Book of Psalms

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Ketuvim (writings) of the Tanakh
Sifrei Emet (poetic books)
חמש מגילות- Megillot (fixed rollers)
Textbooks or wisdom books of
the Old Testament

Names after the ÖVBE . Pseudepigraphs of
the Septuagint are in italics .

Psaltery in Hebrew, Greek, Arabic and Chaldean (Aramaic) languages ​​with Latin commentary. Genoa 1516

The Book of Psalms , also called the Psalter ( Hebrew סֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים sefer tehillim ), is a book of the Tanach , the first of the Ketuvim ("writings"). In the Old Testament it belongs to the wisdom literature and is in second place there. It is a collection of 150 psalms , prayers and songs, which are divided into five books. The psalms play an important role in the liturgy of Judaism as well as Christianity and have been taken up many times, especially in music and literature. In the Greek translation of the Septuagint and derived from it in all Orthodox psalters, Psalm 151 still belongs to the Book of Psalms.


The name book of psalms or psalms, which is customary in the Christian tradition, goes back to the Greek ψαλμός ( psalmós , plural psalmoi ), from the verb ψάλλειν ( psallein , "to play the strings") via the Latin title liber psalmorum or psalmi for short in the Vulgate . It is used in most of the Greek manuscripts of the Psalms and also in citations in the New Testament (e.g. Lk 20.42  ELB ).

The term Psalter can be traced back to the Greek ψαλτήριον (Psalterion) , which is used in the Septuagint of the Codex Alexandrinus from the 5th century, via the Latin Psalterium . It denotes both a large string instrument ( psalterium ) and a collection of songs that are sung to accompany it. Both names are presumably an equivalent for the Hebrew מִזְמור ( mizmor , which can be paraphrased as " cantilating chant with string accompaniment"), which occurs only in the Book of Psalms and which is used for 57 of the 150 psalms.

A Hebrew name for the psalms, to which the Greek could go back, is not known, even if the use of the plural form mizmorot in Palestinian literature as a name for the entirety of the psalms is documented. In rabbinical literature, however, the designation סֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים ( Sefer tehillim , "Book of Praise") or Tillim for short ( Tillin in Aramaic ) has been used in Judaism since then, although only some of the psalms are hymns of praise. The irregular masculine plural goes back to the feminine singular form tehillah ("hymn of praise") from הלל (hll, "praise"), with which, however, Psalm 145 is overwritten. The popular liturgical refrain Halleluja , “Praise the Lord”, derived from the same root, may have contributed to the choice of the name Tehillim for the entire text collection .

Historical development

Scroll of Psalms

The individual psalms in the Psalter each have their own history. Basic versions of individual psalms - especially royal psalms and Zion hymns - were probably created before the Babylonian exile during the Israelite royal period. Most of the psalms, however, date from the post-exilic period, i.e. from the late 6th century BC at the earliest. Chr.

The book of psalms consists of originally independent sub-collections from the 6th to 3rd centuries BC. BC, which were put together in several phases. It is uncertain when the collection was completed, but research tends to cover the years between 200 and 150 BC. Chr. Indicated. This is supported by the closeness to the late wisdom literature , which can be seen in the most recent editing of the Psalter.

In addition, a collection of psalms was already a fixture in the Qumran church . The great psalm scroll from Qumran (11QPs a ) from the 1st century BC Chr. Includes 40 psalms from Psalm 101 to 150 , plus Psalm 151 , which is otherwise only contained in the Greek Septuagint manuscripts, Psalms 154 and 155 and also five other otherwise unknown texts. The order of the psalms differs from the later compilation. It is uncertain whether this is an indication of the still fundamentally unfinished process of compiling the Book of Psalms or merely an individual deviation specific to Qumran.

The oldest written evidence for the completed book design of the Psalter is a manuscript from the second half of the 2nd century BC. Chr.

Position in the canon

In the Hebrew Bible, the book of psalms is placed at the head of the third and last part, the "Scriptures" ( Ketuvim ). So is the order in the Greek Septuagint. The Christian tradition, on the other hand, unanimously places the psalms in front of the "prophets" in the wisdom or textbooks in second place behind the book of Job .

