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Ketuvim (writings) of the Tanakh
Sifrei Emet (poetic books)
חמש מגילות- Megillot (fixed rollers)
Textbooks or wisdom books of
the Old Testament

Names after the ÖVBE . Pseudepigraphs of
the Septuagint are in italics .

Scroll of Job

Job or Job (also Job ; Hebrew אִיּוֹב ʾIjjôḇ ; Greek Ἰώβ Iṓb ; Latin Iob , Arabic أَيُّوب ʾAyyūb ) denotes a biblical person, a righteous man from the land of Uz , and the book of Tanach named after him . The framework describes how God ( YHWH ) tests Job's loyalty with grave suffering and finally justifies him. The dialogues between Job and his friends, Job and YHWH in the middle section show and deal with the crisis of the doing-doing-connection and the theological problem of theodicy .

The term bad news is derived from the name and fate of Job .



The book is divided into three parts: a prologue (chapters 1–2), a dialogue part (3–42.6) and an epilogue (42.7–17). The prologue and epilogue in prose form the framework in which the dialogue speeches are embedded in verse form. The prologue is divided into an exposition and five scenes with a double test and probation of jobs in suffering:

text content
1.1-5 Exposition: Job's piety and happiness
1.6-12 Heavenly scene: Satan doubts Job's altruism.
YHWH allows him to touch all of Job's possessions
1.13-22 Job loses cattle and children
without rebelling against YHWH
2.1-7a Heavenly scene: Satan continues to doubt Job's piety.
YHWH allows him to strike Job with sickness without killing him
2.7b-10 Job is ulcerated
and asked by his wife to curse YHWH.
He holds on to his piety.
2.11-13 Three friends visit Job to comfort him.

The dialogue part is structured as follows:

text content
3 Monologue: Job's complaint
4-28 Dialogues between the three friends and Job
29-31 Monologue: Job challenges God
32-37 Four speeches by Elihus
38-42.1-6 Two speeches from YHWH and answers from Job

The monologues form the framework for Job's dialogues with the three friends and point to God's speeches. The speeches of the fourth, previously unnamed friend therefore act as an insert. The epilogue comes back to the prologue:

text content
42.7-9 YHWH judges the three friends
42.10-17 YHWH justifies Job and restores his happiness

Corrado Giaquinto : Satan appears before God . Oil painting, ca.1750

Frame narration

  • Prologue: Job lives with his wife and ten children as a wealthy man in the unknown country of Uz. He owns 11,000 animals (camels, sheep, cattle and donkeys) and has numerous servants and maidservants (1, 1–3). He is portrayed as a pious man. To God's question (1,8: "Have you paid attention to my servant Job? There are no like him on earth, so blameless and righteous, he fears God and shuns evil.") Satan replies that Job is only pious as long as how he lived in comfortable conditions (1: 9–11: “Is it not for no reason that Job fears God?”) and suggests that Job's fear of God be tested. God allows the loss of all of Job's possessions and the sudden death of his ten children. Job accepts the blows of fate without cursing God. When God then praised Job's piety to Satan, the tempter demands that he be allowed to harm Job's health. God allows that too and Job becomes ill with a malignant ulcer "from the sole of the foot to the top of the head." Although his wife now asks him to curse this God who allows such a thing, Job sticks to his godly attitude: “If we accept the good from God, should we not also accept the bad?” (2:10).

The news of the blows of fate that befell Job in quick succession is brought to him by a servant who was the only one who survived the blow. This is where the slang term "bad news" comes from for bad news.

  • In the epilogue (42) God rewards Job's loyalty. Because he remained faithful to his God in all his suffering, poverty and grief, God redeems him from illness and blesses his long life by letting him acquire twice what he had previously. Seven sons and three daughters (Jemima, Kezia and Keren-Happuch) are born to Job.


