellstraße, was built between 1735 and 1743.
In the rest of the city
The oldest churches in the city are not located in the old town, but in the old districts of Bilk and Kaiserswerth: The parish church of Alt St. Martin in Bilk , also known as the Old Bilker Church, was built in the 12th century and is considered the oldest church in Düsseldorf . In accordance with the time it was built, it is built in the Romanesque style . Alt St. Martin was also the parish church of the village of Düsseldorf before St. Lambertus was established . St. Suitbertus in Kaiserswerth , built in the 11th to 13th centuries, is the second oldest church and has been a papal minor basilica since 1967 . St. Suitbertus is a Romanesque church with two Gothic extensions, the apse and the side entrance. St. Nikolaus in Himmelgeist is just as old , also built in the 11th to 13th centuries. The St. Margareta Basilica in Gerresheim has been the third papal minor basilica in Düsseldorf since 1982. It was built from 1220 to 1240 as the collegiate church of the Gerresheimer Stift. The monastery building dates from the same era. Both churches are also examples of Romanesque architecture.
On the left bank of the Rhine, the Catholic Church of St. Antonius in Oberkassel is particularly interesting with its neo-Romanesque style, it was built from 1909 to 1911. The Protestant Oberkassel Church of the Resurrection from 1913–1914 in Rhenish brick architecture with Art Nouveau elements is also interesting in terms of architectural history .
Other interesting churches can be found in many parts of the city, for example St. Paulus (Catholic) in Düsseltal, St. Maria Rosenkranz (Catholic) from 1908 in Wersten and the St. Josef Church in Oberrath, all built in neo-Romanesque style . St. Paulus and St. Josef go back to the Düsseldorf architect Josef Kleesattel , as well as St. Blasius in Hamm, the row church St. Elisabeth and St. Vinzenz in the city center, Holy Spirit in Pempelfort, Herz Jesu in Derendorf and St. Ursula in Grafenberg. The architects Caspar Clemens Pickel (e.g. St. Adolfus and St. Apollinaris ), Paul and Wilhelm Sültenfuß designed other neo-Romanesque churches in the city area . St. Agnes in Angermund, St. Hubertus in Itter, St. Lambertus in Kalkum and St. Cäcilia in Hubbelrath date from earlier times .
Two churches should be emphasized as architectural features from the period of reconstruction after the Second World War: the bunker church of St. Sacrament in Heerdt , which was built in an air raid shelter, and the Rochus Church in Pempelfort. The Rochuskirche was a very large and magnificent neo-Romanesque church until its destruction in the Second World War, which was built in 1897 by Josef Kleesattel. After devastating bombings, it was in ruins. In 1950 it was decided to save only the tower, but to replace the nave with a new building. This has the shape of a domed roof and was designed by Paul Schneider-Esleben . Other outstanding examples of modern church architecture are the Catholic churches of St. Bruno , St. Franziskus Xaverius , St. Matthäus , the St. Hildegardis old people's home chapel and the parabolic Katharinenkirche in Gerresheim from the 1960s as well as the Protestant Matthäikirche from the interwar period of the Weimar Republic .
Other historical buildings (before 1945)
Apart from castles and churches, the oldest buildings in Düsseldorf can be found in the old town:
The oldest secular building in the city is the Löwenhaus in Liefergasse in the old town. It dates from the year the town was raised in 1288. The Düsseldorf town hall , on the other hand, dates back to the 16th century. The oldest part was built by Heinrich Tussmann from 1570 to 1573 . In later centuries, further building wings were added. Before the town hall, which extends marketplace with the Jan-Wellem - equestrian statue , the 1712 by de Gabriel Grupello was poured.
On the border of the old town, the Ratinger Tor was built by Adolph von Vagedes from 1811 to 1815 . South of the old town, between Carlstadt, Friedrichstadt and Unterbilk, is the Ständehaus . It was built by Julius Raschdorff from 1876 to 1880 and initially served as the seat of the Prussian provincial parliament, from 1949 to 1988 it then housed the state parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia. Today the art collection North Rhine-Westphalia K21 is located there .
The expansion and economic rise of the city up to the outbreak of the First World War also led to the founding of department stores, so that Kaufhof an der Kö , formerly Leonhard Tietz AG, built 1906 to 1908 by Joseph Maria Olbrich , and the Carsch-Haus , built by 1914 to 1916 by Otto Engler, two department stores still in use today.
Right next to it on the banks of the Rhine, the architect Hermann vom Endt built the state house and the Villa Horion, named after the later governor, between 1909 and 1911 on behalf of the Rhenish Provincial Association .
One of the first skyscrapers in Germany is at today's Heinrich-Heine-Allee located Wilhelm Marx House , which from 1922 to 1924 by Wilhelm Kreis was built. The Ehrenhof complex, including the Tonhalle originally intended as a planetarium, and the nearby Rheinterrasse also came from Kreis . Today the Ehrenhof is home to several museums and exhibition institutes. a. of the NRW Forum and the Museum Kunstpalast . The complex was built as part of the Great Exhibition for Health Care, Social Care and Physical Exercise , “ GeSoLei ” for short, in 1926. The “ Aurora ” sculpture above the north portal was made by Arno Breker .
The main train station was built from 1932 to 1936 by the architects Krüger and Eduard Behne after the city's central railway station had been relocated from Graf-Adolf-Platz to a location on the edge of the inner-city districts. The renovation and modernization took place in the 1980s. Further modernizations are planned for 2021.
Modern and post-modern buildings
Düsseldorf was partially rebuilt after the Second World War, but in many places modern buildings were chosen.
As head of the planning department, Friedrich Tamms played a key role in the redesign of the city between the 1950s and 1960s. a. responsible for the new construction of the Berliner Allee . Architecturally, the skyscraper of the Stadtsparkasse Düsseldorf stands out, on the one hand , and the ensemble of the Thyssen skyscraper ("Dreischeibenhaus"), built between 1957 and 1960 by the architects Helmut Hentrich and Hubert Petschnigg , the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus , built 1965 to 1970 by the architect Bernhard Peacock , and the centipede that was demolished in April 2013 . The reorganization of the inner-city area was highly controversial at the time, and the personnel policy of Department Head Tamms also led to the Düsseldorf architectural dispute . Today the area is planned again, in its center there is now the Kö-Bogen by Daniel Libeskind .
The Mannesmann high-rise in Carlstadt, built from 1956 to 1958 by Paul Schneider-Esleben , who also built for the Haniel garage , Germany's first multi -storey car park after the war, was built in 1949–1950, as well as that in the meantime, helped shape the cityscape on the Rhine front again demolished ARAG terrace house in Mörsenbroich is responsible.
In addition to the historic buildings, the cable-stayed bridges and the Mannesmann high-rise, other buildings form the front of the Rhine, the overall appearance of which is highly recognizable. Particularly striking are the Rheinturm (built 1979 to 1982) by the architect Harald Deilmann , with 240.5 m the highest landmark of the city and the state parliament building of North Rhine-Westphalia (built 1980 to 1988). The time display of the Rhine Tower is considered to be the world's largest digital clock. The Rheinpark Bilk has been attached to the Rheinturm since the 1990s. From this time on, behind the Rheinpark, an urban and architectural collage of new and converted old buildings was created under the name Medienhafen in the front part of the old Rhine port on the Lausward , of which the Neue Zollhof with the three Gehry buildings , named after their architect Frank Gehry ( built 1996 to 1999), as well as the Colorium , a 17-storey office building (completed 2001), are particularly eye-catching. The ensemble created in this way, which is characterized by leaps in scale, a variety of shapes and materials as well as functional and aesthetic contrasts, not only forms a coveted office and hotel location in the state capital, but also functions as a new tourist destination.
The new building of the broadcasting house and state studio of the West German Broadcasting Corporation on Stromstrasse is another striking postmodern building that borders the Rheinpark. Stromstrasse then continues over the Gladbacher Strasse tunnel , over which the internationally awarded city gate towers. a. serves as the seat of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Chancellery.
Further towards the city center, the oval high-rise architecture of the 89 m high GAP 15 , which was built in 2005 according to plans by architects JSK, catches the eye at Graf-Adolf-Platz . Near the Graf-Adolf-Platz, on Friedrichstrasse, is the DRV - skyscraper . It is 120 m high and has a typical 1970s architecture (completion: 1978). The architect responsible was Harald Deilmann. The facade was redesigned in 2006/2007. On the other hand, the WestLB building on Kirchplatz , at the corner of Fürstenwall / Friedrichstrasse , underwent a complete renovation . The original building from the late 1960s, built for the Bausparkasse Rheinprovinz , towered over the Church of St. Peter, but its successor has a lower eaves height. The other nearby WestLB building is a high-rise complex, the design of which is typical of the 1970s.
North of the Oberkasseler Brücke, behind the neoclassical Higher Regional Court, the Victoria Tower clearly appears as the tallest building in the insurance company's post-modern building complex on Fischerstrasse.
In the north of the city, the ARAG insurance company made its mark. The so-called Mörsenbroicher egg was and is surrounded by buildings belonging to this society. The old step house by Paul Schneider-Esleben had to give way to the 125 m high ARAG tower built by the architect Sir Norman Foster from 1998 to 2000 , which is the tallest administrative building in the city.
The Rheinstadion , built between 1968 and 1975, also had to give way . The Merkur Spiel-Arena now stands in its place . It was built between 2002 and 2004 according to plans by the architects JSK . Also in the north of the city, in Rath, is the ISS dome . It was built between 2005 and 2006 by the architects Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky (RKW).
In the south of Düsseldorf, the dome greenhouse in the Düsseldorf Botanical Garden is also worth mentioning. The Heinrich Heine University itself was built in a construction typical of the 1960s and 1970s with a number of high-rise buildings for the institutes in exposed concrete with large glass windows, lecture hall buildings with exposed concrete and partly red clinking and other buildings, some with red brick and some with exposed concrete. The scattered location of the buildings along a curved main axis of the site is somewhat atypical.
Düsseldorf bridge family
The Düsseldorf bridge family was originally a collective term for the three central cable-stayed bridges Theodor-Heuss-Brücke , Oberkasseler Brücke and Rheinkniebrücke , which had significantly influenced the development of this type of bridge for many years.
Between Golzheim and Niederkassel lying Theodor Heuss Bridge , formerly North Bridge called, is considered the first cable-stayed bridge in Germany. It was designed in 1952 on behalf of the Düsseldorf City Planning Office under the direction of the architect Friedrich Tamms by a group led by the civil engineer and structural planner Fritz Leonhardt . Their slender, cantilevered pylon shafts and the harp-shaped, parallel arrangement of the ropes were arranged by Tamms. Soon after its completion in 1957, Tamms also commissioned the planning of the Oberkassel Bridge and the Rheinknie Bridge, with Fritz Leonhardt in charge of the Rheinknie Bridge and Hans Grassl for the Oberkassel Bridge.
The Oberkasseler Bridge, a little further south between the city center and Oberkassel, was the oldest and, for a long time, the only road bridge in Düsseldorf. From 1898 it replaced the pontoon bridge from 1839, which until then had been the only connection with the left bank of the Rhine, and was expanded in 1924. After the destruction in 1945, a temporary bridge was built again from 1948. For traffic reasons, the cable-stayed bridge designed by Hans Grassl could not be built next to it until 1973. In 1976 the new bridge was finally relocated to its historic location, which received much attention. It provides the connection from the old town to Oberkassel and carries the light rail lines that lead from Heinrich-Heine-Allee to the left bank of the Rhine.
The Rheinkniebrücke , still further south, connects Friedrichstadt with Oberkassel. For traffic reasons, it had to be built before the new Oberkassel Bridge was built. It was built between 1965 and 1969 according to Leonhardt's plans and, like the Theodor Heuss Bridge and the Oberkassel Bridge built after it, is a cable-stayed bridge.
These three cable-stayed bridges are characterized by the same stylistic elements - a flat steel bridge deck, slim vertical pylons and a few, harp-shaped stay cables. Due to their location a short distance from each other, they could also be represented together in models and drawings before they were completed. The Düsseldorf bridge family was nominated in 2007 for the award as a historical landmark of civil engineering in Germany .
Further south, three completely differently constructed bridges connect Düsseldorf with the neighboring city of Neuss . First comes the Hammer Railway Bridge , a truss bridge suspended from a steel arch , the predecessor of which dates from 1870 , from north to south . Remnants of this old bridge can still be seen in the form of the towers on the banks. Today's bridge was built in 1987 right next to the historic route as part of the construction of the east-west S-Bahn line S 8. In contrast to its predecessor, it carries four railway tracks. There is just as little a footpath or bike path as there is a roadway for cars.
In sight is the Josef-Kardinal-Frings-Brücke , formerly the Südbrücke , a new building from 1950 to 1951 after the old bridge from 1929 was destroyed in the last year of the war in 1945. It is the first box girder bridge that was executed using welding technology. Bundesstraße 1 and a tram line lead over the Josef-Kardinal-Frings-Brücke .