Structure of the book of psalms

Psalm 1 , verses 1-2 ( Biblia Hebraica )


The book of psalms in its current form is an editorial compilation of five originally independent books, each with its own history. The first Psalm is the book like a motto before. According to the standard translation it reads :

Psalm 1 - The Two Ways
(1) Good for the man who does not follow the advice of the wrongdoers , does not follow the path of sinners, does not sit in the circle of mockers,
(2) but has joy in the instruction of the Lord, contemplating his instruction day and night.
(3) It is like a tree that is planted by streams of water, which bears its fruit at the right time and whose leaves do not wither. Anything he does will turn out fine.
(4) Not so with the wicked: they are like chaff blown by the wind.
(5) Therefore the wicked will not stand in judgment, nor the sinners in the assembly of the righteous.
(6) For the Lord knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked leads into the abyss.

When the five sub-collections were combined, each of them received its own new degree in the form of a doxology . These praises of God lead at the end to the five Hallelujah Psalms, the so-called “Final Hallel” (Psalms 146-150). This structure gives the Psalter a structure that formally assigns it to the five-part Torah . In the later rabbinical Midrash Tehillim (from the 11th century at the latest) it says: "Moses gave the Israelites the five books of the Torah, and David gave the Israelites the five books of the Psalms."

The architecture of the book of psalms
Parts chapter content
Framework - Proömium 1-2 Torah + Messiah / Zion / Lordship of God
1st book 3-41 Psalms of David (3–14; 15–24; 25–34; 35–41)
    graduation 41.14 Doxology: “Praise be to YHWH the God of Israel for ever and ever. Amen, yes Amen. "
2nd book 42-72 Corach psalms (42-49); Asafpsalm (50); David psalms (51-72)
    graduation 72.18 f. Doxology: “Blessed be YHWH the God of Israel, who works miracles alone, and blessed be the name of his glory forever, and let his glory fill the whole earth. Amen, yes Amen. "
3rd book 73-89 Asafpsalms (73-83); Corach psalms (84-85, 87-89); David Psalm (86)
    graduation 89.53 Doxology: “Praise be to YHWH forever. Amen, yes Amen. "
4th book 90-106 Moses Composition (90-92); YHWH royalty (93-100); David Composition (101-106)
    graduation 106.48 Doxology: “Praise be to YHWH the God of Israel for ever and ever. And let all the people say, Amen. Hallelujah! "
5th book 107-145 Psalm of praise (Toda) (107 and 145; kingship of YHWH); David psalms (108 f. And 138-145); Alphabet. Torapsalmen (111 f., 119); Passover-Hallel (113-118); Pilgrimage Psalms (120-137)
    graduation 145.21 "The praise of YHWH shall speak my mouth and all flesh shall praise his holy name forever and ever."
Frame - Final Hallel 146-150 Tenfold alleluia

The full list of Psalms can be found in the article Psalm Headings .


In the book of psalms, groups and relationships among the psalms can be identified, which allow conclusions to be drawn about their origin, their place in life and their spiritual content:

  • Psalms of David (especially Ps 3–41; Ps 51–72; Ps 138–145)
  • Asaf psalms (Ps 50; Ps 73-83)
  • Korach psalms Ps 42-49; Ps 84-85; Ps 87-88
  • Pilgrimage songs (the so-called Gradual Psalms Ps 120-134)
  • History Psalms (Ps 77; Ps 78; Ps 105; Ps 106 and Ps 114)
  • Creation Psalms (Ps 8; 19a; 104)
  • Egyptian Hallel or Passover- Hallel (Seder evening) (Ps 113-118)
  • Great Hallel (Ps 136)
  • Small hallel or final hallel (Ps 146-150)
  • Acrostic Psalms ( Alefbeth- Psalms, Didactic Psalms) (Ps 9/10; 25; 34; 37; 111; 112; 119; 145). The first letters of the verse form the Hebrew alphabet, which is used for easier memorization.
  • Penitential Psalms (Ps 6; 32; 38; 51 ; 102; 130; 143)
  • YHWH Kings Psalms (Ps 47; 93-100)
  • Zion Psalms (Ps 46; 48; 76; 84; 87)
  • Royal Psalms (Ps 72; 2; 110; 89; 97)
  • Elohistic Psalter (Ps 42-83)
  • Liturgies (question-and-answer liturgy Ps 24,7-10, the so-called gate entry liturgies Ps 15 and Ps 24, the so-called thanks liturgies Ps 66 and Ps 118 as well as Ps 136 with the litany-like responsory "because his goodness endures forever")