  • Dialogue part (3–31): In the opening monologue (3), Job complains about his own suffering, asserts that he does not deserve it, and finally challenges God himself. In three three speeches by the friends Elifas , Bildad and Zofar named in the prologue , each of which is followed by Job's reply, the friends try to persuade him to confess his guilt. They are typical representatives of the wisdom doctrine: The righteous are fine, the wicked are bad. Hence, Job's suffering must be caused by his fault. The speeches increase and the two parties talk more and more past each other until they have nothing more to say to each other in the end. It turns out that the friends cannot help Job with their wisdom. The initial monologues (29–31) and the song of wisdom (28), which cannot be assigned to a speaker, are also assigned to this section .
  • Eli speeches (32–37): As the fourth speaker, Elihu, as God's advocate, emphasizes God's omnipotence and greatness in four speeches and fundamentally denies the right of man to judge divine work. He also believes that because of his omnipotence, God must also be kind. In doing so, he steers the gaze away from the question of the reason for the suffering towards the purpose of the suffering.
  • Talk of God (38–41): Ultimately, God himself turns to Job out of a thunderstorm . In two speeches, God emphasizes his power and the glory of his own works of creation , for example the water cycle . He talks long about the magnificence of the animals and forces of nature he created , about the Leviathan and the Behemoth , whereupon Job ceases to complain in two short answers (40.4–5; 42.2–6). It is important that God does not question Job's innocence, that is, does not approve of his friends, but rather shows the incomprehensible magnitude of his actions. Through rhetorical questions he helps him to perceive that he is the creator of everything and that good and bad are exclusively in his hands. God further acknowledges that, contrary to what his friends claimed, Job was guilty of his sufferings.

The poetic parts often have a loose connection with each other and with the narrative in the frame. So in the dialogue there is no talk of the circumstances that the prologue relates. Here Job does not complain of the loss of his riches and sons: he complains of the contempt of his fellow men, whose object he has become. The appearance of Elihu happens suddenly, he is not mentioned again before or after. The divine speeches afterwards address neither the arguments of the friends nor Job's accusations. The prologue, on the other hand, creates the framework for a theological interpretation of the subsequent dialogue, which the epilogue explicitly implements by condemning the accusatory speeches of the friends. In addition, the epilogue refers to the same blows of fate that the prologue described.

Satan pours the plagues on Job (watercolor by William Blake )


Parallel texts

The subject matter, motifs and literary form of the job book are in some respects similar to other ancient oriental and ancient texts. The following were used for comparison:

  • The Sumerian Job (around 2000 BC) contains an unnamed man's complaint about his grave suffering. Its cause is seen in a general sinfulness from birth. His request for salvation is heard so that at last he praises his God.
  • The Babylonian Job (around 1200 BC) is a hymn of praise with the title Ludlul bēl nēmeqi : “I will praise the Lord of wisdom”. The poet praises the god Marduk , who left him for no reason and separated him from all relatives and friends, but then, announced through dream visions, saved him.
  • In the Babylonian theodicy (around 1000–800 BC) a suffering righteous man laments the injustice of the world, whereupon his friend refers to its inaccessible, God-willed order and calls on him to humbly turn to God.
  • In texts from ancient Egypt since around 2000 BC There are wisdom disputes ( Papyrus Anastasi I , around 1200 BC), a complaint from the farmer , a conversation between the tired of life and his soul and warnings from the Ipu who have been passed down.
  • Some Greek tragedies by Aeschylus (~ 525–456 BC) and Euripides (480–406 BC) also deal with the relationship between human suffering and divine providence or order.
  • The dialogues of Menippus of Gadara (around 400 BC) are considered by some researchers as a common model for the Job Book and the work De consolatione philosophiae by Boethius (480-524 AD).

Direct literary dependencies were not proven. However, it cannot be ruled out that the unknown authors of the job book knew and adopted some motifs and form features from the ancient oriental parallel texts. The localization of the general plot in the Uz region may also consciously point to a general oriental, not specifically Israelite background.

Literary criticism

Clear differences between the frame narrative and the part of the speech refer to different authors and a growth process: the former is written in prose, contains the divine name YHWH (23 times) more than twice as often as the title Elohim (11 times) and depicts Job as a nomadic sheikh (1 , 3; 42.12), who accepts his suffering as God-given without contradiction. In contrast, the speech part is written in poetic verse form, prefers the divine titles El , Eloah and Schaddaj (a total of 127 times) over YHWH (6 times, only in introductory clauses of the divine speeches ) and depicts Job as a member of the urban upper class (29) who himself rebels against God and calls upon him to contradict.