The southernmost Düsseldorf Rhine bridge is the Fleher Bridge , a cable-stayed bridge with the highest bridge pylon in Germany and a multitude of ropes arranged in a fan shape. It was built from 1976 to 1979. The federal highway 46 runs along it .
In the north of the city is the airport bridge , a cable-stayed bridge with pylons shortened to triangles, which leads from Düsseldorf-Stockum to Meerbusch and defines the course of the federal motorway 44 . It is the youngest Rhine bridge in Düsseldorf, it was built between 1998 and 2002.
Historic gas lanterns
Düsseldorf is one of the last cities in the world to have a large and intact network of gas lanterns (14,000 - with a falling trend, as of 2018). Since 1848, the lanterns with their golden-yellow light have shaped the atmosphere of the city. Gas lighting is linked to the city's history in many ways. The Mannesmann brothers wrote an important piece of industrial history in the Rhineland in the 19th century with their patent for seamless steel tubes. The technology of the hanging incandescent bodies was also developed by Mannesmann . Clara Schumann already wrote about the Düsseldorf gas lamps.
The gas lanterns are important witnesses of the historical development of the city and even the youngest are over half a century old. They illuminate large parts of the residential areas to this day. Well-known types of gas lanterns include the old Düsseldorfers, the side-mounted and top-mounted lights and row lights that have been used since the 1920s.
The famous and listed Düsseldorf Hofgarten was illuminated by gas lanterns until storm Ela in 2014. The Frankfurt model that was set up there in the 1950s is now believed to be unique in all of Europe. Countless trees were destroyed by the storm and also many gas lamps, but they survived the storm without any danger from leaking gas. So far the gas lanterns in the courtyard garden have not been replaced, there is currently still a provisional electric lighting on wooden pillars.
The city administration of Düsseldorf intends to replace almost all historical gas lanterns with LED lights. A petition from the citizens of Düsseldorf collected over 10,000 votes for the preservation and was the most successful petition in the city's history to date. A citizens' initiative is calling for gas lighting to be recognized as a “world cultural heritage” and an industrial monument.
In the opinion of the citizens' initiative, there are both cultural and financial reasons for maintaining the large-scale gas lamp network. It is supported, among other things, by the Taxpayers Association, which commented on it in a press release. Even the BUND for the Environment and Nature Conservation does not consider the replacement of gas lanterns to be an effective means of reducing CO 2 emissions.
With a resolution dated December 10, 2015, the city council of Düsseldorf recognized gas lanterns as a cultural asset for the first time. For the Hofgarten, the administration has been asked to prepare an implementation and financing decision to restore the gas lighting. In the rest of the city, at least 4,000 gas lamps are to be retained. The determination of the conservation areas was entrusted to the district representatives.
The Stadtwerke Dusseldorf have declared in August 2016 that they are able to ensure continuous operation of the gaslights legally and technically perfect.
Parks and green spaces
Düsseldorf, which is often nicknamed the garden city , now has 1238 hectares of public green space, 641 hectares of which are parks that are spread across the city. With its large, largely undeveloped bank zones, the Rhine forms a green ribbon that connects different parks in a north-south direction. On the eastern edge of the city there are also extensive urban forest areas with 2180 hectares.
The courtyard garden
Its reputation as a garden city goes back to the second half of the 18th century. In 1769, the governor of Elector Karl-Theodor had the "Old Court Garden" laid out as the first public garden in Germany according to the plans of Nicolas de Pigage as part of job creation measures. The facility became a landmark for similar parks in other cities. After the fortifications were razed in 1801, the park was redesigned by Maximilian Friedrich Weyhe and further developed in the form of an open garden landscape. This "New Court Garden " with its garden bars and entertainment offers was a social meeting place and a specialty of Düsseldorf. The Hofgarten remained the only green space within the built-up urban area until 1875.
The gardens of the big city
The strong urban expansion brought about by industrialization provided the basis for the creation of new parks. In 1875 the Flora Park and 1876 the Zoological Garden , both with ponds fed by the Düssel, were created on a private initiative . Heinrich Hillebrecht , who was the city gardener of Düsseldorf from 1879 to 1910 , had a major influence on the design of the green spaces . Since the middle of the 1880s, the city of Düsseldorf pursued the goal of acquiring land for the construction of parks and recreational areas. In 1892 the Oberbilker Volksgarten, today part of the Südpark , was laid out. The Ostpark followed in 1898 . In 1903 the city took over the Flora Park and in 1905 the Zoological Garden.
In 1904 the major horticultural exhibition took place in Düsseldorf, the focus of which was on the reform of horticulture towards an architectural design. Proponents of these reforms were Peter Behrens and Walter von Engelhardt from the environment of the Düsseldorf School of Applied Arts . Reinhold Hoemann planned the Kaiser Wilhelm Park on the Rhine based on their ideas . As part of the GeSoLei 1926, parts of the banks of the Rhine were filled up and landscaped. Today's Rheinpark Golzheim , which is connected to the Hofgarten via the complex of the Museum Kunstpalast, emerged from the Kaiser Wilhelm Park and the new, heaped-up areas . As part of the Empire Exhibition Working People arose between the Rhine and the Kaiserswertherstrasse of North Park . The Volksgarten and the Südpark were part of the grounds of the Federal Horticultural Show 1987. To the south of this is the Botanical Garden .
The parks of several castles and mansions that are now part of the city are open to the public. The best known is the park of Schloss Benrath in the south of the city. Furthermore, in the southern districts of the city, these are Park Elbroich and the parks of the castles Eller , Mickeln and Garath . To the north of the city are the Kalkum Palace Park and Lantz'sche Park . The Ständehauspark with the Spee'schen Graben , Kaiserteich and Schwanenspiegel are located between Carlstadt and Friedrichstadt . In Pempelfort, the grounds of the artists' association Malkasten and the Jacobi garden adjoin the court garden .
List of Düsseldorf parks
Nine of the Düsseldorf parks were included in the street of garden art between the Rhine and the Maas in 2004 because of their quality and importance . They are marked with * in the following list.
- Old Bilker cemetery
- University Botanical Garden
- Flora Park
- Golzheim Cemetery *
- Courtyard garden *
- IHZ Park (commercial center)
- Lantz'scher Park
- Malkastenpark / Jacobigarten *
- Maurice Ravel Park
- North Cemetery
- North Park * with Japanese garden
- East Park
- Park Elbroich / Heyepark
- Park at the Ständehaus * with the Kaiserteich and the Schwanenspiegel
- Rheinpark Bilk
- Rheinpark Golzheim
- Benrath Palace Park *
- Eller Castle Park
- Garath Castle Park
- Park Heltorf *
- Kalkum Castle Park
- Mickeln Castle Park
- Spee'scher Graben *
- City-Nature-Park Flingern
- Sternwartpark (formerly Bilker Friedhof, unofficially also Cola Park)
- Südpark with Volksgarten *
- Wildlife Park in the Grafenberg Forest
- Zoo park
Landscape and nature reserves
Düsseldorf has 43 natural monuments and twelve nature reserves with a total area of 1435 hectares in the city area.
In the past, through the meandering of the Rhine between the Old Rhine and the current course of the river, a large swamp and moorland stretched in the southeast of the city , the large parts of today's city districts 8 , 9 and 10 as well as the neighboring town of Hilden and some of the forests there enclosed. Many of today's nature reserves emerged from the various forms of this swamp. The sand-bearing part of this area called In den Benden has meanwhile been excavated and left the Unterbacher See (formerly Bendensee ), Elbsee , Menzelsee and Dreiecksweiher in Unterbach . The Urdenbacher Kämpe , the Eller Forest and the Himmelgeister Rheinbogen remained wet areas, and parts of the Elbsee and Dreiecksweiher were placed under nature protection. Due to the concentration of the water, large areas of the swamp could be drained and cultivated, among other things by breaking peat . Previously, the historical mouse path bypassed this area as a high-altitude path over the first foothills of the Bergisches Land at the transition to the Lower Rhine plain .
Today the Urdenbacher Kämpe is the largest nature reserve in Düsseldorf as a floodplain landscape with an area of 316 ha. It is characterized by the fruit trees in the alluvial forest , which are common in the Lower Rhine region , and is an FFH area. In the east of the city, transitioning to the district of Mettmann, there is the Rotthäuser Bachtal , which is also an FFH area and in which ponds and hedges as well as alluvial forests characterize the hilly landscape. The third FFH area is the Überanger Mark in northeast Düsseldorf, which mainly consists of alder and hornbeam forests.
The other nature reserves within the Düsseldorf city limits are:
- the Rahmer Benden in Angermund
- the Hubbelrather Bachtal
- the Pillebachtal in Gerresheim
- the clay pits in Gerresheim and Grafenberg
- the Benrath Palace Park
Recreation areas and amusement parks
The most popular local recreation area in the city is the Unterbacher See . It is located on the city limits of Erkrath and Hilden and borders the Eller Forest. Numerous leisure and sports opportunities from sailing and pedal boating to mini golf and swimming are possible on it. There are also two campsites. The area around the lake is under nature protection. In addition, the Düsseldorf city forest serves as part of the green lung for local recreation.
The city established three amusement parks for children and families in the 1970s and 1980s, which have since been modernized. These are the Ulenbergstrasse leisure park in Bilk, the Heerdt theme park in Heerdt on the left bank of the Rhine and the Niederheid theme park, which also includes a children's farm.
Intercultural references, international culture
A total of around 110,000 foreigners live in Düsseldorf and around 5,000 foreign companies have settled here and shape the city. Among other things, the company branches lead to an exceptionally high proportion of Japanese residents , as well as numerous Dutch, Americans, British, French, Chinese and Koreans. As in other comparable cities, there are also large Turkish, Greek, Moroccan, Serbian, Italian and Polish communities. The city is home to numerous cultural and religious institutions of various nationalities and beliefs.
40 of 71 of the consular representations and branches located in North Rhine-Westphalia were in Düsseldorf at the beginning of 2013. There are also 33 foreign chambers of commerce and foreign trade organizations. The opening of a fourth Chinese Consulate General in Germany in Düsseldorf, announced in 2014 during the state visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to North Rhine-Westphalia , took place on December 19, 2015 in the presence of Prime Minister Hannelore Kraft and Foreign Minister Wang Yi .
In 2015, English was elevated to the status of an administrative language alongside German . The accessibility and attractiveness of the city for z. B. Expatriates , highly qualified immigrants and international scientists should thus be increased.
Düsseldorf has an English-speaking international school in the north of the city with 950 students from 44 nations; there is another international school in neighboring Neuss. In the district of Düsseltal there is a French school with approx. 430 students, on the left bank of the Rhine a Japanese international school with approx. 650 students and a Greek lyceum with approx. 820 students. The Yitzhak Rabin School is one of the few Jewish primary schools in Germany.
As cultural organizations are u. a. the Institut français and the Instytut Polski, which has existed in Düsseldorf since 1950, should be mentioned. The Japanese Club is one of the largest clubs in the city with 5000 members. A Confucius Institute was located at Heinrich Heine University . The contract between Heinrich Heine University and the Confucius Institute was no longer extended and expired in April 2020.
The annual Japan Day , as well as the France Festival in July, are among the cultural highlights of city life. In addition, the Jewish Culture Days in the Rhineland are held every four years with different sections.
In the Gerresheim district there are some streets that are very strongly influenced by southern Italy, while the Greek community in Düsseldorf is also strong. A Moroccan-Tunisian quarter has formed around Ellerstrasse in Oberbilk in recent years. In Düsseldorf, Christian home communities are u. a. from South Korea , Poland and Vietnam , the Russian Orthodox Church maintains a patriarchate in Düsseldorf . The Coptic Orthodox Church has a parish and a church in the city. The so-called “Maghreb district” can also be found in the city center. It covers the area of the districts that meet at the main train station (south-east) city center, Friedrichstadt, Flingern-Süd and (north) Oberbilk and is characterized by a North African population structure.
The old town of Düsseldorf is known as the "longest bar in the world" because of its many pubs . The formulation goes back to the advertiser Carl Schweik in the 1960s. In addition to the Uerige Altbierkneipe there are the “ Brauerei im Füchschen ”, “ Brauerei Schumacher ”, “ Brauerei zum Schlüssel ” and many more. There are hundreds of bars , restaurants , discos and pubs in an astonishingly narrow area. The area essentially comprises the historical part of the old town, bounded in the north by Ratinger Straße , in the west by the Rhine promenade , in the east by Heinrich-Heine-Allee and in the south by Carlsplatz . In November 2009 the current curfew in the old town was lifted.
The left bank of the Rhine with the districts of Oberkassel and Niederkassel is also popular in terms of gastronomy . A student pub culture has tentatively developed in Bilk over the past few decades. In the districts of Derendorf , Flingern and Pempelfort there is more of a scene crowd. In Pempelfort in particular, a lively pub and restaurant scene has developed in the area around Tußmannstrasse and the former premises of the Derendorf freight station . In the above-mentioned entertainment centers and in the numerous pubs in the city districts, top-fermented Altbier is primarily served . Almost all pubs also offer other types of beer . In addition to the Altbier, the mustard ("Mostert") from the brands Löwensenf and ABB-Senf as well as the herbal liqueur Killepitsch are other specialties of the local gastronomy.