Psalm genres

While there are psalms as songs, hymns and laments in the Tanakh at various points (e.g. Song of Moses Ex 15.1–8  EU , Song of Hannah 1 Sam 2.1–10  EU and Psalm of Jona Jona 2,3 –10  EU ), the book of Psalms has by far the largest collection.

In terms of content, the Psalms deal primarily with the following topics:

  • imperative hymns (e.g. Ps 136; 117; 105; 148; 103.1; 104.1)
  • participatory hymn (e.g. Ps 136,4)
  • Praise and thanks
  • Penance (seven so-called penance psalms Ps 6; 32; 38; 51 ; 102; 130; 143)
  • Sadness
  • Lament (Ps 25)
    • collective lamentations (Ps 74; 79; 89)
    • Lamentations of the individual (Ps 3-7; Ps 13; Ps 22; Ps 28; Ps 31; Ps 35; Ps 38; Ps 39; Ps 54-57; Ps 59; Ps 61; Ps 64; Ps 70; Ps 88; Ps 102; Ps 109; Ps 140-143.) And prayers of the accused (Ps 7; 17; 26; 27; 57; 63)
  • Morning and evening songs
  • joy
  • Consolation
  • Hope , confidence ( Ps 18.30  SLT ; Ps 39.8  SLT ; Ps 138.8  SLT )
  • Trust in God (Ps 23; 25)
  • Pilgrimage songs (Ps 120-134)
  • Didactic poems (Ps 1; 19; and the acrostic psalms )
  • Asking for victory over godless opponents
  • Cursing Psalms ( Ps 94 ; Ps 109 )
  • Wisdom Psalms (Ps 1; Ps 111; Ps 112; Ps 128; Proverbs about the life blessed by Yhwh (Ps 127; Ps 133); reflections on the apparent happiness of the wicked (Ps 37; Ps 73); human transience (Ps 49 ; Ps 90); also the monumental historical psalm Ps 78 is introduced as a wisdom didactic poem (Ps 78,1-4; cf. Dtn 32,1-2); so-called Torapsalmen Ps 1, Ps 19 and Ps 119)

Formal layout

Stylistic devices

Parallelism membrorum

Most of the psalms are written in the Hebrew poem form, which is characterized by the parallelism membrorum ( Latin : "parallelism of the verses"): Two (or three) successive verses or halves show a special contextual relationship by expressing the same thing differently (synonymous parallelism ), complement each other (synthetic parallelism) or form an opposition (antithetical parallelism).

Example of synonymous parallelisms:

My god, my god, why did you leave me
are you far from my screams, from the words of my lament?
My God, I call during the day, but you don't answer
I call at night and still find no rest.
But you are holy
you are enthroned over the praise of Israel. (Ps 22: 1-3)

Example of synthetic parallelisms:

I lift my eyes to the mountains:
Where do I get help from?
My help comes from the Lord
who made heaven and earth. (Ps 121: 1-2)

Examples of antithetical parallelism:

For the Lord knows the way of the righteous
but the way of the wicked leads into the abyss. (Ps 1,6)
I hate people who are divided,
but your law is dear to me. (Ps 119,113)


Stereometry is the conspicuousness in Old Testament thinking of looking at the world “in pairs”, which can already be seen in the dual forms for face, feet, etc. In stereometry, an ordering principle of creation is recognized.


Opposite evil stands good, opposite life death,
opposite good people evil,
and opposite light darkness.
15 And therefore look at all the works of the Most High:
They are all paired, one corresponds to the other. (Sir 33,14f)

In connection with stereometry, merism is also noticeable, which is sometimes used as a structural feature of larger text sections. It is about the "separation" of two parts, such as heaven and earth.


