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Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

Domain : Bacteria (bacteria)
Department : Firmicutes
Class : Bacilli
Order : Bacillales
Family : Staphylococcaceae
Genre : Staphylococci
Scientific name
Rosenbach , 1884

Staphylococci (Germanised plural from the Latinized Singular Staphylococcus , one of Alexander Ogston in reference to the of Bill Roth coined in 1874 term streptococci introduced designation resulting from the two ancient Greek ingredients σταφύλι staphylé , Grape ',' grape 'and κόκκος KOKKOS , nuclear' 'Grain', 'berry') are roundish, grape-like, non-spore - forming gram-positive bacteria without active movement from the group of cocci .


Spherical cells, diameter 0.5–1.5 µm, arranged individually, in pairs or in irregular (grape-like) clusters, gram-positive , non- motile (no active movement), facultatively anaerobic , chemoorganotrophic , energy metabolism oxidative and fermentative, mostly catalase- positive and Oxidase -negative. Temperature optimum for growth and reproduction 30–37 ° C. Many species have a high to predominant proportion of branched fatty acid chains in their membrane lipids .


When they colonize commensals and pathogens ( pathogens ), the skin and mucous membranes of humans and warm-blooded vertebrates and also come in the environment (water, air, food) in front.


The classification of the genus Staphylococcus and its representatives is based on the taxonomy common in biology . However, since numerous representatives are of medical importance, the classification according to the coagulase reaction has proven itself in this area .

External system

The genus Staphylococcus was formerly part of the Micrococcaceae family . In 2001, in the 2nd edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology , it was proposed to classify them in a new family of the "Staphylococcaceae", which grow facultatively anaerobically (exception: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. Anaerobius , a [ sheep- adapted] obligatory anaerobic subspecies ) . This proposal was accepted in 2010 with validation list No. 132 in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology .

Internal system

There are almost 50 species in the genus Staphylococcus . Numerous species are still divided into subspecies . A current compilation of the species and subspecies recognized according to the Bacteriological Code can be found in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). A list based on this is given in the section Species (species) and Subspecies (subspecies) .

Classification, medical significance

In medicine, staphylococci are divided according to the coagulase reaction into coagulase-positive (in human medicine usually equated with Staphylococcus aureus ) and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In particular, multi-resistant strains ( MRSA ) are a problem because they are difficult to treat with antibiotics .

Coagulase-positive staphylococci

The staphylococcal species with the highest pathogenic potency and generally one of the most important pathogens in humans is the coagulase-positive species:

So far only proven in animals or only very rarely in connection with infections in humans:

Coagulase-negative staphylococci

The coagulase-negative staphylococci are usually colonizers of the skin and mucous membranes without any disease significance. However, they are of medical importance in immunosuppressed patients (i.e. those in whom the immune system's defensive function has been reduced with medication , e.g. after a transplant , or in whom an illness has weakened the immune system) and in connection with so-called polymers -associated infections , i.e. colonization of plastic surfaces (e.g. catheters, artificial heart valves , artificial joints; see biofilm ). The following species in particular can appear in humans:

The latter is another coagulase-negative species, which is, however, connected (associated) with a specific clinical picture. This pathogen can for dysuria - syndrome in younger women as well as for non-specific urethritis be responsible (urethritis) in men.

Effect character

Poisoning caused by enterotoxins that are excreted by the pathogen as metabolites into the surrounding substrate . The toxins are protein-like in structure with molar masses of 20,000–40,000 g · mol −1 . Enterotoxin B, for example, consists of a single polypeptide chain in which 239 amino acid residues are strung together.

The toxins can be differentiated from each other by their immunobiological behavior. Enterotoxin A causes vomiting in adults in doses of only 1 µg, and enterotoxin B after 20 to 25 ng. The first symptoms appear on average two to four hours after ingestion of a corresponding amount of toxin with the food, with the range of variation being between half an hour and seven hours.

The primary point of attack for the emetic effect is in the abdominal organs; it reaches the vomiting center via the vagus and sympathetic fibers . Other targets for the toxin are the kidneys , liver , lungs , gastrointestinal tract , various tissues and individual cells.


First salivation , then nausea , gagging, vomiting and diarrhea . Vomiting and diarrhea can explode at the same time. In severe cases, desiccosis , states of shock, the appearance of mucus and blood in the stool and vomit and hypokalemic muscle paralysis can occur. As a rule, the body temperature is not increased; subnormal temperatures are often measured. The restitution may occur within 24 hours or take several days. Death only rarely occurs, here mostly in newborns. The rapid increase in GOT activity in the blood serum is related to the tissue-damaging effect of the toxin , as are changes in the white blood count ( leukocytosis 30 minutes after oral intake, at higher doses with preceding leukopenia , later marked shift to the left), catecholamine and Increase in glucose, increase in residual N, plasma fibrinogen and inorganic phosphorus, decrease in serum protein, calcium and chlorine and finally decrease in platelet count and serotonin .