The Königsallee (Kö) is a popular promenade . “See and be seen” is the motto here. The numerous street cafes on the boulevard also invite you to linger. The Rhine embankment promenade, which connects the Medienhafen with the old town, also offers an abundance of cafés and restaurants with outdoor dining.
The Düsseldorf mustard roast is one of the local specialties .
The most important elements of Düsseldorf customs are the carnival with the Rose Monday procession as the highlight, the rifle festivals in the districts and in July the great Düsseldorf rifle festival with the largest fair on the Rhine . The St. Sebastianus shooting club has existed since 1435 at the latest, but probably dates back to the 14th century. Wheel turning is also an old tradition . For “Eene Penning” the Düsseldorf Radschläger - mostly school-age boys - demonstrated their art. The Martin parades in the old town and in the city districts are less touristy and economically important, but all the more important for the children of Düsseldorf . In honor of Saint Martin of Tours , in the first half of November, they sing along with hand-made lanterns behind a horseman portraying Saint Martin. After the parades, they “grip” sweets in shops and on front doors in return for a serenade . In addition to the carnival and rifle clubs , the local community of the Düsseldorf Jonges maintains a special measure of customs and traditions .
Around 112,000 people in Düsseldorf participate in mass sports in 369 clubs, whose umbrella organization is the Stadtsportbund Düsseldorf. 36 clubs are represented in their respective sport at least in the regional league and represent competitive sport . The best-known Düsseldorf professional clubs are Fortuna Düsseldorf in football and in ice hockey the Düsseldorfer EG . Against the background of the ultimately unsuccessful application for the Olympic Games in Düsseldorf / Rhine-Ruhr for 2012, the city of Düsseldorf has invested heavily in the construction of new sports facilities for both professional and popular sports. A sports agency has been integrated into the city marketing department, which draws national and international sporting events to the city and markets them under the slogan “Sportstadt Düsseldorf”. From July 1, 2009 the LTU Arena was called ESPRIT Arena, and since August 3, 2018 it has been called Merkur Spiel-Arena .
The most famous sporting figurehead in the city is the traditional Fortuna Düsseldorf club . The greatest sporting successes are winning the German soccer championship in 1933, winning the DFB Cup in 1979 and 1980 and reaching the finals in the 1979 European Cup Winners' Cup.
Other well-known soccer clubs in the city are the soccer department of TuRU Düsseldorf , which played in the Oberliga Nordrhein from the 2004/2005 season to the 2007/08 season , and in 2012/13 it was promoted to this league, where SC Düsseldorf-West also played. the BV 04 Dusseldorf , which since 1963 aligns regularly at Easter an international junior soccer tournament (U19 Champions Trophy), and the VfL Benrath , the 1957 German amateur championship was and in the 1930s the two German international Karl Hohmann and Josef Rasselnberg presented .
The Düsseldorfer EG is just as well known as the Fortuna soccer team . As an eight-time German champion since 1967, DEG is one of the most successful clubs in Germany. In 2006, the German Cup and the runner-up were also won for the first time . Again the runner-up was brought in the 08/09 season.
The oldest American football club in Düsseldorf are the Düsseldorf Panthers , which have won the German championship of the German Football League six times since they were founded in 1978 , so that they were German record champions for many years until 2008 and are considered the oldest German American football team still in existence .
The Düsseldorf Bulldozer , founded in 1979, can look back on a long tradition and also played in the upper classes in the early years of the German leagues.
From 1994 until its dissolution in 2007, the Rhein Fire team was one of the sporting highlights of Düsseldorf. In 2006, like in 1999, 2002, 2004 and 2005, Rhein Fire hosted the World Bowl and was able to win it in 1998 and 2000 after five finals.
The table tennis club Borussia Düsseldorf was the last German champion in 2016 and, in addition to 28 national championship titles, has also won the German cup 24 times. Borussia won the European Champion Clubs' Cup six times and the ETTU Cup twice and won the Table Tennis Champions League in 2000, 2009, 2010 and 2011 . There is also a 3rd place at the first world championship for club teams.
The local competitor TuSa 06 Düsseldorf , founded in 1949, was German men's team champions five times between 1962 and 1967 and German cup champions three times in a row from 1964 to 1966. He was one of the founding members of the table tennis Bundesliga , in which he remained until 1971.
In addition, the “Kids Open”, the largest table tennis youth tournament in Europe, takes place in Düsseldorf every year.
The most successful tennis club in town are the men of the Rochus Club in the 1st Bundesliga , while the women in the 1st Bundesliga are the most successful ones in the TC Benrath . The World Team Cup was held every year in May between 1978 and 2012 on the grounds of the Düsseldorf Rochus Club. After the World Team Cup there was an ATP 250 tennis tournament in 2013 and 2014.
TV Unterbach 1905 was German team champion five times between 1978 and 1984 in the Olympic discipline of trampoline gymnastics . In addition, there were many participations and titles in the individual championships on Germany, Europe and world level. In addition, the club provided a large part of the German national team and the management of the trampoline Bundesliga for decades . The association did international pioneering work with the organization of the Unterbach Cup as the first and highest European competition for young people, most recently with global participation. In 1925 , the Hassels Gymnastics Association was one of the few sports clubs that offered trampoline gymnastics in Düsseldorf.
The married couple Anneliese and Siegfried Krehn ran one of the first dance schools in Düsseldorf for decades. In the 1950s and 1960s they achieved countless top places in world, European and German championships, first as amateurs for the Boston Club Düsseldorf, and later as professionals. Among other things, they won the German championships in the standard dances seven times in a row and in the Latin American dances three times in a row. In addition, they secured the vice-world championship title in 1966 in these two disciplines at the same time. In the course of these successes, they and their dance school were the focus of the first dance lessons on German television. The couple Ernst and Helga Fern also gave courses on German television in 1964–65 for the dance school that still exists today.
The best-known Düsseldorf basketball team are the Gloria Giants Düsseldorf , who play ProA in the second basketball division. In the 1980s, the DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf team dominated German women's basketball (nine times German champions in a row from 1980 to 1988, also in 1975 as well as in 1990 and 1991) and also successfully represented in European competitions (two finals in 1983 and 1986). In addition, DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf won the German women's cup seven times.
Handball and other sports
TuRU Düsseldorf , HSV Düsseldorf and HSG Düsseldorf played in the 1st and 2nd handball league from 1983 to 2012 . After the merger of the Neusser HV and ART Düsseldorf, since the 2017/2018 season there is again a team with the HSG Neuss / Düsseldorf that plays in the 2nd handball league. The team plays there under the name HC Rhein Vikings.
International sporting events in Düsseldorf
Sport in Düsseldorf experienced and continues to experience various sporting events with national and international attention year after year. The aforementioned team world championship in tennis in the Rochus Club, the METRO Group Marathon , the cross-country skiing world cup on the banks of the Rhine , the youth football tournament of BV 04 , the cycling race around the Kö and the Kö-Lauf should be mentioned here.
In international football, Düsseldorf and its Rheinstadion hosted several games of the 1974 World Cup as well as the opening and several group matches of the 1988 European Football Championship . The ice rink on Brehmstrasse was the World Cup location for the Ice Hockey World Championships in 1955 , 1975 and 1983 . In 1977 the World Cup, a forerunner of today's World Athletics Championships , was held in the Rheinstadion .
In athletics, the city hosted the 1977 cross-country championships and has hosted the Düsseldorf indoor meeting since 2006.
Between 2000 and 2003, Düsseldorf applied at the national level to host the 2012 Olympic Games . In the national preliminary round, Düsseldorf came third behind Leipzig and Hamburg.
On July 1, 2017, the Tour de France started with an individual time trial in Düsseldorf. According to official information, around 500,000 spectators saw the Grand Depart along the route despite the bad weather. The next day, the second stage started in Düsseldorf and ended in Liège. A special feature of the stage was that it first led east through Mettmann and then back to Düsseldorf before the tour entourage finally left the city in the direction of Mönchengladbach. On this stage alone, around 800,000 spectators are said to have watched the race in the city of Düsseldorf.
Economy and Infrastructure
In the Future Atlas 2016, the city of Düsseldorf was ranked 21st out of 402 rural districts and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects". In the 2019 ranking, she improved to 12th place out of 401.
Düsseldorf is an economically strong , diversified and globally intensely intertwined city in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region , in which it has a functional prime position (→ Global City ). Among the metropolitan functions, the decision-making and control functions sector clearly dominates all districts and independent cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. In this sector, Düsseldorf ranks third in Germany after Munich and Berlin and ahead of Frankfurt am Main. Also as a gateway , i.e. with regard to its remote infrastructures and worldwide contacts, Düsseldorf is of an outstanding function in North Rhine-Westphalia. On the one hand, the central location in the most populous metropolitan area in Germany is decisive. On the other hand, Düsseldorf Airport, the third largest airport in Germany, and Messe Düsseldorf, with 25 leading international trade fairs, are important factors for the city's economic importance, especially with regard to its international ties . The strong position of the Düsseldorf labor market is manifested in the by far largest surplus of inbound commuters among the districts and cities of North Rhine-Westphalia (on balance +151,387 employees subject to social insurance). The favorable location climate for economic innovation and business start-ups can be seen in the relatively high number of newly founded companies. In 2009, Düsseldorf was the leading city in Germany for start-ups, characterized by start-ups primarily in the field of research-intensive industries. In 2011, the city was the German place with the most direct investments from abroad. The number of jobs created through foreign investments was three times as high in 2011 as in 2010 and the highest within Germany. According to this parameter, Düsseldorf was thus the most popular location for foreign investments in Germany. According to a study by the consulting firm Ernst & Young , Düsseldorf was in 2013 - ahead of London and Paris - the metropolitan area with the highest number of direct investments from the People's Republic of China in Europe. In 2014, the Düsseldorf region recorded the most foreign direct investment in Europe after London and before Paris. The strong growth in Chinese investments is explained on the one hand by the location advantages offered by the technology companies in North Rhine-Westphalia, the central location in Europe and the trade fair location, on the other hand by the momentum of an already existing Chinese community that is setting up and establishing closer networks .
Düsseldorf is a leading location in the advertising, European patent, telecommunications, management consultancy and art trade sectors, as well as Germany's “City of Fashion”. With the Igedo Fashion Fairs and the Collections Premieren Düsseldorf (CPD), Europe's leading fashion fairs took place here. With the new format The Gallery Düsseldorf , the trade fair organizer Igedo is trying to build on earlier successes. Over 600 showrooms from various manufacturers and large textile trading companies are concentrated in the state capital, and over 1,300 in the Düsseldorf agglomeration. The spatial focus is on a cluster of order offices around Kaiserswerther Strasse in the Golzheim district . In terms of sales, Düsseldorf is also Germany's number one fashion location: at around 18 billion euros, fashion sales in Düsseldorf were more than twice as high as in Munich and Berlin combined, according to a study by the Cologne Institute for Retail Research. The sobriety and business efficiency of the fashion location on the Rhine are valued.
The cultural and creative industries of the city included in the year 2011, about 4,100 companies with annual sales of about 7.4 billion euros, the share of creative class is subject to social insurance contributions according to a study in 2008 among the districts and cities of North Rhine- Westphalia's highest in Düsseldorf. Within Germany, the tightly knit metropolitan region of Rhine-Ruhr is considered to be the leading center of the creative industries.
Alongside Frankfurt am Main , Munich and Stuttgart, Düsseldorf is one of the largest financial centers in Germany. In addition, Düsseldorf is an important traditional German stock exchange city ( Düsseldorf Stock Exchange ). As a banking location of national and international importance, 83 credit institutions are represented in Düsseldorf with a branch or their head office. These include the traditional bank HSBC Trinkaus & Burkhardt , the NRW.BANK , Deutsche Apotheker- und Ärztebank , Deutsche Industriebank (IKB), Targobank , Sparda-Bank West , PSD-Bank Rhein Ruhr , Stadtsparkasse Düsseldorf , but also many foreign banks such as BBVA , Wells Fargo and Crédit Mutuel . The major Japanese banks MUFG Bank , Mizuho Bank and Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation all have their German headquarters in Düsseldorf. After all, Düsseldorf is the seat of some large insurance companies such as the ERGO insurance group , ARAG group , Provinzial Rheinland and Deutsche Rück . Two well-known FinTechs from Düsseldorf are Auxmoney and Compeon. Düsseldorf is an important location for auditing. The large, globally active accounting firms, PwC , KPMG , Deloitte and EY have larger locations in the state capital. Warth & Klein Grant Thornton has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf. In the area of management consulting, McKinsey has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf; Accenture , Boston Consulting Group , Kienbaum and Bain & Company are also represented in Düsseldorf. A total of around 880 auditors with around 9,900 employees work in Düsseldorf.