  • Ps 148
    • V. 1-6 Call for praise to heaven
    • V. 7-14 Calling praise to the earth

1 Hallelujah! Praise the Lord in heaven, praise him in the highest!
7 Praise the LORD on earth, you great fish and all the depths of the sea

Psalm headings

In Hebrew, most of the psalms are given headings, ranging from brief author information to musical information that is barely understandable today to descriptions of the situation several sentences long.

Fécamp Bible (13th century),
initial B (Beatus): King David as a harpist

The post-exilic Judaism wrote almost half of the Psalms of David the king to. In about 20 of David's 72 psalms, the heading provides additional information on the connection of the psalm with situations from his life. It is true that David's authorship could appear historically plausible because the Tanach also speaks of David outside of the Psalter as a “lyre player” ( 1 Sam 16.17–23  EU ) and “poet” ( 2 Sam 17.17–23  EU ). The attribution of his authorship is not, however, a statement about the general genesis of the (David's) Psalms, but about their importance for the Jewish people, which is emphasized by the figure of King David. In this sense one speaks of a "Davidization" of the Psalms. The Hebrew heading "l e dawid" can be understood on the one hand as "by David", which expresses their spiritual dignity, and on the other hand as "for David", with which the people of Israel express their hope for messianic perfection in the prayer of the Psalms. For Moses and Solomon , named as psalm writers , their authority underlines the importance of the texts and places them in the tradition of Israel.

The Asaf- and Korah is texts from these two Jerusalem Levitical originate singer guilds and possibly were part of the Temple cult.

The Greek translation of the Septuagint adds additional headings that appear to come from another Hebrew text source. Thus, in the Septuagint and in the translations derived from it, all psalms have a heading, with the exception of the first two. Even then, the musical information in the Hebrew text was largely no longer understood; their correspondingly cryptic Greek transmissions later gave rise to diverse symbolic and mystical interpretations.

The German translations add further headings. They are not in the original Hebrew text, but have only been added by the translators to make them easier to find and for orientation.

Numbering of the psalms

In the book of psalms the division into chapters follows the individual psalms and is therefore original. This is where the book differs from all other books in the Bible, where the division into chapters was not made until the Middle Ages .

The numbering of the Psalms differs slightly between the Hebrew text in the Masoretic text version on the one hand and the translations of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate on the other hand, since the Latin text of the Psalms used in the liturgy is based on the Septuagint - unlike the other Old Testament texts Vulgate, which Jerome translated directly from the Hebrew. Evangelical Bibles count like the original text that Martin Luther used for his translation. Older Catholic Bibles used the Septuagint or Vulgate count. The Latin Bible edition now used in the Catholic Church, the Nova Vulgata published in 1979 , follows the numbering of the Masoretic text. Therefore, when referring to Psalms, one has to pay attention to which of the two numbers a reference refers to. Often the psalm numbers are given in the form Ps 51 (50) . The higher number refers to the leading Hebrew count.

The Greek text of the Septuagint has an additional Psalm 151 , which, however, is referred to in its title as “outside the numbering”. In the Orthodox churches, however, this psalm remained in the canon. The Hebrew version of this apocryphal psalm is documented in a Qumran manuscript.

Differences in the counting of psalms in the Hebrew and Greek Bibles
Masoretic text Septuagint (LXX) annotation
Ps 1-8 Ps 1-8 Count the same
Ps 9-10 Ps 9 LXX counts Pss. 9 u. 10 as a psalm
Ps 11-113 Ps 10-112 Hebrew count precedes 1
Ps 114-115 Ps 113 LXX counts 114 u. 115 as a psalm
Ps 116 Ps 114-115 Greek counted as two psalms; Cut after 9 verses
Ps 117-146 Ps 116-145 Hebrew count precedes 1
Ps 147 Ps 146-147 Greek counted as two psalms; Cut after 11 verses
Ps 148-150 Ps 148-150 Count the same
Ps 151 deuterocanonical

Numbering the verses

The numbering of the psalm verses appeared in the 16th century (first in 1509), but largely follows the natural division of verses of the poetic texts, as was already done by the Masoretes. In a number of psalms ( Psalm 9 , 10 , 25 , 34 , 37 , 111 , 112 , 119 and 145 ) the beginnings of the verses follow the Hebrew alphabet.