The consensus is that the frame story is considerably older than the speeches and goes back to an oral folk tale that knew a job as a righteous man from primeval times like Noah and Daniel ( Ez 14,12–23  EU ). This was later decorated and written, with at least the two heavenly scenes with the "bet" between Satan and God were subsequently added. Later authors embedded the speech parts in this template in several steps. It is usually assumed that the Elihu speeches (32–37) were added last. Because Elihu appears neither in the framework nor in the friend dialogues. His speeches interrupt Job's call to God (31.35) and God's answer (38.1). They are not answered in the speech part. It is controversial whether YHWH's negative judgment about the speeches of the three friends in the framework story affects them, or whether they should criticize and correct their view afterwards.

The third speech of the three friends (22-28) seems incomplete: Bildad's speech (25) is much shorter than all previous speeches, Zofar can no longer speak. Perhaps this was supposed to show formally that the friends were finally lacking words. However, this contradicts the fact that Job's answer speech was extended with repeated introductory clauses (26.1; 27.1; 29.1) or was combined from several speeches. The song of wisdom (28) appears formally and in terms of content as a later insert. YHWH's second answer is introduced twice (40: 1 and 3). Job's answers show a development: at first he no longer wants to continue talking as before (40.3–5), then he revokes what has been said so far (42.1–6). Many different hypotheses attempt to explain these literary tensions.


The earliest basic layer of the frame narrative (1: 1–21; 42: 12–17) may be pre-exilic, but is mostly dated to the early period after the Babylonian exile (586–539 BC). Because her main character is a non-Israelite and she deals with a general theological problem, similar to other post-exilic books. The heavenly scenes are certainly early post-exilic because "Satan" is not yet a proper name, unlike in 1 Chr 21.1  EU , but as in Sach 3,1f. EU calls a "prosecutor" a hostile heavenly being. The art form and theological reflection of the poetic dialogue speech presupposes the traditional Jewish wisdom literature. Criticism of the doing-doing-connection came up with Kohelet at the earliest . Job 12.9  EU apparently quotes the prophet Deutero-Isaiah in exile ( Isa 41.20  EU ). Job 14.7–22  EU points like Koh 3.16–22; 9.5-10 a view of the survival after death, which has not existed since 500 BC at the earliest. Arose in Judaism . Because of the proximity to Cynicism , the speech authors may have been familiar with Hellenistic culture . In Aristeas (100 v. Chr.) Elihu speeches were already known. For these and other reasons, the creation of the book from legendary beginnings to the final editing on 500 to 100 BC. Dated.

Position in the Bible canon

The book of Job belongs to the third part of the Tanach, the Ketuvim (scriptures). There it is in second place after the Psalms. In the Christian Old Testament it belongs to the wisdom literature , in which the basic conviction of the close connection between doing and feeling good is constitutive. The book of Job reflects the "crisis of wisdom in Israel". The books of wisdom follow the history books in the Christian Bible canon : in the Protestant canon on the Book of Esther, in the Roman Catholic on the Deuterocanonical Maccabees . In the Bibles of most Orthodox churches, the book comes after the Psalms and before Proverbs of Solomon . The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch places the book directly behind the five books of Moses ( Torah ) because it assumes that the events described in them took place sometime between the Flood and the Exodus from Egypt .


Analogous to its literary growth, the book cannot be summarized on a single topic. His statements are often related to two main questions:

  1. How should a person behave correctly in suffering?
  2. What are the cause and purpose of suffering?

Right conduct in suffering

In the frame story (1: 20–22), Job performs a traditional funeral rite in view of his suffering, praises God and renounces every complaint and every question about the why and for what purpose of his fate. With reference to this passage, traditional Jewish and Christian exegesis highlighted him as the model of the pious tolerant. The dialogue part, however, questions this attitude. It begins with Job's great lamentation (3), which becomes an accusation against God (9: 14–35). On the advice of Eliphaz to discontinue his complaint in accordance with wisdom tradition (5.1–2; cf. Prov. 29.11), Job refuses to assume the attitude of the sufferer (6.1–13; 7.11; 10.1) . The epilogue calls his divine speech “right” and rejects that of his friends (42.7), thus recognizing his complaint and accusation in suffering as humanly legitimate.