As a location for law firms, especially with a focus on commercial law, Düsseldorf is one of the most important locations in Germany. Hengeler Mueller , Freshfield Bruckhaus Deringer , Clifford Chance and White & Case, among others , have offices in Düsseldorf. Taylor Wessing is headquartered in Düsseldorf. A total of around 1,300 law firms have a location in Düsseldorf and employ around 6,000 people who are subject to social security contributions. In addition, Düsseldorf is the most important place of jurisdiction for European patent disputes.
Numerous international companies have their headquarters here: L'Oréal Germany, Komatsu Mining Germany, Air Liquide Germany, Nikon Germany, Vodafone Germany, Metro AG , Rheinmetall , Henkel , Tata Steel with Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes , E-Plus and Qiagen . In Düsseldorf, Daimler produces the closed model series of the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter as well as the technically related Crafter for VW . Numerous medium-sized companies in the field of high technology, medical technology, special machine and plant construction as well as drive and production technology and food production have been an integral part of the Düsseldorf industrial landscape for decades. These include the companies Gerresheimer AG, Demag Cranes AG, Vossloh AG, GEA Group AG, AuK Müller GmbH & Co. KG, Walter Flender Group and Zamek . The largest Japanese colony in continental Europe has given Düsseldorf the nickname “ Nippon am Rhein ”. However, companies from other countries are also very active in the city - particularly from the Netherlands, Great Britain, France , Scandinavia and China.
Since the turn of the millennium, a lively start-up scene in the field of the Internet industry has developed in Düsseldorf, which, however, cannot yet compete with cities such as Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. The best-known Düsseldorf start-ups include the hotel search engine Trivago and, in the FinTech sector, Auxmoney.
The economic strength of Düsseldorf has given the city solid municipal finances with balanced budgets since 1999. In 2007 the city was the second major city in Germany to be free of debt. In 2005, Düsseldorf was the first German city to undergo a credit rating and was given Aa1 by the rating agency Moody's , the second-best possible rating. The creditworthiness of Düsseldorf was therefore rated higher than that of North Rhine-Westphalia (Aa2), Deutsche Bank (Aa3) or Commerzbank (A2).
In 2012, the gross domestic product in Düsseldorf was 41.5 billion euros. That is 7.1 percent of the gross domestic product of North Rhine-Westphalia in 2012. The GDP per employed person in Düsseldorf was 82,667 euros in 2012 - 125.3 percent of the value in the whole of North Rhine-Westphalia. In a nationwide comparison of cities, the city, together with Frankfurt am Main, is at the top in Germany. In a long-term comparison, the purchasing power index for the state capital is around 20 percent above the national average. Despite the differentiated economy and the good framework conditions, unemployment has been higher than the national average for years, which is related to the loss of more than 50,000 jobs in industry and manufacturing in the past 30 years. In 2014, the city's debts amounted to 383 million euros.
The city's business, office and administrative locations have been distributed over the entire city area with the urban planning goals of relieving the inner city, unbundling traffic, taking advantage of lower land prices and creating urban development impulses. In addition to the city center , the following areas are considered to be the most important office and administrative locations :
- Medienhafen / government district
- Kennedydamm - Golzheim / northern Derendorf
- Oberkassel / Seestern
- Oberbilk / International Trade Center
- Airport / Düsseldorf Airport City
- Mörsenbroicher egg and
- Grafenberger Allee.
The real estate location Düsseldorf, which occupies the top position within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, attracts high-quality real estate developments and investments, both in the commercial sector and in the residential real estate sector, due to its intrinsic value as well as its good demographic and economic prospects. The consulting firm bulwiengesa classifies the city in the group of so-called A-cities along with six other German metropolises due to its importance for the real estate market . According to a study by the CBRE , Düsseldorf was one of the ten leading investment markets for commercial real estate in Europe in the first half of 2013. In 2015, the total value of commercial properties sold exceeded the three billion euros mark for the first time. Population growth (mainly due to the influx of new residents) and increasing occupancy of living space by older people could increase the demand for living space by a total of 3.1 percent between 2006 and 2025. The gentrification promoted by individualization and metropolitanization , which is realizing in the housing market in high-demand districts as the displacement of low-income milieus by new residents with higher incomes, is increasingly leading to a housing policy debate in the city. The strong demand for apartments is offset by a small number of vacant apartments and a small number of new housing developments, which is driving up housing prices. In the opinion of housing market observers, this situation, which has persisted for the time being, leads to an optimal economic environment for high-yield investments, in particular for investments in modern, high-quality apartment buildings, especially since 81 percent of the housing stock is more than 30 years old due to the low level of new construction activity in recent decades. In terms of the average net household income of the people of Düsseldorf, rents in the city are, however, low compared to other cities. A study by the Real Estate Association Germany published in October 2012 showed, with reference to a three-room rental apartment with 70 square meters in a medium location, that a Düsseldorf household spends an average of 19.8 percent of its income on this, while an average Berlin household spends 23.0 percent Percent. In 2013 the Deutsche Bundesbank reported that price developments on the housing markets in major German cities, including Düsseldorf, might have led to “exaggerations”. As a result of the financial and global economic crisis , several trends have overlapped in Düsseldorf in recent years, which have generated exceptionally high increases in purchase and rent prices for residential properties, especially in inner-city locations: a trend back into the city ( reurbanization ), municipal liberalization efforts , negative Real interest rates , the “flight” of private investors into real assets , poor investment alternatives for low-risk investments by institutional investors and a certain population growth .
Düsseldorf has a dense transport infrastructure . The good equipment with local public transport and motorized private transport systems particularly contribute to this . In addition, the smaller city size and the location in a well-developed polycentric spatial structure reduce the probability of traffic congestion considerably. In terms of accessibility potential in road and rail traffic, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, in the center of which Düsseldorf is located, had the top position of the regions examined in Northwest Europe in 2001. On the other hand, there is, for example, a comparison by the management consultancy Arthur D. Little , which sees Düsseldorf in last place with regard to the coordination and networking of the public transport systems of major German cities.
In terms of passenger numbers, Düsseldorf Airport is the third largest international airport in Germany after Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport . In 2012 around 20.8 million people flew with 60 different airlines to and from 200 destinations in over 50 countries worldwide. The airport is characterized by its proximity to the city center and the exhibition center in Stockum, its direct connection to the motorway network and its very good connection to the railway network, which is why short transfer times to the city and the region are possible.
Shipping traffic and ports
With the port close to the city center in the district of the same name and the Reisholzer Hafen, the expansion of which has been planned for a long time, Rhine shipping has two transshipment points for goods in the urban area. Via the Rhine , the associated canals and the Main-Danube Canal , Düsseldorf is extensively connected to the European inland waterway network - including the Ems , Weser , Elbe , Oder and Danube - and to important seaports on the North Sea and the Black Sea . For water sports enthusiasts, there is a sports port and marina at Rheinpark Golzheim .
Passenger ships of the Weisse Flotte Düsseldorf , which were operated by the Rheinbahn before 1993 , run regularly between the old town and Kaiserswerth . The Köln-Düsseldorfer Rheinschifffahrts AG (kd) also has moorings in the city area. Two car ferries are still in operation: the Rhine ferry Langst – Kaiserswerth and the ferry between Urdenbach and Zons . A third car ferry operated between Himmelgeist and Uedesheim until the opening of the Fleher Bridge in 1979 . Today, on Sundays when the weather is nice, a passenger ferry with the possibility of taking bicycles runs here . Passenger ferries have also been running between the Rheinkirmes and the old town for several years .
Urban road traffic
- the Theodor Heuss Bridge completed in 1957 ,
- streets running in a ring around the city center between the north and south cemetery , which were expanded into the so-called load ring ,
- the new B 8 between Golzheim and the Duisburg-Süd motorway junction , called Danziger Strasse , and
- the Rhine bank tunnel which has been in operation since December 15, 1993 .
The B 228 connects Benrath with Hilden , Haan and Wuppertal . Today, all federal highways in the urban area are primarily used for urban through traffic and traffic to and from the motorways that have taken over the role of federal highways in the trunk road network outside the urban area. With the exception of the B 7 and B 228 to Wuppertal, the signposting of the federal roads therefore ends in the city area or just behind it. One example is the former B 8 between Wersten and Hellerhof and on to Opladen . Parallel to it runs with the Münchener and Frankfurter Strasse a four-lane motor road between Bilk and Garath . Construction began as early as the 1960s in order to be able to cope with the increasing number of car traffic in the rapidly growing or new parts of the city in the south of Düsseldorf.
The traffic planning after the Second World War initially shaped Friedrich Tamms , an advocate of the car-friendly city . In addition to some of the construction projects already mentioned, the Rheinkniebrücke and Oberkasseler Brücke , he planned a third high-performance north-south traffic axis between Golzheim and Wersten . The Berliner Allee and the north subsequent high street - even centipede called demolished in April 2013 and through tunnels under the K-arc replaced - were the key projects on this axis, and were built from 1954 to 1962.
The A3 between Frankfurt am Main and Oberhausen runs east outside the city area and was the closest motorway until the late 1960s. Your first section between Mettmann and Cologne-Mülheim was released in 1936. It was initially only accessible via today's B 7 . The northern feeder was built between 1950 and 1960 with the new construction and expansion of the B 1 between today's Mörsenbroicher Ei and Breitscheid intersection to become a motor vehicle . The southern feeder - a motor road marked as the B 326 between Wersten and today's Hilden intersection - was added in 1956.
The A 57 between Cologne and Nijmegen is the second north-south connection within reach of the city, has existed since 1986, the section between Neuss and Cologne has been around since 1966 (motorway from 1970) and was initially only via today's Josef-Kardinal-Frings -Bridge accessible.
The A 52 in the greater Düsseldorf area is divided into two sections. The northern section between the Düsseldorf- Rath junction and the Essen-Ost triangle corresponds to the northern feeder road up to the Breitscheid junction , which was upgraded to a motorway in 1971. The western section extends today between the Büderich junction and Roermond , is the continuation of the B 7 in a westerly direction and connects the city to the A 57 via the Kaarster junction . The first section to Kreuz Neersen was released in 1971 and upgraded to the motorway in 1973.
The A 59 between the Düsseldorf-Süd junction and the Leverkusen-West junction runs parallel to the A 3, relieves it, but also connects Monheim , Langenfeld and Leverkusen better to Düsseldorf and was built between 1968 and 1973.
The A 46 between Heinsberg and the Wuppertal-Nord junction touches the city center to the south, connects the Heinrich Heine University to the motorway network and has been providing a seamless cross-connection between the A 3, A 59 and A 57 since 1986. Sections were released in 1979 after completion of the Fleher Bridge and in 1983 with the opening of the university tunnel. In 1972 the southern feeder was upgraded to the motorway.
The A 44 between Aachen and Velbert runs through the northern parts of the city and since the airport bridge opened in 2002 it has provided a seamless cross connection between the A 3, A 52 and A 57. The direct connection of the trade fair , ESPRIT arena and the airport to the motorway network already took place in 1992, when an important section of the A 44 with connection to the A 52 at the Düsseldorf-Nord junction was opened.
The most recently built highways A 44 and A 46 are the only supra-regional highways in the greater Düsseldorf area in an east-west direction. They cross the entire city area, which is why they relieve the remaining Rhine bridges and urban thoroughfares, but also four motorway tunnels had to be built. Together with the A 3 and A 57, they have formed the Düsseldorf motorway ring since 2002 .
On September 13, 2016, the Düsseldorf District Government was sentenced by the Düsseldorf Administrative Court to change the clean air plan, which has been in effect since the beginning of 2013, so that it contains the necessary measures to comply with the limit value for NO 2 as quickly as possible . The state's duty to protect health requires compliance with the limit value as quickly as possible. The current clean air plan no longer does justice to this in view of the large proportion of emissions caused by diesel vehicles: It must therefore be updated within a year. In this context, driving bans for diesel vehicles in particular would have to be seriously examined and weighed up.
The railway lines run through the urban area
- Cologne – Duisburg (with ICE and EC / IC traffic)
- Mönchengladbach – Düsseldorf ,
- Düsseldorf – Wuppertal ,
- Düsseldorf – Essen (only S-Bahn traffic),
- Düsseldorf – Solingen (only S-Bahn traffic),
- Düsseldorf – Mettmann (only S-Bahn traffic) and
- Troisdorf – Mülheim-Speldorf (freight traffic only)
In the main train station - the central long-distance train station , which has been at its current location since 1891 - these railway lines are linked with each other, with the light rail and other local public transport , except for the freight railway line .
On the Cologne – Duisburg railway line near the airport is the Düsseldorf Airport train station , where some of the ICE and EC / IC trains that run here stop in addition to the S-Bahn and all seven Regional Express lines . The terminals, which are almost 2.5 km away, can be reached by passengers and visitors to the airport using the SkyTrain . There is a second connection between the airport and the rail network via the underground Düsseldorf-Flughafen Terminal terminus, via which a second S-Bahn line runs all day and individual journeys of several Regional Express and other S-Bahn lines are extended at night.