When it comes to numbering the verses of a Psalm, English-language Bibles differ from today's German translations in that they do not assign any verse number to the headings in the original text. If the heading is at least one whole verse long, the verse number in the English Bible is 1 or 2 behind the other numbering. 62 psalms are affected, three of them (51, 52, 60) with a difference of 2.

See also: Bible verse # Ambiguous_versions

Meaning and impact history

The Book of Psalms is the prayer book of the Jews and the early Christians . In Islam , the book of Psalms, Zabur (Arabic زبور, DMG Zabūr) is counted among the holy books and mentioned in the Koran in suras 4,163, 17,55 and 21,105.

The psalms in the Jewish tradition

The psalms were not the hymn book of the Second Temple , even if individual psalms were performed there by temple musicians accompanied by instruments (e.g. the pilgrimage psalms ). The songs and prayers of the Book of Tehillim are still an indispensable part of the traditional Jewish liturgy. Psalms 113 to 118, the so-called Hallel , are of particular importance. It is given on the holidays and on Rosh Khodesh after the completion of the Shacharit , i.e. H. before digging the Sefer Torah , sung. The psalms are also a book of private piety and are so (as a women's prayer book, next to the Siddur ) in Judaism to this day. For this purpose, the psalm book is divided into 30 sections, which are assigned to the days of a month according to the Jewish calendar. In contrast to the Christian tradition, the psalms are prayed with their headings, but without framing verses (antiphons).

It was only later that psalms became part of the synagogue service.

The psalms in the Christian tradition

The Egyptian-Coptic tradition

In the first monastic rules of Christian monasticism, the beginning of the 4th century. Rules of Pachom written in Coptic language , the newcomers to the monastery association are expected to learn 20 psalms (rule 139) by heart when they are accepted and then there should be no one in the monastery who does not at least know the New Testament and the Psalter by heart ( Rule 140). The Old Testament psalms not only had a prominent place in the liturgy, but were also sung by monks during all the work involved. They were also widely used on amulets to ward off evil and in the field of magic. With the famous Mudil codex from the 5th century found in a grave, the entire psalter has been handed down in the Middle Egyptian dialect of Coptic.

Uses and Practical Theology

The Liturgy of the Hours of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran and Anglican Churches consists mainly of psalms and the associated antiphons . Psalms are sung at Holy Mass , at the dispensing of sacraments and sacramentals , at processions and pilgrimages , at funerals . Single or multiple psalm verses are components of both the gradual and the introit . Christian iconography, too, often goes back to motifs from the psalms.

When translating it into Latin (Vulgate), Jerome edited the Psalms three times:

  • once as a revision of the Vetus Latina (from the Septuagint (LXX)): Psalterium Romanum
  • Again a thorough revision of the texts, but still from the LXX: Psalterium Gallicanum
  • a real translation from Hebrew: Psalterium iuxta Hebraeos
    Setting of Psalm 1 , 1 as psalmody in the  fourth tone with antiphon

One reason for the procedure was that he did not want to intervene in the known texts of the liturgy without need. The version “iuxta Hebraeos” was intended more for scholars and was not used in the liturgy.

Martin Luther called the Psalms the "little Biblia" and thus indicates the extensive religious richness of the Psalter. John Calvin wrote in the introduction to his exposition of the Psalms: "I have good reason to call the [Psalm] book a breakdown [the anatomy] of all parts of the soul". Pope Benedict XVI described the Psalms as a gift from God to Israel and the Church and as a "school of prayer" in so far as the word of God becomes the word of those who pray.

The liturgical psalter is understood in liturgical science as the system of distribution of the psalms or the psalm antiphons to the times of the day (hearing) in the prayer of the hours . As a distribution system, the liturgical psalter represents at the same time a “psalm sum”, that is, the prescribed prayer of a quantum of psalms within a certain period of time.

