Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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WA Mozart, detail from a painting by Johann Nepomuk della Croce (c. 1781)
Signature of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , who mostly signed with Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (*  January 27, 1756 in Salzburg , Archbishopric Salzburg , Holy Roman Empire ; †  December 5, 1791 in Vienna , Archduchy of Austria , HRR), was a Salzburg musician and composer of the Viennese Classic . His extensive work enjoys worldwide popularity and is one of the most important in the repertoire of classical music.

Life

The child prodigy (1756–1766)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on January 27 , 1756 at eight o'clock in the evening in Salzburg at Getreidegasse 9 in a three-room apartment in an apartment building ( Hagenauerhaus ) and was named Joannes Chrysostomus the next morning at ten o'clock in Salzburg Cathedral by city chaplain Leopold Lamprecht Wolfgangus Theophilus was baptized and entered in the baptismal register (his father Leopold Mozart used the name form Joannes Chrisostomus Wolfgang Gottlieb ). He was called Wolferl , Wolfgang or Woferl . The Wolferl was the seventh child of his parents, but only the second to survive. His siblings were Johannes Leopold Joachim (* 1748, died in the sixth month of life), Maria Anna Cordula (* 1749, was six days old), Maria Anna Nepomucena Walburga (* 1750, died in the third month of life), Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia - the Nannerl (* 1751, was 78 years old), Johann Baptist Karl Amadeus (* 1752, was not quite three months old) and Maria Crescentia Franziska de Paula (* 1754, died in the second month of life). His father was from Augsburg to study at the Benedictine University drawn (1622-1810) to Salzburg, Prince Bishop chamber musician (from 1757 court composer and from 1763 assistant music) Leopold Mozart, his mother in St. Gilgen grown Anna Maria Pertl .

WA Mozart in court clothes on an oil painting by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni from 1763. Father Mozart in a letter on October 19, 1762: “Do you want to know what Woferl's dress looks like? - It is made of the finest cloth liloa = color ... It was made for Prince Maximilian ... "

At the age of four, he and his sister Maria Anna Mozart , who was five years older than him , received their first music and general education lessons in piano, violin (→ Mozart's children's violin ) and composition from their father . As early as 1761, Leopold's father recorded an andante and an allegro as the “Wolfgangerl Composition”, followed by an allegro and a menuetto , dated December 11th and 16th, 1761. The minuet in G major, wrongly called the earliest composition with a minuet in C major as a trio KV 1 was probably not composed until 1764. Mozart's talent for piano and violin also quickly emerged. His first appearances followed in 1762.

The first concert tours of Wolfgang and his sister Nannerl with their parents were arranged to Munich in early 1762 and from Passau to Vienna in autumn 1762 in order to present the talented children to the nobility. After the success of the Wunderkind siblings in Munich and Vienna, the family embarked on an extensive tour of Germany and Western Europe on June 9, 1763, which lasted three and a half years until they returned to Salzburg on November 29, 1766. Stops were Munich, Augsburg, Ludwigsburg , Schwetzingen , Heidelberg , Mainz , Frankfurt am Main , Koblenz , Cologne , Aachen , Brussels , Paris (arrival on November 18, 1763), Versailles , London (arrival on April 23, 1764), Dover , Belgium , The Hague (September 1765), Amsterdam , Utrecht , Mechelen , again Paris (arrival May 10th 1766), Dijon , Lyon , Geneva , Lausanne , Bern , Zurich , Donaueschingen , Ulm and Munich, where the children were at court or in public academies made music. During these trips he wrote the first sonatas for piano and violin as well as the first symphony in E flat major (KV 16). The four sonatas for piano and violin KV 6 to 9 are Mozart's first printed compositions in 1764.

During this trip, Mozart was introduced to the Italian symphony and opera in London . There he also met Johann Christian Bach , who became his first role model. In 1778 Mozart wrote from Paris after seeing him back home: "I love him (as you well know) with all my heart - and I have great respect for him."