Also on the Cologne – Duisburg railway line but in the south of Düsseldorf is the Düsseldorf-Benrath regional train station , where two Regional Express lines and one S-Bahn line stop all day. Also worth mentioning is the Düsseldorf-Bilk train station on the Mönchengladbach-Düsseldorf railway line , which is a heavily frequented transfer station between three S-Bahn lines, the light rail vehicles on the Wehrhahn line and the bus connections to Heinrich Heine University and in the will be expanded into a regional train station in the next few years.
Including the aforementioned stations, there are 25 S-Bahn stations in the city .
In rail freight traffic, however, after its shunting yard in Düsseldorf-Derendorf was closed and demolished, Düsseldorf is no longer a rail hub ; the largest freight yard in the entire Düsseldorf railway complex is now in the station in neighboring Neuss .
Düsseldorf has a dense network of S-Bahn , light rail , tram and city bus lines, which is part of the Rhine-Ruhr Transport Association (VRR) . Local public transport (ÖPNV) in the city is operated by the Rheinbahn , the Regiobahn and the Deutsche Bahn . The Düsseldorf main station is not only controlled by the operator Deutsche Bahn, but also by other rail companies such as Abellio Rail NRW . All lines can be used with VRR tickets here and also if destinations are outside the city but in the VRR area. In addition, the NRW tariff applies and, for trips to the greater Cologne area, the tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (VRS) also applies .
A tram network was built towards the end of the 19th century, initially with wagons that were pulled over the tracks by horses, and then electrically from 1896. This rail network also included overland routes to Krefeld ( K-Bahn ) and Duisburg ( D-Bahn ) as well as from Benrath to Solingen-Ohligs . The connections to Krefeld and Duisburg still exist today as city rail lines U 70 and U 76 (Krefeld) and U 79 (Duisburg). There are further cross-location lines to Neuss and Ratingen . With the gradual expansion of the light rail network, the tram network was reduced from 19 (1981) to seven (2018) lines and a route length of 70.2 kilometers.
The Düsseldorf Stadtbahn currently comprises eleven lines. Seven of them run through the inner city tunnel, opened in 1988, between Heinrich-Heine-Allee underground station and the main train station. Another tunnel section for four new light rail lines, the Wehrhahn Line , was opened on February 20, 2016. The Heinrich-Heine-Allee underground station is the central transfer point between all light rail lines. All tunnel routes have above-ground access routes, which are only partially equipped with independent or special railway bodies.
Regular buses have also been running in Düsseldorf since 1924 . In addition to city bus routes within the urban area, long-distance routes (cf. regional bus transport ) established connections to other cities, especially after operations on some interurban tram lines were discontinued. In the meantime, the Rheinbahn has discontinued its line to Jülich and shortened other lines to Essen , Velbert , Solingen , Leichlingen , Opladen and Moers . Today there are still connections to Mülheim an der Ruhr , Mettmann , Erkrath , Solingen-Ohligs , Langenfeld and Monheim ; There are even express buses to Haan . Today 42 city bus and seven express bus routes operate in the urban area. Bus routes are also an essential part of night traffic on the nights from Friday to Saturday, Saturday to Sunday and on the nights on public holidays. Eight NachtExpress lines run between midnight and 5 a.m. every 30 or 60 minutes. Operations on three Metrobus lines will begin on August 20, 2018 .
The first S-Bahn line outside the greater Berlin and Hamburg areas was opened in 1967 between Garath and Ratingen . This was followed by the connection of the airport to the S-Bahn network in 1975 with the opening of the train station under the terminal , the commissioning of the S8 - also known as the East-West S-Bahn - between the main stations of Hagen and Mönchengladbach on May 29, 1988 and the S28 between Kaarst and Mettmann on September 26, 1999. After further lines were extended, seven S-Bahn lines now operate in the city.
Bicycle and pedestrian traffic
Düsseldorf is connected to some national and international long-distance cycle routes, including a. to the Rhine Cycle Path .
Since 2008, downtown Düsseldorf has had a network-based bike rental system that is also suitable for one-way trips. The operator is the company nextbike . In 2011, 400 rental bikes are available at 58 marked stations in the city. Pedelecs are rented out at the bicycle station at the main train station.
The city of Düsseldorf is a member of the working group of pedestrian and bicycle-friendly cities, municipalities and districts in North Rhine-Westphalia , from which it was awarded the title “bicycle-friendly city” in 2007, even if many citizens consider the cycle path network to be very sketchy.
Düsseldorf is one of the few cities in Germany whose traffic light systems for pedestrians have a separate yellow phase. Here the yellow signal is indicated by a rectangular yellow bar. During this time, pedestrians have the opportunity to clear the intersection without having to face red, as in other cities. Immediately after the pedestrian signal changes from yellow to red, the clearance for cross traffic is initiated. There is also a short red-yellow phase of less than a second for pedestrians before the green phase. Traffic lights in Düsseldorf have to a large extent already been converted to light-emitting diode technology, which should ensure lower maintenance costs, clearer visibility and also lower energy consumption compared to incandescent lamps .
Technology, industry and manufacturing
Düsseldorf's rapid development into a large city was driven by the settlement of industrial companies in the 19th century. The state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia is still an industrial city today. The 1129 manufacturing companies (excluding the construction industry and energy and water supply) generated around 29% of the taxable turnover of all companies in the city in 2005 and thus only slightly less than trade (approx. 32%), but significantly more than the service industry ( approx. 9%). However, the importance of the manufacturing industry has declined significantly in recent years. While the Düsseldorf industrial companies still offered 90,000 jobs in 1979, the number of employees in this area fell to just 38,791 on average by 2006, with a falling trend.
The largest and best-known industrial company in Düsseldorf is the Henkel Group , a chemical company that manufactures detergents and cleaning agents, cosmetics and personal care products, as well as adhesives, sealants and products for surface technology, and continues to produce them in the Reisholz district to this day. In the field of cosmetics and hygiene products, L'Oréal Deutschland GmbH, Marbert AG and Hakle-Kimberly Deutschland GmbH ( Kimberly-Clark Corporation) are active in Düsseldorf . In the medical technology and pharmaceuticals sector, Gerresheimer AG is based, an MDAX-listed company that operates worldwide for high-performance glasses and biocompatible plastic products.
The metal processing industry has a long tradition. The best-known company in this area was Mannesmann , which after its break-up in parts continued to produce in Düsseldorf, including Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes (steel tubes). Also known is the Rheinmetall group, the largest German arms manufacturer based in Düsseldorf-Derendorf. Other metal processing companies are Schmolz + Bickenbach (stainless steel long products) and Hille & Müller GmbH. GEA Group AG, an international company in the field of special machine construction, has had its headquarters in Düsseldorf since 2011 .
In the field of vehicle technology, traffic and transport, the largest operation is the Mercedes-Benz plant in Derendorf, where the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter and VW Crafter are produced and assembled, and CKD vehicles are manufactured for the US Mercedes Freightliner brand . Demag Cranes produces port, terminal and railway cranes as well as automatically controlled transport vehicles in Benrath and develops the associated management and navigation software. Adjacent, the Komatsu Mining Germany GmbH Großhydraulik- and mine hydraulic excavators ago. Demag Cranes and Komatsu Mining Germany share a common origin from Carlshütte AG. Vossloh Kiepe GmbH also produces control and drive technology for trams and trolleybuses as well as hybrid drives and special vehicles. The Walther Flender Group produces drive and conveyor technology. From the past, Schiess AG and DUEWAG are worth mentioning.
The paper industry is represented in the city by the companies Julius Schulte Söhne GmbH & Co. and the Stora-Enso group (formerly Feldmühle ), which operated a production site in Reisholz until 2008 and now has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf. Guschky & Tönnesmann GmbH & Co. KG manufacture equipment for the paper and packaging industry.
Zamek Nahrungsmittel GmbH & Co. KG , Teekanne GmbH , Düsseldorfer Löwensenf GmbH as well as BASF Personal Care and Nutrition and Fortin Mühlenwerke are known from the food sector . The traditional Düsseldorf Altbier is no longer brewed in large breweries, except in house breweries. Instead, the large brewery locations in Derendorf and Heerdt are now conversion areas . Furthermore, with Deutsche Tiernahrung Cremer , Germany's largest compound feed manufacturer is based in Düsseldorf.
Other well-known companies are SMS Siemag , which produces metallurgical and rolling mill technology, TELBA AG in the field of telecommunications and safety technology , behr Labor-Technik GmbH, AuK Müller GmbH & Co. KG, a company for solenoid valves, MHG Strahlanlagen GmbH as well as Carborundum-Dilumit Schleiftechnik GmbH (formerly Carbo Group) , which manufactures grinding wheels.
Trade and service industries
With the Metro Group and its subsidiary Metro Cash & Carry , one of the largest retail groups in the world is based in the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia. The headquarters of clothing stores such as Peek & Cloppenburg Düsseldorf (P&C) and C&A are also located in the city. As a location for the fashion trade and through the igedo and CPD trade fairs , the city was able to acquire the reputation of a fashion city.
With around 1,500 companies and 24,000 employees, one focus of the urban economic structure is the information and communication technology sectors , in particular the mobile communications sector . More than half of the German mobile phone and SIM card sales are controlled from Düsseldorf. The Vodafone GmbH in place of Mannesmann Mobilfunk is located just in the city such as E-Plus . Vodafone has also set up its German and European headquarters on the Vodafone campus in Düsseldorf-Heerdt on the left bank of the Rhine. In 2008, the Chinese telecommunications company Huawei relocated its European headquarters from London to Düsseldorf. Here the company is building its European headquarters and a research and development center for the needs of its European customers. The Chinese telecommunications supplier ZTE Deutschland GmbH had already set up its headquarters in Düsseldorf in 2005 . The Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson did this for its German business as early as 1955.
The studios of the public television broadcaster Westdeutscher Rundfunk ( WDR-Studio Düsseldorf ) and Second German Television ( ZDF-Landesstudio Düsseldorf) are located in Düsseldorf. The programs of NRW.TV and QVC also come from Düsseldorf . Formerly based in Düsseldorf from 1998 to 2006 NBC GIGA , from 1995 to its termination in 1998 Nickelodeon and from 1996 to its termination in 1998 Der Wetterkanal . In addition, a German program window was produced from the state capital on the news channel CNN by the end of 2003 .
DFA , based in Düsseldorf, has produced or produced for NBC GIGA, Der Wetterkanal, CNN D and NRW.TV, among others.
Center.tv, based in Düsseldorf, has been producing local news and events for the greater Düsseldorf / Neuss area since 2006 . In addition, there are various independent film production companies in Düsseldorf, such as Public Vision TV OHG and Busse & Halberschmidt.
The news agency ISQ.networks Press Agency with 24,000 employees worldwide also has its global headquarters in GAP 15 on Graf-Adolf-Platz . Although the company has more than 100 studios worldwide, there is no studio in Düsseldorf itself.
The nationwide TV learning channel nrwision bundles TV programs about Düsseldorf or from TV producers from Düsseldorf in its media library.
The city is also the seat of the Association of Operating Companies in North Rhine-Westphalia e. V. (BGNRW) , which represents the interests of 43 operating companies of the North Rhine-Westphalian local radio. The association is a member of the Private Broadcasting Association (APR) based in Munich. The private radio station, Antenne Düsseldorf, is based in Düsseldorf with a supporting program from Radio NRW . Hochschulradio düsseldorf makes radio for the universities in Düsseldorf , a campus radio with its own 24-hour frequency.
As newspapers appearing in Dusseldorf West German newspaper , the Rheinische Post , a local edition of the Express , as well as in food appearing / New Neue Rhein Ruhr Zeitung . The regional pages in Die Welt Kompakt were last published on August 28, 2015. Important national publications include the Handelsblatt , Wirtschaftswoche and the now discontinued Junge Karriere . The Düsseldorf official gazette and the advertising papers “ Düsseldorfer Anzeiger ” and “ Rheinbote ” are also published weekly . In addition, the city is the seat of the nationwide content marketing magazine Wirtschaftsblatt .
Düsseldorf is also the advertising location with the highest turnover in Germany. In addition to the giants BBDO , Gray , Ogilvy & Mather , Havas and Publicis , a large number of small agencies have their headquarters or a German branch in Düsseldorf.
Information technology (IT) and data traffic
Düsseldorf is one of the leading IT locations in Germany. The city's IT infrastructure has international and regional Internet nodes . The LTE mobile network has been available in Düsseldorf since October 2011 . On January 9, 2012, the trial operation of the digital radio of the authorities and organizations with security tasks (BOS) started in Düsseldorf. The company Wall GmbH offers in 55 locations in Dusseldorf Fi and free radio offers over 200 hotspots. Unitymedia maintains over 20 WLAN hotspots.