Research history

In previous exegesis, one can distinguish between different phases:

  • pre-critical
    • predominantly eschatological-messianic interpretation
  • historical
    • Ask about the historical location and literary criticism
  • generic
    • 1st half of the 20th century
    • z. B. Gunkel, Westermann, Crüsemann
  • religious history
    • 1st half of the 20th century
    • z. B. Mowinckel
  • canonical
    • End of the 20th century until today
    • z. B. Zenger
  • in the context of the (pictorial) world of the ancient Orient
    • End of the 20th century until today
    • z. B. Keel, Janowski

Psalm settings and adaptations

Many psalms are set to music as psalmodies , hymns and liturgical chants. To this end, their texts were often converted into rhymes and stanzas . To this day, artists often deal with psalms in adaptations or settings . The psalter also gave its name to a musical instrument , the psalterium .

See also


Translation of the Psalms into German

Introductions, overview presentations

  • William P. Brown (Ed.): The Oxford Handbook of the Psalms . Oxford University Press, New York 2014. ISBN 978-0-19-978333-5 .


Historical comments

Recent comments

Individual examinations

  • Hartmut Gese : The origin of the book division of the Psalter. In: From Sinai to Zion. Old Testament contributions to biblical theology . Munich 1974, pp. 159-167
  • E. Gerstenberger, K. Jutzler, HJ Boecker (eds.): Psalms in the language of our time: the psalter and the lamentations. Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn / Einsiedeln, Zurich / Benziger, Cologne 1983
  • Erich Zenger: A god of vengeance. Understand enemy psalms . Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-451-23332-0
  • Matthias Millard: The composition of the psalter. A historical approach (= FAT 9), Tübingen 1994, ISBN 3-16-146214-9
  • Hannelore Jauss: Praying curse psalms? To the problem of the enemy and curse psalms ; in: Bibel und Kirche 51 (1996), pp. 107–115
  • Klaus Berger : Psalms from Qumran . Frankfurt 1997. ISBN 3-458-33597-8
  • Eckart Otto, Erich Zenger, you are my son (Psalm 2,7). Studies on the Royal Psalms (= Stuttgart Biblical Studies (SBS), vol. 192), Stuttgart 2001; ISBN 3-460-04921-9
  • Bernd Janowski: Conflict talks with God. An anthropology of the psalms. Neukirchen-Vluyn 2003, ISBN 3-7887-1913-3
  • Dahmen, Ulrich: Psalms and Psalter Reception in Early Judaism. Reconstruction, text inventory, structure and pragmatics of the psalm group 11QPs from Qumran , Leiden / Boston 2003, ISBN 90-04-13226-0
  • Markus Saur: The King's Psalms: Studies on Origin and Theology , Göttingen 2004 (Zugl .: Erlangen-Nürnberg, Univ., Diss., 2003); ISBN 3-11-018015-4
  • Kathrin Liess: The way of life: Psalm 16 and the understanding of life and death in the individual psalms , Tübingen 2004; ISBN 3-16-148306-5
  • Egbert Ballhorn : On the Telos of the Psalter. The context of the text of the fourth and fifth books of the Psalms (Ps 90-150) (= BBB 138). Philos. Verlagsges., Berlin / Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-8257-0290-1

