from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The book of Isaiah
The three parts chapter
Proto Isaiah 1-39
Deutero-Isaiah 40-55
Tritoesaya 56-66

The term Deutero-Isaiah is Greek and means "second Isaiah ". At the end of the 18th century, Johann Christoph Döderlein and Johann Gottfried Eichhorn thought the second part of the Book of Isaiah ( Isa 40-66  EU ) was the work of a younger prophet . This view quickly caught on in the following hundred years before Bernhard Duhm found a third, anonymous prophet in his Isaiah commentary (1892), whom he called Tritojesaja (Greek for "third Isaiah") for the sake of simplicity . He wrote chapters 56-66. Today, however, numerous exegetes tend to accept not a single but several authors.

Due to the mention of Cyrus II in two places (Isa 44.28 EU ; 45.1 EU ), the second part is dated to around 539 BC. Chr.

According to current research, Deutero-Isaiah proclaimed the words during and after the Babylonian exile that can now be found in chapters 40 to 55 of the book of Isaiah. Chapters 1 to 39 summarize the words of the "first" Isaiah who actually bore that name. Deutero-Isaiah may have been a member of a "school" or tradition of prophets founded by Isaiah, so his words were included in his book.

The main controversial question today is whether it is a question of the uniform preaching of a prophet or the written collection of a type of prophetic school.


The Deutero-Isaiah complex of texts begins in Chapter 40 EU with the programmatic cry: “Comfort my people!” Exile is understood as a punishment or as a consequence of injustice committed, with exile the people have paid their guilt. Now God will come and lead it back through the desert into the land of Israel. This message is proclaimed with great force and imagery.

Some other striking texts contain good promises to the “daughter of ZionJerusalem , which as the city of God is consistently personified as a woman . The prophet is to speak to her heart ( Isa 40,9–11  EU ), comfort her, announce the return of her lost children ( Isa 49,14–26  EU ) and the restoration of her relationship with YHWH (the husband), the end their shame and their restoration ( Isa 51.17  EU - 52.12; 54). Here the book clearly reflects the historical circumstances of a time of restoration after the end of the exile .

Servant songs

A particularly peculiar part of the Deutero-Isaiah texts are the songs of the servant of YHWH or God's servant songs ( Isa 42.1–9  EU (7); Isa 49.1–13  EU ; Isa 50.4–11  EU ; Isa 52.13  EU to Isa 53.12  EU ). The authorized servant of God is with the Ruach HaQodesh (Hebrew: רוח הקודש , dt literally "Holy Breath" or. Allegorically "Holy Spirit") anointed . He will bring light and justice to all peoples (Hebrew אור לגויים Or LaGoyim ; "Light for the peoples").

The allegorical “servant of God” will represent shame and shame up to the sacrifice of his own life - and yet “live forever” ( chap. 53 ). “Ruach HaQodesh” is particularly related to Israel and the prophets and the whole conception of vicarious suffering of the Jewish people due to the sins of the peoples is unique in the Hebrew Tanach . With the Septuagint , the servant songs were introduced into the Christian tradition and later related to Jesus Christ , whose human suffering eradicated the sins of the world when he was executed in Rome as a criminal on the cross (cf. Acts 8.30–35  EU ).

Rashi interprets "light to the peoples" to mean the Twelve Tribes of Israel and not the pagan peoples. According to the Jewish tradition, the Hebrew word of the prophet refers in principle to the oppression and sufferings of the Jewish people. With him, YHWH has concluded an eternal covenant ( Gen 17.7  EU ), and therefore it is a “permanent living” people (cf. Lev 26.43  EU , Dtn 4.26-27  EU , Dtn 28.63 -64  EU ). According to the Jewish-Hebrew tradition and Rashi in essence, it is a warning repetition of the Torah words of the covenant of Israel with God, which contain the mandate to be YHWH a “kingdom of priests and a holy people” ( Ex 19.6  EU ) .

Isaiah 53

The sentence of Augustine of Hippo has been valid in the Christian history of interpretation of the Old Testament since patristicism :

"Novum Testamentum latet in Vetere, et in Novo Vetus patet."

"The New Testament is hidden in the old, the old is revealed / revealed in the new."