Düsseldorf has developed into a versatile location for shopping centers and shops of all types and sizes. The total sales area in the city area is stated by the city administration as 834,215 m² and is therefore higher than in Munich and lower than in Frankfurt am Main in relation to the ratio of sales area to residents . The city plays a pioneering role in the area of fashion in particular - thanks not least to the fashion fairs and the resident trading companies P&C and C&A - and it is Germany's leader in textile retail. Düsseldorf is also a leader in the luxury clothing segment. The Kings is according to Jones Lang LaSalle to be most visited off Germany's luxury mile. In 2012, Jones Lang LaSalle found in an investigation that the Kö was able to extend its lead again. With 5,935 (2011: 5,800) pedestrians per hour, it is well ahead of Stiftstrasse in Stuttgart (2,310 pedestrians) and Goethestrasse in Frankfurt am Main (1,520 pedestrians). The Düsseldorfer Schadowstrasse is the shopping mile with the highest turnover in Europe. However, with the construction of a new underground line, the Wehrhahn Line, there has been a decline in visitor numbers, as the street is blocked in sections and access to the shops is restricted as a result. Nevertheless, Schadowstrasse retains its characteristic as the shopping street with the highest turnover in Europe.
In addition to the classic shopping streets such as the well-known Kö , Schadowstrasse and Flinger Strasse , Düsseldorf has several shopping centers, some of which are adjacent to the shopping streets. Flinger Strasse, which is in the low to medium price category, made it into the top 10 of the most visited shopping streets in Germany for the first time with 10,150 passers-by per hour.
On Königsallee these are primarily the Kö-Center on the northern avenue, the Kö-Galerie near the intersection with Steinstrasse with access to and through the Stadtsparkasse on Berliner Allee and the Sevens Center between the intersection with Steinstrasse and the Kö-Galerie.
The Schadow-Arkaden in the block Schadow-, Blumenstrasse and Martin-Luther-Platz are also close to Königsallee .
Shopping centers can also be found in less lively parts of the city center, in particular the Stilwerk on Grünstraße and the Düsseldorf Arcaden at Bilker Bahnhof , which are also home to the district center, a public swimming pool and a branch of the Düsseldorf city libraries.
Outside the city center there are other shopping centers such as the mall Westfalenstraße on the same street in Rath , in early 2010, newly opened B8 Center in Flingern and for conceived as well as other visitors for both travelers Airport Arcades in Dusseldorf Airport .
Institutions and corporations under public law :
Düsseldorf developed into an important administrative center, especially during the Prussian era in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The establishment of the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court promoted this development in particular. In addition to the Higher Regional Court of Dusseldorf hosts numerous other courts, the Office - and the District Court of Dusseldorf , the Social Court Dusseldorf , the Finance Court Dusseldorf , the Administrative Court of Dusseldorf , the Labor Court Dusseldorf and the Regional Labor Court of North Rhine-Westphalia . Decisions of nationwide importance were made by the Düsseldorf courts. In the area of patent litigation, the civil courts in Düsseldorf have now gained international importance.
The Deutsche Rentenversicherung Rheinland (formerly LVA Rheinprovinz) has been based in Düsseldorf since it was founded in the 19th century. There is also a regional location for social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG).
As a direct consequence of the administrative settlement by Prussia , the regional council for the Lower Rhine and Bergisches Land was relocated to Düsseldorf during the reorganization of Prussia in the 19th century. The district government of Düsseldorf still has its seat here today . Until a few years ago , the regional tax office for the Rhineland had also been based in Düsseldorf since the Prussian rule over the Rhineland.
The Düsseldorf Chamber of Skilled Crafts comprises the Düsseldorf administrative district as a chamber district and is also based there. The Düsseldorf-Mettmann district forms the district of the Düsseldorf Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK Düsseldorf) and the Mettmann district , which formerly formed the Düsseldorf-Mettmann district . The North Rhine-Westphalia Chamber of Architects , the largest institution of its kind in Germany, looks after the state's architects and town planners from the state capital. The Düsseldorf Bar Association represents the interests of 11,403 lawyers in the district of the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court. It is thus the sixth largest of 28 bar associations in Germany.
By decision of the military government of the British occupation zone , Düsseldorf was designated the seat of government of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in 1946 . Since then, the city has had the official, nonetheless legally non-standardized designation of the state capital . The state parliament , the state chancellery , all state ministries and the state audit office are located in Düsseldorf; Over the past few decades, a government district has developed in the area of the Rheinkniebrücke on the right bank of the Rhine . The directional decisions made there are considered indicators of developments in Germany. The formation of governments in North Rhine-Westphalia and government crises have signal effects for federal politics .
Other central facilities
In the Bonn republic, Düsseldorf was the city of associations. The German Trade Union Federation (DGB) was based in Düsseldorf for a long time. Today the most important associations with their headquarters in Düsseldorf are:
- the Rhenish Savings Banks and Giro Association
- the Association of German Engineers VDI
- the Federal Association of German Economists and Business Economists bdvb
- the West German cooperative central bank .
Numerous smaller associations are also based in Düsseldorf, for example the German Association for Welding and Allied Processes (DVS), the Düsseldorf Architects and Engineers Association , the State Music Council of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Association of Turkish Entrepreneurs and Industrialists in Europe .
Education and Research
As a long-term residence city in the Bergisch region and later the administrative seat in the Rhine Province of Prussia, Düsseldorf has always fulfilled not only representative obligations but also central functions.
The first Latin school was mentioned in the 14th century. In 1545 the oldest grammar school , the tradition of which continues to this day, was founded. Düsseldorf has been an important academy location for the training of artists since the 18th century .
The Franciscans offered in Dusseldorf from 1673 theological courses. From 1728, courses in philosophy and theology were offered in Düsseldorf, which could be counted as components of a degree, a legal academy received the electoral confirmation of the training of senior civil servants in 1755, and in 1747 the Collegio anatomico-chirurgicum was established for the training of military and surgeons. From 1779 higher civil servants in the state administration had to study law in Düsseldorf for at least two years.
Due to its proximity to the Ruhr area, Düsseldorf became the seat of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Iron Research in 1917, today's Max Planck Institute for Iron Research .
A medical academy was added at the beginning of the 20th century. Nevertheless, Düsseldorf only became a university city in 1965.
In 1964, the city joined the “Institute for obtaining the university entrance qualification for craftsmen, skilled workers and other professionals with completed training e. V. ”and has been the sponsor of the Wilhelm-Heinrich-Riehl-Kolleg since then .
The following scientific and academic institutions are located in Düsseldorf:
- Heinrich Heine University , whose extensive range of subjects is offered by five faculties: These are the medical faculty, the mathematics and natural sciences faculty, the philosophy faculty, the economics faculty and the law faculty. Today's university was founded in 1907 as an academy for practical medicine and elevated to university in 1965. In 1980 she took up the Neuss department of the Rhineland University of Education . It has had its current name since 1988.
- Düsseldorf University of Applied Sciences with its technical and economic canon of subjects, founded in 1971 from various training centers as the Düsseldorf University of Applied Sciences
- Art Academy Düsseldorf , founded in 1773, one of the most important training centers of its kind since the 19th century
- University study center of the FOM University
- Düsseldorf Business School , associated with Heinrich Heine University
- Robert Schumann University , which goes back to the Robert Schumann Conservatory founded in 1935 and the State University of Music Rhineland and which became an independent university in 1987
- Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH in the district of Düsseltal, which was founded there in the course of the settlement of the steel industry
- German Diabetes Center , which belongs to the Leibniz Association and whose tasks include both the clinical care of diabetics and research into diabetes mellitus, founded in 1973
- Düsseldorf Academy for Marketing Communication
- EBC Hochschule , private university of applied sciences with a focus on economics
- Design Department Düsseldorf (Academy for Fashion and Communication), since 2008
- Fliedner University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf in Kaiserswerth, since October 2011
- IST University of Management , founded in 2013
- AMD Akademie Mode & Design , private university for design, fashion, communication and branch-specific management, study center
- WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management , second campus in Düsseldorf since 2013 (headquarters in Vallendar)
Primary schools and general education schools
There are 110 primary schools , 14 secondary schools , 13 secondary schools and 21 grammar schools in Düsseldorf . There are also 8 comprehensive and Waldorf schools as well as 6 foreign schools and the Wilhelm-Heinrich-Riehl-Kolleg as an institution for adult education.
The city of Düsseldorf has placed one focus on the quality of the school buildings. In 2000, for example, a real estate company was commissioned to record the defects in all school buildings and draw up a plan for their removal. Instead of the previous annual investment of <5 million euros, a requirement of 35 million euros per year was diagnosed. As a result, a “master plan school” was decided, with which a total of 600 million euros are to be invested in the years 2002-2020.
The sustained broad-based musical support through the SingPause initiated by the Municipal Music Association is unique in Germany at more than half of Düsseldorf's primary schools.
Day care centers and childcare places for children under three years of age
By resolution of the city council, the Düsseldorf day-care centers are free of charge for all children from the age of three, while in North Rhine-Westphalia only the last year of kindergarten is normally free of charge.
In terms of the rate of childcare places for children under three years of age, Düsseldorf is at the top of the major cities in North Rhine-Westphalia with 38.4% at the beginning of 2013. This means that the childcare quota in Düsseldorf was already before the legal entitlement to a childcare place anchored in the Child Promotion Act came into force August 1, 2013 above the state government's target of 32%. Nevertheless, the city is aiming for a care rate of 50% in the near future and 60% in the medium term.
Assessment of economic strength, sustainability and quality of life through rankings
In numerous Germany-wide and international city comparisons and rankings, Düsseldorf has mostly taken first place. Different indicators for the economic strength, the quality of the infrastructure and the quality of life were used. The international city comparisons in particular show that the state capital is included in the transnational network of global cities .
The good result in many rankings is based on the city's debt-free status with high wealth, the international airport, the central location, the rich educational infrastructure and cultural life, the high average per capita income and the increasing number of residents. Individual rankings also take into account factors such as the density of internationally active companies or the abundance of green spaces and local recreation areas.
The most important rankings are:
- the research results of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), which list Düsseldorf as a World City in the Beta World Cities + category . Worldwide , 15 other cities, including the German cities of Hamburg and Berlin , and 47 cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Munich, are ranked higher on the basis of economic, cultural and social criteria that are indicative of the global significance of a city . In 2008 Düsseldorf was still in the Beta World Cities category . At the turn of the millennium, Düsseldorf was still represented in the next lower category, Gamma World Cities + .
- the international ranking of the quality of life of the management consultancy Mercer , in which Düsseldorf ranks 6th out of 223 large cities worldwide. Of the German cities, only Munich achieved a better ranking in 4th place.
- the ranking of INSM and Wirtschaftswoche , which assessed both the current economic strength and the dynamism, i.e. the development of the 50 largest cities, and in which Düsseldorf was the second city in North Rhine-Westphalia to move into the top ten after Münster and reached fourth place
- the city ranking of the Hamburg World Economic Institute on behalf of the Berenberg Bank , in which the future viability of the 30 largest cities in Germany was examined. Düsseldorf achieved third place in 2010 and was thus able to improve significantly compared to 11th place in 2008. In relation to 2008, the institute determined that the gross domestic product per employed person is not higher in any other German city.
- the city ranking of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , carried out by the management consultancy Roland Berger , in which Düsseldorf received 7th place
- an analysis by the Prognos Institute for all 413 independent cities and districts in Germany on future investments and growth potential, in which Düsseldorf came 8th
- the ranking of the business magazine Capital , which rates the cities with the best economic prospects for the next few years; Düsseldorf came in 10th place in 2009, and 3rd place in 2007
- the creative ranking of the magazine Focus , which is based on patents, the number of university graduates and technology companies, also carried out by the management consultancy Roland Berger , in which Düsseldorf came 7th
- the comparison of salaries for engineers and IT specialists, commissioned by the Süddeutsche Zeitung , in which Düsseldorf took first place
In addition to honorary citizenship, the city of Düsseldorf awards other honors and awards.
The Heinrich Heine Prize has been awarded every three years since 1972, and every two years since 1981, to “personalities who, through their intellectual work, promote social and political progress, international understanding, in the sense of the fundamental rights of the people for whom Heinrich Heine campaigned serve or spread the knowledge of the togetherness of all people ”. The prize's predecessor was the Immermann Prize .
The Helmut Käutner Prize is a biennial award which is given to personalities who "have emphatically supported and influenced the development of German film culture through their work, promoted their understanding and contributed to its recognition".
The State Capital Düsseldorf's Prize for Literature has been awarded annually since 1972 by the State Capital Council to artists and groups, in particular in the areas of poetry, writing, criticism and translation. The sponsorship award is awarded for a single artistic achievement as well as for the previous overall achievement of a young artist whose further development deserves funding.
The Art Prize of the State Capital Düsseldorf is an annual award given to a visual artist whose work is "trend-setting for the development of contemporary art".
Other awards include the “Great Ring of Honor”, the “Jan Wellem Ring” and the “Merit Plaque”.