Web links

Commons : Psalms  - collection of images, videos and audio files





Individual evidence

  1. a b Erich Zenger : The Book of Psalms . In: Erich Zenger u. a. (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament . 7th edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-17-020695-3 , pp. 350–351 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
  2. a b c Nahum M. Sarna: Psalms, Book of . In: Michael Berenbaum, Fred Skolnik (Ed.): Encyclopaedia Judaica . 2nd Edition. tape 16 . Macmillan Reference USA, Detroit 2007, pp. 663–675 ( behind a paywall: Gale Virtual Reference Library ).
  3. ^ A b Emil G. Hirsch:  Psalms. In: Isidore Singer (Ed.): Jewish Encyclopedia . Volume 10, Funk and Wagnalls, New York 1901-1906, p.  241 .
  4. General Introduction to the Liturgy of the Hours, no.103
  5. Erich Zenger, Introduction to the Old Testament, 2008, p. 362.
  6. Erich Zenger, Introduction to the Old Testament, 2008, p. 366f.
  7. after Erich Zenger, Das Buch der Psalmen , in: Erich Zenger u. a., Introduction to the Old Testament , Stuttgart a. a. 1995; ISBN 3-17-012037-9 ; Pp. 242-255
  8. Reinhard Müller: Psalms (AT). In: Wissenschaftliches Bibellexikon (WiBiLex). Retrieved March 16, 2018 .
  9. Jörg Jeremias: Theology of the Old Testament . 2017, p. 43 .
  10. Jörg Jeremias: Theology of the Old Testament . 2017, p. 33 .
  11. Jörg Jeremias: Theology of the OT . 2017, p. 35-36 .
  12. In the Elohistic Psalter the name of God YHWH is replaced by Elohim.
  13. Reinhard Müller: Psalms (AT). Retrieved March 16, 2018 .
  14. Jörg Jeremias: Theology of the Old Testament . 2017, p. 28-29 .
  15. Jörg Jeremias: Theology of the OT . 2017, p. 36 .
  16. Reinhard Müller: Psalms (AT). In: Wissenschaftliches Bibellexikon (WiBiLex). Retrieved March 16, 2018 .
  17. Jörg Jeremias: Theology of the OT . 2017, p. 37-40 .
  18. See Erich Zenger : A God of Vengeance. Understand enemy psalms. Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-451-23332-0 . Hannelore Jauss: Praying curse psalms? To the problem of the enemy and curse psalms. In: Bibel und Kirche 51 (1996), pp. 107–115
  19. Reinhard Müller: Psalms (AT). Retrieved March 16, 2018 .
  20. Frank-Lothar Hossfeld, Erich Zenger: Die Psalmen I. Psalm 1–50 (= NEB.AT 29), p. 16
  21. My book of psalms - for the enumeration of the psalms. Retrieved October 15, 2017 .
  22. ^ First verse numbering (verse counting in printed Bible editions of the 16th century). Retrieved April 11, 2020 .
  23. Hans-Joachim Cristea: God's word in the language of the people. Luther's Bible and other Bible translations in prints from the 15th and 16th centuries . Catalog of the joint exhibition of the library of the Staatl. Görres-Gymnasium Koblenz, the Koblenz City Library, the library of the Trier Episcopal Seminary and the Trier diocese archive. Trier 2017 ( [PDF]).
  24. Hanna Liss: Tanach - Textbook of the Jewish Bible . 3. Edition. Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8253-5904-1 , p. 335 (414 pp.).
  25. ^ Siegfried G. Richter : The Coptic Egypt. Treasures in the shadow of the pharaohs. (with photos by Jo Bischof). Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2019, ISBN 978-3-8053-5211-6 , p. 51.
  26. ^ Siegfried G. Richter. Use of Psalms in Coptic Christianity. In: E. Zenger (ed.). Ritual and poetry. Forms and places of religious poetry in the ancient Near East, in Judaism and in Christianity (Herders Biblical Studies 36). Freiburg etc. 2003, pp. 283-292.
  27. Gawdat Gabra. The Psalter in the Oxyrhynchitic (Mesokemic, Middle Egyptian) dialect. Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 3-927552-11-9
  28. Franz-Reiner Erkens, Hartmut Wolff: From Sacerdotium and Regnum - spiritual and secular violence in the early and high Middle Ages . Festschrift for Egon Boshof on his 65th birthday. Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2002, ISBN 3-412-16401-1 , pp. 191-192 .
  29. Jean Calvin et al. Eberhard Busch, Commentary on the Psalms. A selection = Calvin study edition. Edited by Eberhard Busch; Vol. 6, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2008, p. 21
  30. ^ General audience, June 22, 2011, Benedict XVI. Vatican website. Retrieved January 22, 2012. Compare: Romano Guardini : Preschool of Prayer. (1943) Leipzig 1960, p. 128: “The Spirit of God has them [resp. the Psalms] so that they would become a school of prayer for others. "