Job's reproach that the earth is chaos (3; 21: 7-11) and in the hand of a criminal (9:24) is rebuked in God's speeches: God asks him rhetorically whether he has ever assumed the role of Creator and whether he was present at the act of creation and knew the laws of preservation of creation (40: 9-14). Job admits that he misjudged things that were too high and wonderful for him (42: 3-6). This is often described as a mourning process in which the plaintiff and rebel find their way through the lawsuit to accept suffering from God's hand, which the framework narration recommended.

Although the attitude of the three friends corresponds to the biblical theology of wisdom, it is rejected in the final judgment of God (42: 7-9): In the specific situation of the suffering friend, mere talk about God and teaching fails because it leads to indifferent, cynical contempt for human beings instead of too compassion in solidarity and thus contradicts the God whom the friends defend. Only Job seeks a personal turn to God and speaks to and with him.

Cause and goal of suffering

The oldest frame story does not yet ask about the cause of the suffering, but uses metaphors from the prophecy of judgment (1.16: “God's fire”) to indicate that God sent it. The heavenly scenes tell stories that God does not create suffering but allows it. It does not come from God and is not based on his initiative, but contradicts his real will: That is why the accuser has only limited permission to cause suffering with the aim of refuting his claim of Job's self-interest. The suffering inflicted by Satan thus serves the human dignity of the person to whom it happens: God relies on him and his unselfishness.

In contrast, the friends interpret Job's suffering:

  • as a result of his individual guilt with the aim of punishing and atoning for it in order to bring him to repentance (36,10). They represent the bilateral belief in retribution, according to which the righteous wages, the wrongdoers have to expect punishment (15.20–35; 18.5–21; 27.7–23; 36.5–14). This led to the conclusion that the happy must have acted just and good, the unfortunate reprehensible and bad.
  • as an inevitable part of being human, the consequence of being created, independent of behavior (4.17-21; 15.14-16; 25.4-6).
  • as a pedagogical rebuke that protects the soul from destruction (5.17f .; cf. Prov. 3.11f .; 13.24; 23.12-14). This view is mainly represented by the Elihu speeches (33.19; 33.30).
  • analogous to the general plot as a test of the righteous, in which the authenticity of his faith is revealed (36,21).

Nowhere do God's speeches go into these four explanatory models. By ignoring their suspicions that Job must have sinned, they reject this scheme of retribution. Finally, the attitude of the friends is expressly condemned (42.7-10).

God's speeches do not deal with Job's sufferings either. They show him phenomena of nature and the animal world that he can neither see through nor control. They refer him to creation, which contains chaotic elements, but which God keeps taming. They lead him away from looking at individual suffering to looking at the whole of the wonderful, terrible and sublime world. So they answer his complaint differently than expected and indirectly by classifying his suffering not in a transparent scheme but as part of the opaque, mysterious creation.

Franz Delitzsch emphasized in his commentary on Job (1876): Of the various biblical forms of suffering, only the punishment of the wicked is caused by God's wrath. The suffering of the righteous is always based on God's love. It could be certificate problems or exam problems. They have nothing to do with human sin, for example in Joh 21,19  EU and Mt 5,11-12  EU . Suffering from testimony such as persecution and martyrdom befall the believer because of his loyalty to God, solely for God's glory. Trial sufferings (for example in Joh 9,1–3  EU , Jak 1,12  EU and 1 Petr 1,6–7  EU ), however, should prove his trust in God and his patience, justify his election, refute the accusations of Satan and love Revealing God for his own sake and not for advantages in kind. It can be further subdivided into pure reinforcement of the already existing righteousness or chastisement suffering to melt away still existing sin, for example in Prov 3,11  EU , 1 Cor 11,32  EU and Heb 12  EU . Job is primarily about pure test suffering, secondarily also about punishment suffering. Because in the end even Job had to admit that he spoke presumptuously against God (42: 6). However, the friends wrongly accused him of suffering from punishment and punishment.

Theodicy question

Job's complaints raise the question of how it can be that the righteous God tolerates bad things to happen to good people. She explores why a righteous person can suffer despite God's omnipotence and goodness. She opposes the pious and simple assumption that suffering is a punishment from God. In theological terminology, the term theodicy , i.e. the question of the justification of a loving God in the face of suffering, has become common.

Reception in Christianity

In the New Testament of Job is mentioned four times.