First compositions in Vienna and the trip to Italy (1766–1771)

After returning home, the first world premieres followed in Salzburg, including the school opera The Duty of the First Commandment , which the eleven-year-old Mozart had composed with the much older Salzburg court musicians Anton Cajetan Adlgasser and Michael Haydn . A second family trip to Vienna followed in September. To avoid the rampant smallpox epidemic , they drove to Brno and Olomouc . The disease reached Wolfgang and his sister there and left (according to several biographies) scars on Wolfgang's face. After the children had recovered, Mozart returned to Vienna on January 10, 1768, where he completed the Singspiel Bastien and Bastienne (KV 50), the orphanage fair (KV 139) and the opera buffa La finta semplice (KV 51). Although ordered by the German Emperor Franz I , the latter could not be performed; The reason was the intrigues of the so-called "Italian party" around the court manager Giuseppe Affligio.

Between 1767 and 1769 Mozart stayed repeatedly in the Benedictine monastery Seeon . As late as 1771, he performed offers there . Mozart wrote two offers especially for the Seeon Abbey: Scande coeli limina (KV 34; 1769) and Inter natos mulierum (KV 72; 1771). The so-called “Mozarteiche”, under which, according to tradition, he was happy to sit, is still growing today at Seeoner See.

After 15 months in Vienna, Mozart and his family returned to Salzburg on January 5, 1769. It was here that La finta semplice was finally performed on May 1st, and it was here that on October 27th, when he was appointed third concertmaster of the Salzburg court orchestra, he was given his first, albeit unpaid, position.

Mozart (at the piano) makes music with Thomas Linley junior (violin), who is of the same age . Florence 1770
Mozart's first trip to Italy (today's borders are shown):
Black: route Salzburg - Naples
Blue: deviations on the return route

Almost three weeks later, on December 13, 1769, Mozart and his father set off on his first of three extremely successful trips to Italy , which lasted almost three and a half years, with interruptions from March to August 1771 and December 1771 to October 1772.

The first trip took her to Verona , Milan , Bologna , Florence , Rome , Naples , Turin , Venice , Padua , Vicenza , Innsbruck and back to Salzburg . Mozart recovered here until autumn, after which he started a longer (third) stay in Milan. Pope Clement XIV made him Knight of the Golden Spur in Rome in 1770 , but, unlike Gluck , he never made use of the privilege of calling himself a “knight”. In Rome, after listening to the nine-part Miserere by Gregorio Allegri only once or twice, he succeeded in writing down the basic structure of this score , which was kept strictly secret by the Vatican , from memory without errors. It is not clear to what extent the singers colored voices improvising and whether Mozart was able to write it down. The original of this transcription has not survived and more recent studies provide understandable explanations for this apparently inexplicable achievement. Writing was made easier, for example, by the repetitive structure of the piece.

Mozart studied counterpoint with Padre Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna . After an exam he was accepted into the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna . There he met such important musicians as Giovanni Battista Sammartini , Niccolò Piccinni , Pietro Nardini and Giovanni Paisiello . On December 26, 1770 he saw the world premiere of his Opera seria Mitridate, re di Ponto (KV 87) in Milan, the success of which led to two further commissions: the Serenata teatrale Ascanio in Alba (KV 111, world premiere in Milan on October 17, 1771 ) and the Dramma per musica Lucio Silla (KV 135), premiered in Milan in the 1772/73 season. On December 15, 1771, father and son returned to Salzburg after hopes for a job in Italy had not been fulfilled.

Concertmaster in Salzburg (1772–1777)

Tanzmeisterhaus, home of the Mozart family from 1773 (reconstruction approx. 1995)

In 1772 Hieronymus Franz Josef von Colloredo was elected Prince Archbishop of Salzburg; he succeeded the late Sigismund Christoph Graf von Schrattenbach . In August Mozart was appointed concertmaster of the Salzburg court orchestra by the new prince. Nevertheless, this did not lead to the end of his many journeys with his father. Wolfgang continued to try to escape the tight regulations of the Salzburg service: From October 24, 1772 to March 13, 1773, the third trip to Italy followed for the premiere of Lucio Silla , during which the result , jubilate , was made, and from mid-July to mid-July September 1773 the third trip to Vienna. In the same year he wrote his first piano concerto . From October 1773, the Mozart family lived on the first floor of the dance master's house , which had previously belonged to the Salzburg court dance master Franz Gottlieb Spöckner (approx. 1705–1767).