Urban geography and economy
- Harald Frater (Ed.) U. a .: The Düsseldorf Atlas . Emons, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-89705-355-1 .
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Henning : Düsseldorf and its economy, for the history of a region . Droste, Düsseldorf 1981, In two volumes, ISBN 3-7700-0595-3 .
- State capital Düsseldorf: Statistical yearbook 2007, 105th year . Office for Statistics and Elections, Düsseldorf 2008, without ISBN.
- Michael Brockerhoff: The City of Rings: Düsseldorf's history re-excavated , Greven Verlag, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-7743-0668-4
- Michael Brockerhoff: Düsseldorf as it was , Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2018, ISBN 978-3-7700-2095-9
- Fritz Dross: A brief history of the city of Düsseldorf. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007.
- Commemorative publication for the 600th anniversary. Düsseldorf History Association. Printed by and published by C. Kraus, Düsseldorf 1888, ( archive.org ).
- Film treasures Düsseldorf video documentation 1920s - 80s, Verlag Rheinische Post 2009.
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): Rheinisches Städtebuch. Volume 3.3. Volume from: Deutsches Städtebuch. Urban History Handbook. On behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the Association of German Cities and the Association of German Municipalities. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1956.
- Maik Kopleck (Ed.), Alexander Scherer: PastFinder Düsseldorf. PastFinder-Verlag, Hong Kong 2008, ISBN 978-988-99780-5-1 .
- Friedrich Lau: History of the city of Düsseldorf . Bagel, Düsseldorf 1921 in two volumes, reprint from the city archive from 1980.
- Marcel Lesaar: Air raid on Düsseldorf and Neuss . Books on Demand, Norderstedt, ISBN 978-3-7460-9779-4 .
- Hugo Weidenhaupt (ed.): Small history of the city of Düsseldorf . Triltsch-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1979, 1983, ISBN 3-7998-0000-X .
- Hugo Weidenhaupt (ed.): Düsseldorf history from the origins to the 20th century. Volume 1 From the first settlement to the early modern city (until 1614). Schwann 1988, ISBN 3-491-34221-X .
- Hugo Weidenhaupt (ed.): Düsseldorf history from the origins to the 20th century. Volume 2 From the royal seat to the official city (1614–1900). Schwann 1988, ISBN 3-491-34222-8 .
- Hugo Weidenhaupt (ed.): Düsseldorf history from the origins to the 20th century. Volume 3 The industrial and administrative city (20th century). Schwann 1989, ISBN 3-491-34223-6 .
- Hugo Weidenhaupt (ed.): Düsseldorf history from the origins to the 20th century. Volume 4 Timetable and Register. Schwann 1990, ISBN 3-491-34224-4 .
Architecture and art
- Marcus Schwier : Düsseldorf . Grupello Verlag 2018, ISBN 978-3-89978-304-9 .
- Roland Kanz and Jürgen Wiener (eds.): Architectural guide Düsseldorf . Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-496-01232-0 .
- Paul Ernst Wentz: Architecture Guide Düsseldorf. A guide to 95 selected buildings. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1975, ISBN 3-7700-0408-6 .
- Joachim Erwin (Ed.): Plans, Projects, Buildings, Architecture and Urban Development in Düsseldorf from 2000 to 2015 . Braun, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-938780-00-8 .
- Rolf Purpar: Art City Düsseldorf - Objects and monuments in the cityscape. Grupello, Düsseldorf 2009, ISBN 3-89978-044-2 .
- Rolf Purpar: Düsseldorf . Vista Point, Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-88973-679-3 .
- Sonja Schürmann: Düsseldorf, a modern state capital with 700 years of history and culture . DuMont, 2nd edition. Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-7701-1787-5 .
- Ewald Grothe : From Catholic Day to the Festival of Generations. The history of the Landeshaus and Villa Horion 1909 to 2009 , Düsseldorf 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-027862-4 .
- Manfred Becker-Huberti (Hrsg.): Düsseldorf Churches - The Catholic Churches in the City Deanery Düsseldorf. JP Bachem-Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-89978-044-4 .
- Wolfgang Funken: Ars Publica Düsseldorf; History of works of art and cultural symbols in the public space of the state capital . Klartext Verlagsges. mbH, 2012, 3 volumes, ISBN 978-3-8375-0873-4 , ISBN 978-3-8375-0874-1 and ISBN 978-3-8375-0875-8 .
- Paul Clemen: The art monuments of the city and the district of Düsseldorf , Publisher: Forgotten Books, London 2019, ISBN 978-0-282-07430-2
- Literature on Düsseldorf in the catalog of the German National Library
- Udo Acht u. a .: Düsseldorf on foot. 19 city tours through past and present . Klartext, Essen 2009, ISBN 978-3-89861-564-8 .
- Oswald Gerhard, Wilhelm Kleeblatt: Düsseldorf legends from town and country . Verlag der Goethe-Buchhandlung Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 1982.
- Christine Krieb: CityTrip Düsseldorf. 3rd, revised and updated edition. Reise Know-How, Bielefeld 2016, ISBN 978-3-8317-2734-6 . (With free web app and folding plans 1: 8,000 and 1: 25,000)
- Annette Krus-Bonazza: Düsseldorf. Michael Müller, Erlangen 2015, ISBN 978-3-95654-039-4 . (City guide with color photos and removable map 1: 15,000)
- State capital Düsseldorf (Ed.): 125 years of the Düsseldorf professional fire service. Düsseldorf 1997.
- Heinz Stolz: Düsseldorf - a house and reading book . Schwann, Düsseldorf 1959.
- Rudi vom Endt: Düsseldorf - The way it was… . Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1962, ISBN 3-7700-0075-7 , p. 20.
- Official website of the state capital Düsseldorf
- Official website of Düsseldorf Marketing & Tourismus GmbH
- Portal on the history of Düsseldorf with the collaboration of 23 archives and institutes
- Düsseldorf - Come Closer (English) , image film of the city of Düsseldorf
- Düsseldorf Views (2011), award-winning short film about Düsseldorf by Valentino Bilotta and Josip Jurkovic
- Link catalog on Düsseldorf at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Stadt-News - Current online newspaper for Düsseldorf
- Düsseldorf's citizen and city portal
- results from adding 68.2 km according to the 2016 annual report of Rheinbahn and 2 km for the length of the extension of line 701
The following are cited in abbreviated form:
|Becker-Huberti||Manfred Becker-Huberti (Ed.): Düsseldorfer Kirchen - The Catholic Churches in the Deanery of Düsseldorf , JP Bachem-Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-7616-2219-3 .|
|Dross||Fritz Dross: Small Düsseldorf City History , Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2051-7 .|
|Purpar||Rolf Purpar: Art City Düsseldorf - Objects and monuments in the cityscape. GrupelloVerlag, Düsseldorf 2009, ISBN 978-3-89978-044-4 .|
|Wentz||Paul Ernst Wentz: Architecture Guide Düsseldorf. A guide to 95 selected buildings , Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1975, ISBN 3-7700-0408-6 .|
|Willow head||Hugo Weidenhaupt: Small history of the city of Düsseldorf , Triltsch-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1979, ISBN 3-7998-0000-X .|
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- SPD is again the mayor of Düsseldorf. Retrieved August 3, 2015 .
- Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 . ( Help on this )
- Munich offers the best quality of life in Germany. March 13, 2019, accessed March 15, 2019 .
- Hans Heinrich Blotevogel: Metropolitan Areas and Rural Areas - A Community of Solidarity? Lecture on November 24, 2005, Hanover, published in: Lower Saxony Ministry for Rural Areas, Nutrition, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and the Academy for Spatial Research and State Planning: Guidelines for Lower Saxony State Development Policy 2005, 3rd specialist congress on November 24, 2005 in the Old Town Hall, Hanover , Conference report, p. 14. ( Memento of July 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Hans Heinrich Blotevogel: The importance of the metropolitan regions in Europe ( Memento of March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 736 kB), see in particular the metropolitan functions in cities chart (illustration from the 2005 regional planning report); Lecture at the specialist conference Berlin-Brandenburg in Europe , Berlin, March 2, 2006; Retrieved June 18, 2011.
- GaWC study 2010 , Düsseldorf listed there as the third German “world city” after Frankfurt and Munich, in the “Beta +” category on par with Hamburg and Berlin, accessed on September 20, 2011.
- The big fish are getting bigger and bigger In: diepresse.com. Die Presse, April 24, 2011, accessed September 7, 2018.
- State capital Düsseldorf, location profile Düsseldorf 2008. (PDF; 3 MB).
- Gert Kaiser: 'Düsseldorf - stronghold for lawyers. In: RP Online . January 7, 2012, accessed January 7, 2012 .
- State capital Düsseldorf, press release of July 28, 2008.
- Immobilien Zeitung: More rooms for the big fashion show of August 28, 2008, requested on March 1, 2009 ( Memento of July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- James Wilson: Banks compete fiercely for corporate clients. In: Financial Times Online. September 26, 2012, accessed on October 6, 2012 (paid service).
- Martin Renker: North Rhine-Westphalia as a banking location is strong - but not without weaknesses. In: boersen-zeitung.de. October 23, 2014, accessed October 25, 2014.
- Tobias Rafael Finke: Germany, your financial centers . In: die Bank - magazine for banking policy and practice . No. 8 . Cologne August 2016, p. 20th f .
- Düsseldorf is the capital of the art trade. In: rp-online.de. December 13, 2016, accessed December 28, 2016.
- Semiha Ünlü: Düsseldorf impresses as a university city . Article from January 18, 2014 in the portal rp-online.de , accessed on January 18, 2014.
- Japanese in Düsseldorf. ( Memento from December 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: dus.emb-japan.go.jp. Japan Forum, March 2002, pp. 1-2.
- Little Tokyo in Düsseldorf - experience Japanese culture. Retrieved January 24, 2020 .
- Andrea Mösgen: regional development in Germany and its determinants. Dissertation Catholic University of Eichstätt 2007, LIT Verlag Dr. W. Hopf, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8258-1047-4 , p. 281.
- City of Düsseldorf Geography.
- German weather service: Climate Stuttgart - weather service. Retrieved April 15, 2020 .
- Clean Air Plan Düsseldorf 2018. (PDF) In the version of the draft open position dated August 21, 2018. District government Düsseldorf, accessed on September 20, 2018 .
- District government Düsseldorf: Clean air plan Düsseldorf 2019. (PDF; 1.8 MB) In: Website district government Düsseldorf. Retrieved July 24, 2019 .
- State capital Düsseldorf: city districts and city districts. Retrieved October 14, 2019 .
- City of Düsseldorf: Office for Elections and Statistics: District 3.
- City of Düsseldorf: Office for Elections and Statistics: Bilk.
- City of Düsseldorf: Office for Elections and Statistics: District 10.
- City of Düsseldorf: Office for Elections and Statistics: District: 033 Hafen.
- The Germanic settlement in the later city center of Düsseldorf, which was found in excavations in 2012, proves that here already in the 1st – 3rd There was a settlement in the 19th century, but there are no signs of settlement (so far?) For the next 700 years. About the Germanic finds: Michael Brockerhoff: Germans lived on the Düssel , article from July 16, 2012 in the RP ONLINE portal , accessed on July 17, 2012.
- Sönke Lorenz : Kaiserswerth in the Middle Ages. Genesis, structure and organization of royal rule on the Lower Rhine . In: Studia humaniora . Volume 23. Düsseldorf 1993, p. 48 .
- Erich Wisplinghoff: Middle Ages and early modern times. From the first written messages to the end of the Jülich-Klevischen inheritance dispute (approx. 700–1614). In: Hugo Weidenhaupt (Ed.): Düsseldorf. History from the origins to the 20th century. Volume 1 . Schwann / Patmos, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-491-34221-X , p. 167 f.
- Friedrich Lau: History of the City of Düsseldorf - Volume 1, First section: Presentation . Bagel, Düsseldorf, 1921. Reprint from 1980, 3rd edition, p. 5.
- Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler: Regesten and documents of the constitutional and legal history of the German cities in the Middle Ages. Erlangen, 1863, S. 933. .
- Dross, p. 17.
- Michael Brockerhoff: First city wall discovered , article from July 17, 2012 in the portal RP ONLINE , accessed on July 17, 2012.
- Erich Wisplingshoff: Middle Ages and early modern times. In: Hugo Weidenhaupt (Ed.): Düsseldorf. History from the origins to the 20th century. Volume 1 . Schwann / Patmos, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-491-34221-X , p. 175 ff.
- City of Düsseldorf historical data .
- Wilhelm Jansen: Residence formation on the Lower Rhine and the castle in Düsseldorf. In: Düsseldorfer Jahrbuch, Volume 71, Droste, Düsseldorf 2000, ISBN 3-7700-3046-X , p. 19 f.
- Dross, p. 23.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 46.
- Weidenhaupt, pp. 45–47.