In the letter of James , the perseverance and fidelity of Job to his God is emphasized as an example for Christians:

“We praise those who have patiently endured everything happy. You have heard of Job's perseverance and seen the end the Lord brought about. For the Lord is full of mercy and compassion. "

Verses 25 and 26 from chapter 19 play a special role in Christian tradition and piety, since they relate to Christ and the Christian hope of the resurrection. In this tradition of interpretation they can be found on numerous grave monuments.

A parallel to Job's story can be found in the deutero-canonical book Tobit. In the so-called will of Job , Job is the son of Esau ; his second wife is Dina , Jacob's daughter.

In the Christian apocryphal " Apocalypse of Paul ", Paul is led in a vision to the river of wine in the north of the city of Christ. There he sees Job with Abraham , Isaac, and other saints (chapter 27). Later Paul is led to paradise by an angel . There he is told of Job that all suffering in the world will be worth the reward in the end (Chapter 49).

The following dates are church days of remembrance for Job:

Reception in Islam

In Islam , too , the story of Job ( Arabic أيوب, DMG Aiyūb ). In the Koran , Job is mentioned in two places ( Sura 4 : 163; Sura 6 : 84) in a list of biblical personalities to whom God has given guidance or given a revelation. Fragments of his story appear in sura 21 , 83–84 and 38, 41–44. A special element in the Islamic versions of history is Job's perjury, prevented by divine intervention . According to the relevant accounts, which are linked to Sura 38:44, Job's wife had vowed to the devil to serve him if he would give them back their former prosperity. In anger at this, Job swore that he would give her a hundred strokes of the rod if he were to recover. After God saved him, he commanded him to strike her with just one blow with a bundle of a hundred palm sticks, so that he could keep his oath without harming her. He was sent to a country that spoke 'Greek'.

Aiyūb is considered a prophet in Islam . His name is still a popular first name among Muslims today. The Turkish version is Eyup .

Other reception

performing Arts

Job sculpture (St. Luzia parish church, Ostrach-Levertsweiler , Sigmaringen district)
Sculpture (1957) by Gerhard Marcks in Nuremberg


  • Individual elements of the motif are taken up in the “Prologue in Heaven” in Goethe's Faust .
  • In Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield , the pious protagonist Reverend Dr. Charles Primrose and his family, like Job and his family, suffered several blows of fate (loss of property, poverty, continuation and impoverishment of his son, kidnapping of both daughters, loss of family honor, (faked) death of a daughter, illness, prison, his son threatened the death penalty …). Ultimately, however, with the help of Sir William Thornhill, everything turns for the better, and the family's living conditions improve drastically (daughter believed to be dead lives, financially promising marriage of both daughters and the eldest son, release from prison and acquittal of Primrose and his son ...).
  • On the cover of Thomas Hobbes' political theory book Leviathan , Job 41:24 is quoted in Latin: "Non est potestas Super Terram quae Comparetur ei" (German: "There is no power on earth that can be compared to him")
  • In John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath (The Grapes of Wrath) alluded to the figure of Job and their character traits.
  • Gustav Meyrink presents in the short story Das Buch Hiopp (in: Des Deutschen Spießers Wunderhorn. Gesammelte Novellen. Albert Langen Verlag, Munich 1913. 3 volumes.) A parodic retelling of the story of Job. Pastor Frenssen tries to translate the book of Job into Hamburg dialect. In his interpretation of the subject, Job's sufferings have consistently natural causes: a storm disaster causes his house to collapse and kills his sons; a bacilli infection is recognized as the cause of Job's skin disease. The existence of Satan is denied ("It's all nonsense, of course. There's no such thing as Sahtahn"). Even God does not intervene directly in what is happening, neither in word nor in deed.
  • In 1930 Joseph Roth's novel Job was published .
  • In her work The Book of Job and the Fate of the Jewish People , published in 1946, Margarete Susman brings a collective interpretation of the motif.
  • In 1949 the poet Nelly Sachs published the cycle Star Darkening , in which a poem was titled Job .
  • Karl Wolfskehl gives in his poem Job or Die Vier Spiegel (created 1944/7, published posthumously in 1950) a timeless “vision of the essence of Judaism”.
  • In Muriel Spark's book The Only Problem (1984), Harvey, the protagonist, deals with the book Job in private scientific studies.
  • Archibald MacLeish published JB - A play in verse in 1958 . (German: Spiel um Job - verse drama. Translated from the American by Eva Hesse , Suhrkamp: Frankfurt a. M., 1958, ISBN 3-518-06922-5 ).
  • Patrick Roth's literary debut Riverside. Christ novella (Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt a. M. 1991, ISBN 978-3-518-40382-2 ) is a modern version of the story of Job. The hero, a Jewish farmer who lived in Bethany at the time of Jesus, discovers leprosy on his body one day and then loses everything: his family, his health and his faith. He, who in his own words was not born with “Job's skin”, meets at the lowest point of his suffering in God Jesus, who shows him the way to healing.