After a long break, a trip to Munich followed on December 6, 1774 for the premiere of the opera buffa La finta giardiniera (KV 196). On January 13th, 1775 and after his return on March 7th, Mozart tried again to establish himself as an artist of music in Salzburg. For example, he had the Dramma per musica Il re pastore premiered in Salzburg on April 23, 1775, which, however, did not go down well with the public. After several unsuccessful requests for leave, he submitted his resignation to the Prince Archbishop in 1777 and asked to be released from the Salzburg court orchestra.

Looking for a job and again in Salzburg (1777–1781)

WA Mozart at the age of 21 with the Order of the Golden Spur
Entry of Mozart in the guest book of the Mannheim observatory , 1778

After his dismissal from the service of the prince, Mozart went on a city trip with his mother on September 23, 1777; he was trying to find a new and better job. First he auditioned in vain at the Bavarian electoral court in Munich, then in Augsburg and at the court of Mannheim's elector Karl Theodor , where he got to know the electoral orchestra and its conductor, his future friend Christian Cannabich (see also Mannheim School ). But even here he got neither a job nor any musical commissions. But he got to know the Weber family and their daughter Aloisia , a young singer and later Munich prima donna , with whom he fell in love.

After five months in Mannheim, he and his mother, urged by their father, drove on to Paris, where they arrived on March 23, 1778. Mozart was at least able to perform his ballet music Les petits riens there, but did not get any other engagements. On July 3, 1778, his mother died at 10 o'clock in the evening. The young Mozart then lived for a few months in an apartment owned by Baron Melchior Grimm , where Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges had also lived for two years.

The return trip to Salzburg, which he reluctantly started three months later on September 26th to take up the vacant position of court organist, took him via Strasbourg , Mannheim and Kaisersheim to Munich, where he met the Weber family again. He did not reach his hometown until mid-January 1779 and was appointed court organist on January 17th. Here he composed the later so-called Coronation Mass (KV 317).

This renewed attempt with an engagement in Salzburg went reasonably well for 20 months, although the relationship with the archbishop remained tense, as he forbade him to participate in lucrative concerts in Vienna. On another trip on November 5, 1780, he took part in the very successful world premiere of his Opera seria Idomeneo (KV 366) on January 29, 1781 in Munich . Afterwards Mozart took part in the academies of the Salzburg court musicians on behalf of the archbishop. After two violent arguments with the Archbishop and a “kick” by his Count's envoy, the Prince Archbishop's Chief Kitchen Master Karl Joseph Maria Graf Arco - Mozart himself reports on the Count's “kick” in his letters - there was a final break. On June 8, 1781, Mozart resigned his service in Salzburg, settled in Vienna and earned his living there for the next few years through concerts in private and public academies.

Freelance composer in Vienna (1781–1791)

Title page of the libretto by Le Nozze di Figaro , Prague 1786

Freed from the Salzburg “shackles”, the now independent composer and music teacher, who was constantly on the lookout for clients and piano students and who was not afraid to work “in stock”, created the really great operas and a large number of piano concerts, which he usually performed himself.

  • On July 16, 1782, the Singspiel (in German!) The Abduction from the Seraglio (KV 384) commissioned by Emperor Joseph II was premiered in Vienna. Years followed that were filled with composing and performing piano concertos and during which Mozart was doing very well financially.
  • On May 1, 1786, the opera buffa Le nozze di Figaro (“Figaro's Wedding”, KV 492) was premiered in Vienna.
  • On October 29, 1787, the premiere of the dramma giocoso Don Giovanni ("Don Juan", KV 527) in Prague
  • The premiere of the opera buffa Così fan tutte (“This is how all women do it”, KV 588) in Vienna on January 26th, 1790
(these last three after libretti by Lorenzo Da Ponte )
  • On September 6, 1791, the opera seria La clemenza di Tito (“The Mildness of Titus”, KV 621) was premiered in Prague
  • On September 30, 1791, the great opera Die Zauberflöte (KV 620) was premiered in Emanuel Schikaneder's theater in Freihaus on the Wieden. With that he returned to the German language. The story and texts of the Magic Flute go back to Emanuel Schikaneder and represent a speculative mixture of a previous work The Philosopher's Stone , a fairy tale by Wieland and Masonic attributes.