- Augustine, Quaestiones in Heptateuchum 2, 73

In order to do justice to this claim and the mission of the Christian faith, individual passages such as the last of the four servants' songs - Isaiah 53  EU - are particularly important. With this, the New Testament is indicated as already in the Old Testament and seen as its new (and correct) interpretation, and the Jewish-Hebrew prophecies are reinterpreted to Jesus Christ regardless of their time and context.

International Jewish organizations against Jewish mission , such as “Outreach Judaism” and “Jews for Judaism” therefore address the context of the Christian interpretation of Isaiah 53 in relation to the mission of the Jews, mostly fundamentalist evangelical mission agencies with many, predominantly Orthodox-rabbinical lectures, debates and teachings that are diverse are freely available on the Internet.



  • Bernhard Duhm : The book of Isaiah. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1892 (various editions, most recently 1968).
  • Claus Westermann : The book of Isaiah. Chapters 40-66 (= ATD 19). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1966.
  • Karl Elliger : Deutero-Isaiah. 1st volume Isaiah 40.1 - 45.7 (= BK XI / 1). Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1978 (2nd edition 1989).
  • Dieter Schneider: The prophet Isaiah. Part 2: chap. 40–66 (= Wuppertal Study Bible, series: Old Testament). R. Brockhaus, Wuppertal a. a. 2005 (5th edition), ISBN 978-3-417-25217-0 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Hermisson : Deutero-Isaiah. 2nd volume Isaiah 45.8 - 49.13 (= BK XI / 2). Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2003.
  • Hans-Jürgen Hermisson: Deutero-Isaiah. 3rd volume Isaiah 49.14 - 55.13 (= BK XI / 3). Vandenhoeck-Ruprecht, Göttingen 2017.
  • Peter Höffken : The book of Isaiah. Chapters 40-66 (= NSK.AT 18/2). Publishing house Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1998.
  • Ulrich Berges : Isaiah 40-48 (= HThK.AT 12/4). Herder, Freiburg a. a. 2008; Isaiah 49-5. HThK.AT 12/5, Herder, Freiburg u. a. 2015.

Secondary literature

  • D. Michel:  Deutero-Isaiah . In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie (TRE). Volume 8, de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, ISBN 3-11-008563-1 , pp. 510-530.
  • Hans-Jürgen Hermisson: Unity and Complexity of Deutero-Isaiah. Problems with the editorial history of Isaiah 40-55. In: Jacques Vermeylen (Ed.): Le Livre d'Isaie. Leuven 1989, pp. 287-312 (= in: ders .: Studies on prophecy and wisdom. Collected essays . Ed. By J. Barthel et al. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1998, pp. 132-157).
  • Reinhard Gregor Kratz : Cyrus in the Deutero Isaiah book. Editorial history investigations into the origin and theology of Isaiah 40–55 (= FAT 1). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1991.
  • Jürgen van Oorschot : From Babel to Zion. A literary and editorial history study on Isaiah 40–55 (supplements to the journal for Old Testament science 206). de Gruyter, Göttingen / Berlin / New York, 1993, ISBN 3-11-013606-6 .
  • Ulrich Berges: The Book of Isaiah. Composition and final form (= Herder's biblical studies, 16). Freiburg et al. 1998.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. “Holy Breath” or “Holy Spirit” is not to be confused with the “Holy Spirit” of the Christian conception of God . Unlike Christianity, the “Holy Spirit” is not deified in the Jewish tradition.
  2. ^ Edwin A. Abbott: The 'Son of Man'. Cambridge University Press, 1910; Reprint 2014, pp. 497–498, fn. 4.
  3. Augustine, Quaestiones in Heptateuchum 2, 73
  4. 3) Mistranslated Verses “referring” to Jesus; C. Suffering Servant . In: Why Don't Jews Believe In Jesus? . - Judaism Online. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  5. ^ Rabbi Tovia Singer: The Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 - Part 1 . Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  6. ^ Rabbi Tovia Singer: The Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 - Part 2 . Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  7. ^ Rabbi Tovia Singer: Let's get biblical - audio . Outreach Judaism. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  8. ^ Suffering Servant . In: FAQ . Jews for Judaism. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  9. Hans-Jürgen Hermisson commentary. In: Vandenhoeck-Ruprecht. Retrieved September 15, 2018 .