Species (species) and subspecies (subspecies) of the genus Staphylococcus

  • S. agnetis Taponen et al. 2012
  • S. arlettae Schleifer et al. 1985
  • S. aureus Rosenbach 1884
    • S. aureus subsp. anaerobius De La Fuente et al. 1985
    • S. aureus subsp. aureus Rosenbach 1884
  • S. auricularis Kloos and Schleifer 1983
  • S. capitis Kloos & Schleifer 1975
    • S. capitis subsp. capitis Kloos and Schleifer 1975
    • S. capitis subsp. urealyticus corrig. Bannerman and Kloos 1991
  • S. caprae Devriese et al. 1983 emend. Kawamura et al. 1998
  • S. carnosus Schleifer and Fischer 1982
    • S. carnosus subsp. carnosus Schleifer and Fischer 1982
    • S. carnosus subsp. utilis Probst et al. 1998
  • S. chromogenes (Devriese et al. 1978) Hájek et al. 1987
  • S. cohnii Schleifer and Kloos 1975
    • S. cohnii subsp. cohnii Schleifer and Kloos 1975
    • S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus corrig. Kloos and Wolfshohl 1991
  • S. condimenti Probst et al. 1998
  • S. delphini Varaldo et al. 1988
  • S. devriesei Supré et al. 2010
  • S. epidermidis (Winslow and Winslow 1908) Evans 1916
  • S. equorum Schleifer et al. 1985
    • S. equorum subsp. equorum Schleifer et al. 1985
    • S. equorum subsp. linens Place et al. 2003
  • S. felis Igimi et al. 1989
  • S. fleurettii Vernozy-Rozand et al. 2000
  • S. gallinarum Devriese et al. 1983
  • S. haemolyticus Schleifer & Kloos 1975
  • S. hominis Kloos & Schleifer 1975
    • S. hominis subsp. hominis Kloos & Schleifer 1975
    • S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus Kloos et al. 1998
  • S. hyicus (Sompolinsky 1953) Devriese et al. 1978
  • S. intermedius Hájek 1976
  • S. kloosii Schleifer et al. 1985
  • S. lentus (Kloos et al. 1976) Schleifer et al. 1983
  • S. lugdunensis Freney et al. 1988
  • S. lutrae Foster et al. 1997
  • S. massiliensis Al Masalma et al. 2010
  • S. microti Nováková et al. 2010
  • S. muscae Hajek et al. 1992
  • S. nepalensis Spergser et al. 2003
  • S. pasteuri Chesneau et al. 1993
  • S. pettenkoferi Trülzsch et al. 2007
  • S. piscifermentans Tanasupawat et al. 1992
  • S. pseudintermedius Devriese et al. 2005
  • S. saccharolyticus (Foubert and Douglas 1948) Kilpper-Bälz and Schleifer 1984
  • S. saprophyticus (Fairbrother 1940) Shaw et al. 1951
    • S. saprophyticus subsp. bovis Hájek et al. 1996
    • S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus (Fairbrother 1940) Shaw et al. 1951
  • S. Schleiferi Freney et al. 1988
    • S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans Igimi et al. 1990
    • S. schleiferi subsp. Schleiferi Freney et al. 1988
  • S. sciuri Kloos et al. 1976
    • S. sciuri subsp. carnaticus Kloos et al. 1997
    • S. sciuri subsp. rodentium Kloos et al. 1997
    • S. sciuri subsp. sciuri Kloos et al. 1976
  • S. simiae Pantucek et al. 2005
  • S. simulans Kloos and Schleifer 1975
  • S. succinus Lambert et al. 1998
    • S. succinus subsp. casei place et al. 2003
    • S. succinus subsp. succinus Lambert et al. 1998
  • S. vitulinus corrig. Webster et al. 1994
  • S. Warneri Kloos and Schleifer 1975
  • S. xylosus Schleifer and Kloos 1975


  • Frank Kipp et al: Dangerous increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt. No. 101 (28-29), 2004, pp. A2045-A2051, ISSN  0012-1207 .
  • H. Linde, N. Lehn: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In: German Medical Weekly . No. 130, 2005, pp. 582-585.
  • Hans-Jürgen Sinell : Importance of staphylococcal enterotoxin in food. In: Medical Clinic. No. 71, 1976, pp. 1165-1171.

Web links

Commons : Staphylococcus ( Staphylococcus )  - Collection of images, videos, and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ralf Vollmuth : Staphylococci, Staphylococcus. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 1355.
  2. ^ Wilhelm Gemoll : Greek-German school and hand dictionary. Freytag, Munich / Vienna 1965.
  3. John G. Holt et al. (Ed.): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology . 9th edition, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1994, ISBN 0-683-00603-7 , pp. 532, 535-536, 544-551.
  4. T. Kaneda: Iso- and anteiso-fatty acids in bacteria: biosynthesis, function, and taxonomic significance. In: Microbiological Reviews. Vol. 55, No. 2, June 1991, pp. 288-302, PMID 1886522 (free full text access ).
  5. ^ Friedrich Götz, Tammy Bannerman, Karl-Heinz Schleifer: The Genera Staphylococcus and Macrococcus (Chapter 1.2.1) . In: Martin Dworkin et al. (Ed.): The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria. Volume 4: Bacteria: Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria . 3. Edition. Springer, New York 2006, ISBN 978-0-387-25494-4 , doi : 10.1007 / 0-387-30744-3_1 .
  6. ^ Jean Euzéby: List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published - Validation List no.132 . In: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology . tape 60 , no. 3 , March 8, 2010, ISSN  1466-5026 , p. 469-472 , doi : 10.1099 / ijs.0.022855-0 .
  7. ^ Jean Euzéby, Aidan C. Parte: Genus Staphylococcus. In: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature ( LPSN ). Retrieved January 1, 2014 .
  8. a b Max Daunderer: Daunderer - Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 105. Supplementary delivery 4/96.