  • In Anders Thomas Jensen's film Adam's Apples (Denmark 2005), Pastor Ivan embodies the God-tormented person who is ultimately made good. In this film, the neo-Nazi Adam is repeatedly confronted with the Book of Job, for example by opening his Bible over and over at the beginning of this text when it falls on the ground.
  • In Mission: Impossible (USA, 1996), “Max” instructs an agent to point out “Job 3.14”. Ethan Hunt, played by Tom Cruise , later finds out that it is the book of Job, chapter 3, verse 14.
  • Terrence Malick begins his film The Tree of Life (USA, 2011) with a written quote from the book of Job (chapter 38, verses 4-7) and becomes the path of nature and voice spoken by an off-voice during the course of the film juxtapose the path of grace as two possible paths of life.


Individual quotations or passages from the Book of Job were often set to music, especially in European church music. The sentence "I know that my Redeemer lives" from Hi 19.25  EU describes the following musical works:

The following works are related to other Job texts:

  • Ralph Erskin published 1753 Jobs Hymns: or a Book of Songs on the Book of Job.
  • Carl Loewe completed an oratorio Job in 1848 , the score of which has been restored.
  • In 1930 the ballet music Job: A Masque for Dancing by Ralph Vaughan Williams premiered.
  • In 1979 Wilfried Hiller's opera Job / Job was premiered at the Bavarian State Opera in Munich.
  • In 1981, Claus Kühnl published five dramatic scenes for speaker, large organ and piano under the title Die Klage des Hiob .
  • In 1996 George Tabori published Die Ballade vom Wiener Schnitzel . In the fourth act, the main character, Alfons Morgenstern, takes on the role of Job in a role play.
  • In 2009 the band Nachtblut released the piece Job's Message on the Antik album .

Disease name

  • The hyper-IgE syndrome in 1966 by the Erstbeschreibern Job's syndrome called. The patients described had recurrent, therapy-resistant staphylococcal skin infections and abscesses on various parts of the body. Based on Job's ulcers, they suggested the name.


Exegetical commentaries

  • Claus Westermann : The structure of the book of Job. Calwer Theological Monographs Volume 6, Calwer Verlag, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-7668-0539-8 .
  • Othmar Keel : Yahweh's reply to Job. An interpretation of Job 38-41 against the background of contemporary visual art. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1978, ISBN 3-525-53282-2 .
  • Artur Weiser : The Book of Job. ATD series No. 13, 7th edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1980, ISBN 3-525-51160-4 .
  • Jürgen Ebach : Article Hiob / Hiobbuch. In: TRE 15 (1986), pp. 360-380.
  • Markus Witte: From suffering to teaching. The third speech (Job 21-27) and the editorial history of the Book of Job. BZAW 230, de Gruyter, Berlin a. New York 1994, ISBN 3-11-014375-5 .
  • Hans-Peter Müller : The Job Problem. Its position and origin in the old Orient and in the Old Testament. In: Income from Research. 84; Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1995, ISBN 3-534-07265-0 .
  • Jürgen van Oorschot : Trends in Job Research. In: ThR NF 60 (1995), pp. 351-388.
  • Benedikt Peters : The Book of Job. Why do the righteous suffer? Christliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Dillenburg 2002, ISBN 3-89436-318-5 .
  • Gabrielle Oberhänsli-Widmer : Job in Jewish antiquity and modernity. Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2003, ISBN 3-7887-1945-1 .
  • Jürgen van Oorschot : The Origin of the Book of Job. In: Th. Krüger, M. Oeming, K. Schmid, Ch. Uehlinger (eds.): The Book of Job and its Interpretation: Contributions to the Job Symposium on Monte Verità from 14. – 19. August 2005. AThANT 88; Theological Verlag, Zurich 2007, ISBN 3-290-17407-7 , pp. 165-184.
  • Theodor Seidl , Stephanie Ernst (ed.): The book job. Overall interpretations - individual texts - central topics. Austrian Biblical Studies 31, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-56241-3 .
  • Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger : A Path through Suffering - The Book of Job. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 2007, ISBN 978-3-451-29672-7 .
  • Konrad Schmid : Job as a biblical and ancient book. Historical and intellectual contexts of his theology. Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 219, Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-460-03194-4 .
  • Raik Heckl: Job - from the godly to the representative of Israel. Studies on the becoming of the biblical Book of Job and its sources. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-16-150337-5 .
  • Meik Gerhards : God and suffering. Answers from the Babylonian poetry Ludlul bēl nēmeqi and the biblical Book of Job . BEATAJ 60, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2017, ISBN 978-3-631-73270-0 (print); E- ISBN 978-3-631-73275-5 (e-book).
  • Markus Witte: Job's many faces. Studies on the composition, tradition and early reception of the Book of Job . FRLANT 267, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-525-55265-0 .