During this phase, Mozart also composed the Great Mass in C minor (KV 427) (1783) and important instrumental works: the six string quartets dedicated to Joseph Haydn (KV 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, 465) (1785), the Linzers Symphony (KV 425), the Prague Symphony (KV 504) (1786) and the serenade Eine kleine Nachtmusik (KV 525) (1787) as well as the last three symphonies, in E flat major (KV 543, No. 39), G- Minor (KV 550, No. 40) and in C major, called the Jupiter Symphony (KV 551, No. 41).

In Vienna around 1782/83 Mozart met Gottfried van Swieten , a proven music lover and prefect of the imperial library, today's Austrian National Library . He introduced him to the manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Handel , which he had collected in Berlin, at the regular Sunday concerts in van Swieten's rooms in the imperial library . The encounter with these baroque composers made a deep impression on Mozart and immediately had a great influence on his compositions.

Allegedly Constanze Mozart (left) with the Keller family , October 1840

On August 4, 1782, Mozart married Constanze Weber , a younger sister of Aloisias . Mozart had met his wife three years earlier in Mannheim. In the following years they had six children: Raimund Leopold († August 19, 1783), Carl Thomas (* 1784 -  October 31,  1858 ), Johann Thomas Leopold († November 15, 1786), Theresia Konstantia Adelheid Friderika (* 1787 ; † June 29, 1788), Anna Maria († November 16, 1789) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang (* 1791; †  July 29,  1844 ). Only Carl Thomas and Franz Xaver Wolfgang survived their childhood.

The father Leopold Mozart , whom Wolfgang visited again in his Viennese years in 1783 and who visited him again in 1785, died on May 28, 1787.

The original publisher of Mozart was Heinrich Philipp Boßler, one of the most important music publishers of his time. The overtures Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni were published in Boßler's publishing house . Heinrich Philipp Bossler also worked as impresario for the gifted virtuoso Marianne Kirchgeßner, who composed the Adagio and Rondo for glass harmonica, flute, clarinet, viola and cello (KV 617) and the Adagio (KV 356 / 617a) for her glass harmonica playing Mozart . HP Bossler, who knew Mozart personally, had already made an engraving with the title Signor Mozart in 1784 . It was also impresario Boßler who published a detailed obituary for Wolfgang Amadé Mozart in 1792, and in it he addressed the poor situation of the destitute children.

Through his friendship with Otto Heinrich von Gemmingen-Hornberg , Mozart entered the Viennese Masonic Lodge on December 14, 1784, Zur Charity . Mozart regularly visited a second Viennese lodge, Zur Wahr Eintracht , in which the Illuminate Ignaz von Born was chairman . There he was promoted to journeyman on January 7, 1785. On February 11th, however, he could not be present at the initiation of his friend Joseph Haydn, as he gave the first of his six subscription concerts in the Mehlgrube on the same evening that his father Leopold Mozart had also arrived from Salzburg, including the solo part of his Played piano concerto in D minor, K. 466. In Mozart's instigation his father Leopold Mozart was a Freemason: This was inaugurated on Wednesday, April 6, 1785 in the building works of his son as a bricklayer apprentice and on 16 and 22 April 1785 again in the box to preserve harmony in the 2. resp. 3rd degree raised.

In his operas Die Zauberflöte and Le nozze di Figaro in particular, tones of social criticism can be felt from this membership, which perhaps contributed to the fact that Mozart was no longer so financially after the world premiere of Figaro , especially since shortly after the unfavorable 8. Austrian Turkish War against the Ottoman Empire was waged. On December 7th, 1787 Joseph II appointed Mozart to the Imperial Chamber Musicus and provided him with an annual salary of 800 guilders , and on May 9th, 1791 as an unpaid adjunct of the cathedral music director of St. Stephen's Cathedral , Leopold Hofmann .