- Else Rümmler: The Princely Jülische Hochzeit in Düsseldorf 1585. The festival and its prehistory . Publisher Hans Marcus, Düsseldorf 1983.
- City of Düsseldorf City Archives: Düsseldorf through the years, p. 4.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 244.
- Dross, p. 41 ff.
- Ulrich Stevens: Düsseldorf as a royal seat in the 17th and 18th centuries. In: INSITU. Zeitschrift für Architekturgeschichte 2 (2/2010), pp. 217–230.
- Dross, pp. 45/46.
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- Weidenhaupt, pp. 83, 245.
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- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives: City History. P. 7.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 72 ff.
- Dross, p. 68.
- Otto Pöggeler: Downfall and new beginning on the Rhine. In: Gerhard Kurz (ed.): Düsseldorf in der deutschen Geistesgeschichte (1750-1850). Schwann, Düsseldorf 1984, ISBN 3-590-30244-5 , p. 22.
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- Law Bulletin of the Grand Duchy of Berg No. 47: Imperial decree on the beautification of the city of Düsseldorf, Art. 3 as well as the plan de la nouvelle gare de Düsseldorf et de ses atours projeté et dessiné par MF Weyhe. Inspecteur des jardins royaux à Düsseldorf. In: Wieland Koenig (Ed.): Düsseldorfer Gartenlust. Pp. 116, 118.
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- Dross, p. 73.
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- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives: City History. P. 8.
- Quoted from: Walter Krämer, Eva Krämer: Lexikon der Städtebeschimpfungen - Malicious reports and abuse from Aachen to Zurich. P. 151, Eichborn AG, Frankfurt, 2002, ISBN 3-8218-1689-9 .
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- Dross, p. 75.
- State capital Düsseldorf (ed.): 125 years of the Düsseldorf professional fire brigade. Düsseldorf 1997, p. 42.
- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives: City History. P. 9.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 134.
- Stefanie Schäfers: From the Werkbund to the four-year plan. The exhibition Schaffendes Volk, Düsseldorf 1937 . Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 2001, ISBN 3-7700-3045-1 as well as page 7 of the exhibition history of the city of Düsseldorf ( memento from November 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) in the portal schaffendesvolk.sellerie.de , accessed on September 16, 2012.
- Dross, p. 87.
- Jörg Nimmergut: Historical securities - collect meaningfully - win guaranteed, ISBN 3-89441-042-6 , p. 144f.
- Weidenhaupt, pp. 139–142.
- Boston presented its Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston in Düsseldorf , whose concept of regional connection of green corridors strongly influenced the urban planner Robert Schmidt in his considerations for the planning in the Ruhr area. See also: Ursula von Petz: Urban development exhibitions in Germany 1910–2010. In: disP - The Planning Review. 44, 2012, p. 24, doi : 10.1080 / 02513625.2008.10557015 .
- Website 1910: International urban development exhibition on the book by Stefanie Schäfers: From the Werkbund to the four-year plan. The exhibition Schaffendes Volk, Düsseldorf 1937 ( Memento of November 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 10, 2012.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 148.
- Website 1912: City Exhibition Düsseldorf for Rhineland, Westphalia and neighboring areas to the book by Stefanie Schäfers: From the Werkbund to the four-year plan. The exhibition Schaffendes Volk, Düsseldorf 1937 ( Memento of November 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 10, 2012.
- In a competition organized for the exhibition, Bruno Schmitz and Otto Blum won first prize with their overall development plan for the city of Düsseldorf . Your planning suggested the construction of nine (!) Rhine bridges in the city of Düsseldorf, including today's Rheinkniebrücke . - Cf. Friedrich Tamms : Of people, cities and bridges . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf 1974, ISBN 3-430-19004-5 , p. 63.
- Dross, p. 99.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 151.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 161 ff.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 145.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 154 f.
- Pictures ( memento of July 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) of the Belgian occupied Oberkassel bridgehead , as well as the fighting between Freikorp troops and Spartakists are published in: EXCELSIOR No: 3039 of March 16, 1919, p. 1.
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- The great criminal cases: 21st case - Peter Kürten, the mass murderer of Düsseldorf (1931). Documentation on the erichs-kriminalfälle website (with additional references), accessed on August 10, 2013.
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- November pogrom 1938 in Düsseldorf, on behalf of the Düsseldorf memorial, ed. by Angela Genger and Bastian Fleermann, Klartext-Verlag, Essen 2008.
- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives: City History. P. 13.
- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives: City History. P. 14. (here 5863 civilians).
- Marcel Lesaar: Air raid on Düsseldorf and Neuss . Books on Demand, Norderstedt, ISBN 978-3-7460-9779-4 .
- Weidenhaupt, p. 184 (here information: around 6000 civilians).
- Falk Plan Düsseldorf with a representation of all partial and total destruction, 1st edition 1949, Falkverlag Hamburg.
- Article by PHK Klaus-Fr. Dönecke, Düsseldorf Police Headquarters, press and public relations (PDF; 415 kB).
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- 60 years of the end of the war. (No longer available online.) In: kriegsende.ARD.de. Archived from the original on April 28, 2005 ; Retrieved June 8, 2014 .
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- Stadt Düsseldorf - Stadtarchiv: Stadtchronik Düsseldorf 1971 .
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- City of Düsseldorf Geography .
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- Population in the administrative district of Düsseldorf ( Memento from August 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Population level based on the 2011 census by nationality and gender
- Office for Statistics and Elections, State Capital Düsseldorf: Statistisches Jahrbuch 105th year. P. 5.
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- Dross, pp. 45-47.
- Evangelical Church in Düsseldorf.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 63.
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- See also: Article Robert Collins (officer in the British Army) in the English language Wikipedia and article Phoebe Cusden in the portal academia.edu , accessed on February 27, 2013.
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- Office for Statistics and Elections, State Capital Düsseldorf: Statistisches Jahrbuch 105th year. P. 264.
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- Rheinische Post Online: The garden is 100 years old. Spring in the Japanese Garden . Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- quadriennale-duesseldorf.de , website.
- University of Düsseldorf: ULB Figures, Facts 2008 . Queryed on May 28, 2009 (PDF; 56 kB).
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- Weidenhaupt, p. 246.
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- Parish of St. Margareta: the choirs , accessed on April 2, 2014.
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- Christian Werthschulte: Gods from Düsseldorf . Article from October 30, 2015 in the deutschlandradiokultur.de portal , accessed on October 31, 2015.
- Christopher Hollows: Dusseldorf is up there with Liverpool and Seattle when it comes to inspiration for musos . Article from August 7, 2015 in the smh.com portal (The Sidney Morning Herald), accessed on August 7, 2015.
- Trans Europe Express music video , accessed April 6, 2012.
- It sounds so beautiful on the Rhine , article from February 28, 2013 in the portal rp-online.de , accessed on February 28, 2013.
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- Tobias Budde: Rapper Kollegah lands before Michael Jackson . Article from June 5, 2014 in the portal rp-online.de , accessed on June 5, 2014.
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- Weidenhaupt, p. 60 f.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 101.
- Information on the history of the museum at museum-kunst-palast.de, accessed on June 28, 2008 ( Memento from October 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Purpar, p. 46.
- Stefan Gronert: What and who it is about - or: What does “Düsseldorfer Photoschule” mean? In: The Düsseldorfer Photo School. Photographs 1961–2008. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag , Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-8296-0291-4 , p. 13.
- Purpar, pp. 500-514.
- Purpar, pp. 54, 57, 68, 69, 95, 120.
- Purpar, p. 63.
- City of Düsseldorf: Wehrhahnlinie - the train stations , queried on January 2, 2011.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 243.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 233.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 236.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 31.
- City of Düsseldorf: Historical data.
- Oliver Wiegand: Monuments in Düsseldorf: World cultural heritage: Düsseldorf is out of the running. Retrieved March 10, 2018 .
- The roadway of Erkrather Straße, as well as that of Gerresheimer Landstraße from the confluence of Erkrather Straße to the southeast, are already in Erkrath area; the sidewalk on the west side of these two streets in sections. These two streets (sections) belong to Kreisstraße 7 in the Mettmann district . See: Excerpt from the digital topographic map in TIM-online of the Cologne district government , based on geographic base data for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, accessed and received on March 11, 2016 (German, XHTML).
- Parish of St. Lambertus.
- Becker-Huberti, p. 10.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 31 f.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 54.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 16.
- Becker-Huberti, p. 97 f.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 20.
- Becker-Huberti, pp. 10-12.
- Becker-Huberti, p. 124 ff.
- Becker-Huberti, p. 77 ff.
- Becker-Huberti, p. 21 f.
- Wentz, object no.77.
- Website of the parish council of St. Peter in Düsseldorf ( Memento from January 24, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Becker-Huberti, pp. 49, 39, 27, 11, 18, 22, 24 and 59.
- Becker-Huberti, pp. 2, 8.
- Becker-Huberti, pp. 3, 25, 30 and 14.
- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives Rochus Church.
- Wentz, object no.57.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 26.
- Purpar, p. 31.
- Wentz, Object No. 6.
- Düsseldorf. In: Structurae , accessed December 30, 2011.
- Wentz, object no.28.
- Wentz, Object No. 4.
- Wentz, objects no. 29 to 32.
- Purpar, p. 100.
- International Railway Review . Big ESTW for Düsseldorf. No. 2/2019 , 2019, ISSN 1421-2811 , p. 60 .
- City of Düsseldorf - City Archives: City History. P. 16.
- Weidenhaupt, pp. 205–207.
- Wentz, object no.8.
- Heike Werner, Mathias Wallner: Architecture and history in Germany. Heike Werner Verlag Munich 2006, p. 142.
- Town hall with Figürkes . In: Der Spiegel . No. 44 , 1952, pp. 30 ( online ).
- Wentz, objects 27, 50 and 54.
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- Purpar, p. 186.
- City of Düsseldorf - Building and Planning Office, land-use planning port.
- Heike Werner, Mathias Wallner: Architecture and history in Germany. Heike Werner Verlag Munich 2006, p. 156.
- Merian.de: The megastar among the flagship districts . (Status: October 2, 2009) ( Memento from October 4, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Wentz, object .
- Wentz, object no.23.
- Werner Durth : German architects. Biographical entanglements 1900–1970 . Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Braunschweig 1986, ISBN 3-528-08705-6 , p. 308.
- Friedrich Tamms : Die Düsseldorfer Brücke Familie (1973). In: Friedrich Tamms: Of people, cities and bridges . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf 1974, p. 79.
- Holger Svensson: Cable-stayed bridges. 40 years of experience worldwide . Ernst & Sohn, Weinheim 2011, p. 60.
- City of Düsseldorf Theodor-Heuss-Brücke.
- Fritz Leonhardt: Master builder in a revolutionary time. Memories. 2nd ed. Dt. Verlag-Anst., Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-421-02815-X , pp. 119-121.
- Senior City Director of the State Capital Düsseldorf (Ed.): Bridges for Düsseldorf 1961–1962 . Springer, Berlin approx. 1963, p. 41.
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- City of Düsseldorf bridges - Oberkassler bridge .
- City of Düsseldorf bridges - Rheinkniebrücke.
- Weidenhaupt, p. 122.
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- City of Düsseldorf Fleher Bridge.
- City of Düsseldorf Airport Bridge.
- Gas lamps in Düsseldorf - current news and information on the subject. Retrieved July 27, 2019 .
- www1.wdr.de ( Memento from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- www1.wdr.de: Petition for the receipt of the Düsseldorf gas lanterns ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
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- Weidenhaupt, p. 75.
- Exhibition catalog: Düsseldorfer Gartenlust, p. 170 ff. Stadtmuseum der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf, 1987.
- City of Düsseldorf - Landscape gardening and cemetery office .
- City of Düsseldorf - Garden Department.
- City of Düsseldorf - Urdenbach Horticulture and Cemetery Office .
- City of Düsseldorf - Horticultural and Cemetery Office Rotthäuser Bachtal.
- City of Düsseldorf - Horticulture and Cemetery Office Überanger Mark.
- City of Düsseldorf, Unterbacher See.
- City of Düsseldorf - Garden Department of the Ulenberg Leisure Park.
- City of Düsseldorf - Garden Department, Heerdt Leisure Park.
- City of Düsseldorf - Garden Department of the Niederheid amusement park.
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- propaganda suspected: Discussion of Chinese education in NRW , ga.de , 15 January 2020
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- Russian Orthodox Church ( Memento from March 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
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- Spiegel-online: Medienhafen in Düsseldorf - Sheet metal on the upswing from June 2, 2009.
- Website of the Stadtsportbund Düsseldorf e. V. ( Memento from September 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- City of Düsseldorf: Sports City .
- The name of the association of the Düsseldorfer EG was between March 1, 2001 and April 30, 2012 after the main and name sponsor, Metro AG, DEG Metro Stars. Since May 1, 2012 the association has been called Düsseldorfer EG again.
- Website of the sports agency Düsseldorf.
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- Hockey Department (organizer of the inline hockey festival)
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