Theological and philosophical interpretations

Web links

Commons : Job  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Bible texts


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger: The book job. In: Erich Zenger (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament. 6th edition, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006, pp. 336f.
  2. ^ Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger: The book job. In: Erich Zenger (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament. Stuttgart 2006, p. 339f.
  3. ^ Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger: The book job. In: Erich Zenger (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament. Stuttgart 2006, pp. 341-343.
  4. ^ Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger: The book job. In: Erich Zenger (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament. Stuttgart 2006, p. 344.
  5. Diethelm Michel: On the crisis of wisdom in Israel. rhs 33 (1990), pp. 289-294.
  6. ^ Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger: The book job. In: Erich Zenger (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament. Stuttgart 2006, pp. 344-346.
  7. ^ Ludger Schwienhorst-Schönberger: The book job. In: Erich Zenger (Ed.): Introduction to the Old Testament. Stuttgart 2006, p. 346f.
  8. ^ Franz Delitzsch: Biblical Commentary on the poetic books of the Old Testament Volume 2: The Book of Job. Leipzig 1876 2 (BC), pp. 91–93 (pdf; 28.9 MB)
  9. In 1 Cor 3,19  EU takes Paul of Tarsus on Hi 5.13  EU , in Phil 1,19  EU on Hi 13.16  EU and in Rom 11,35  EU on Hi 41.3  EU back.
  10. Jak 5.11  EU
  11. Tob 2.11  EU - 3.17
  12. ^ Job in the ecumenical dictionary of saints
  13. Cf. Abū Isḥāq Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm aṯ-Ṯaʿlabī: Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ or ʿArāʾis al-maǧālis . German translation by Heribert Busse under the title: Islamic Tales of Prophets and Men of God. Wiesbaden 2006. pp. 209-211.
  14. German Bible editions: 41.25 LUT
  15. Werner Schüßler, Marc Röbel (Ed.): Job - transdisciplinary: Its importance in theology and philosophy, art and literature, life practice and spirituality. Lit Verlag, Münster 2013, ISBN 3643119925 , p. 163
  16. Dietmar Ströbel: Sing your own faith: On the development of singing as a Protestant song of faith from the Reformation to the Enlightenment. 2017, p. 167
  17. ^ A b Stephen J. Vicchio: Job in the Ancient World: A History. Wipf and Stock, 2006, ISBN 1597525324 , p. 244
  18. Heinz Gärtner: Mozart and the "dear God": genius between faith and lust for life; the history of his church music. Langen Müller, 1997, ISBN 3784426689 , p. 193
  19. Pull me higher [MP3 album]. Retrieved September 19, 2019 .
  20. Bernhard Anders: Freiburg Oratorio Choir discovers Carl Loewe's "Job". VDKC, June 12, 2019
  21. SD Davis, J. Schaller, RJ Wedgwood: Job's Syndrome. Recurrent, "cold", staphylococcal abscesses. In: Lancet. Volume 1, Number 7445, May 1966, pp. 1013-1015, PMID 4161105 .