With the performance of Le nozze di Figaro in 1786, which Joseph II released in spite of its critical content, he overwhelmed the Viennese audience and withdrew from him. So his economic situation worsened without him taking this fact into account with his expenses. Despite the previous prosperity, he had not accumulated any savings and had to borrow money from friends several times. These failures led to a turning point in his life. During this time he only had success in Prague.

Apart from the Viennese public, he created the works of the last years of his life. He tried in vain to stop the economic downturn by traveling again. These trips took him to the performances from January 8th to mid-February 1787 and from the end of August to mid-September 1791 in Prague. From April 8 to June 4, 1789, he traveled with Prince Karl Lichnowsky via Prague, Dresden and Leipzig to Potsdam and Berlin to see the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II. From September 23 to early November 1790, he traveled to the coronation of Emperor Leopold II. , who succeeded the deceased Joseph II, to Frankfurt am Main. There Mozart and his friend, the theater director Johann Heinrich Böhm , stayed in the "Backhaus" at 10 Kalbächer Gasse . On his travels home he made stops in Mannheim and Munich.

But the trips to Berlin in 1789 and Frankfurt in 1790 did not help him to regain prosperity. In Berlin he received neither income nor employment. The opera Così fan tutte requested by the emperor was only moderately well received, as was the performance in Frankfurt am Main and the world premiere of La clemenza di Tito in Prague. Only the great applause for the Magic Flute promised economic improvement, but now it was no longer the nobility, but the "simpler" population, with whom it found resonance.

Last works and early death

Memorial plaque in Rauhensteingasse 8
The monument to Mozart in the Sankt Marxer Friedhof in Vienna
Grave monument for Mozart in the Vienna Central Cemetery

After the world premiere of La clemenza di Tito in Prague, Mozart returned to Vienna in mid-September 1791 and immediately threw himself into the work for the world premiere of The Magic Flute (KV 620), which took place two weeks later - again with success . At the same time he had worked out the motet Ave verum corpus (KV 618) and began to write down the Requiem (KV 626), which he could no longer complete. Franz Xaver Süßmayr , according to Constanze Mozart a former student of Mozart, completed the Requiem.

A few weeks after the premiere of the Magic Flute on September 30, 1791, Mozart was bedridden on November 20 (about two days after he had conducted the world premiere of his cantata Loud proclaiming our joy , KV 623) In the morning he died. He wasn't quite 36 years old. During the last year of his life he lived in the Kleiner Kayserhaus , which until the middle of the 19th century was at Rauhensteingasse 8 on the back of today's Steffl department store ( Kärntner Straße 19). A memorial plaque reminds us that Mozart died there on December 5, 1791.

As a cause of death was determined by the Totenbeschauer called "hitziges Frieselfieber" (most likely "the combination of a high fever disease course with a visible rash"). As a result, various other causes of death were considered: on the one hand, various viral , bacterial and parasitic infectious diseases such as syphilis and, possibly in connection with this, the then common use of mercury , trichinellosis , pharyngitis or an infection with streptococci , which lead to a cross-reaction against streptococci directed antibodies against heart inner skins - and work led, called rheumatic fever , whereupon then possibly leading to death an aortic developed. In addition, diseases such as Henoch-Schönlein purpura , kidney failure , heart failure or the consequences of bloodletting performed several times, most recently on December 3, are mentioned. Mozart himself was convinced that he had been poisoned and said to Constanze a few weeks before his death during a visit to the Prater: “Certainly, I was given poison.” However, there is no documented evidence of a poisoning.

After his body had initially been laid out in the apartment in accordance with the regulations, Mozart was buried in a general grave at the Sankt Marxer Friedhof . The funeral was organized by Gottfried van Swieten. Mozart's widow only visited the grave for the first time after 17 years. In 1855 the location of his grave was determined as well as possible and in 1859 a tomb was erected at the presumed location, which the City of Vienna later transferred to the group of musicians' graves of honor at the central cemetery (32 A-55). On the old, vacated grave site, a Mozart memorial plaque was erected again on the initiative of the cemetery attendant Alexander Kugler, which over time was converted from spoils of other graves into a tomb and is now a popular sight.

Financial situation and legacy

The thesis of the “impoverished genius Mozart” comes from Romanticism . Every biographer tried to “make Mozart even poorer”. The cliché of “poor Mozart” is still widespread, especially among the public, while more recent research rejects it. Mozart was certainly not rich compared to a count or a prince, but he was rich compared to the other members of his class, the fourth class of citizens.

By today's standards, Mozart was a big earner, but due to the way he lived, he was often in financial difficulties. For an engagement as a pianist he received according to his own statements "at least 1000 guilders " (for comparison: he paid his maid one guilder per month). Together with his piano lessons, for which he charged two guilders each, and his income from concerts and performances, he had an annual income of around 10,000 guilders, which corresponds to around 125,000 euros based on today's purchasing power. Nevertheless, the money was not enough for his lavish lifestyle, so that he often enough asked others, like Johann Michael Puchberg , a lodge friend, for money. He lived in large apartments and employed a lot of staff, and he had a certain passion for card and billiards games , which could have made him lose large sums of money. According to the estate directory, the most valuable individual item in his legacy was not the numerous valuable books or musical instruments in his possession, but rather his expensive clothing. Mozart did not die in poverty because he still had a loan and Anton Stadler even had a loan of 500 guilders outstanding. His pool table, which was a luxurious status symbol at that time, bears witness to Mozart's very high living conditions in 1791.

Mozart's funeral

Probably the most famous portrait of Mozart, based on the family painting from 1780/81, painted posthumously by Barbara Krafft in 1819

The facts

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on Monday, December 5th, 1791, at around one o'clock in the morning in his house in Vienna.
  • He was laid out on the same day in his apartment and on December 6th by the crucifix chapel on St. Stephen's Cathedral built over the entrance to the catacombs . The farewell was celebrated among his friends and relatives.
  • According to the observatory in Vienna , which kept weather records, the weather was mild and dry. However, this is not an indication of the road conditions in December 1791.
  • According to the Vienna City and State Archives, it is not known whether Mozart was brought to the Sankt Marxer Friedhof on December 6, 1791 in the evening or early in the morning on December 7, 1791 . There is no record of this. According to a sanitary ordinance valid at the time, a funeral would not have been allowed until December 7th.
  • Mozart was laid in a "common simple grave". Marking the graves was not forbidden due to the Josephine reforms of August 1788, but was not done in the case of Mozart.

The speculation

  • Mozart died impoverished and was buried in a poor grave:
It is wrong that he died penniless. Rather, it is correct that he was buried in a “simple general grave”, not in a “mass grave” . However, it is also correct that Mozart's widow was only able to settle the remaining debts and cover the family's livelihood for some time because she received a pension from Emperor Leopold II and the profit from a benefit concert, for which the emperor himself gave a generous amount, were awarded.
With reference to contemporary memories of Salieri, Gall and the Aschenbrenner brothers, it was published that the blessing and burial of Mozart's body did not take place until December 7, 1791 during a massive onset of bad weather and that there are indications of a burial at the Matzleinsdorf cemetery. The funeral procession is said not to have passed through the Stubentor (in the direction of St. Marx) , but through the Kärntner Tor in the direction of the Matzleinsdorfer Friedhof; the information originally valid for this cemetery about the location of the grave is said to have been applied later to the St. Marx cemetery. Mozart is also said to have been laid out in Schikaneder's Freihausheater . At that time the St. Marxer Friedhof was outside the city, Mozart was not a citizen of the city of Vienna.
  • Nobody would have accompanied Mozart's funeral procession to his grave:
It is true that the funeral procession was not accompanied by friends and relatives to the Sankt Marxer Friedhof. It is wrong that this happened because of the weather conditions. Rather, it is correct that at that time in Vienna accompanying the corpse to the actual grave, which in Mozart's case was four kilometers away, was unusual. With the blessing in St. Stephen's Cathedral, the funeral ceremonies planned at that time came to an end.
  • Mozart's body would have been reburied:
It was not until 17 years after Mozart's death that his wife Constanze tried to find her husband's grave. But since there was no cross or designation of this grave, one had to rely on highly uncertain memories of the cemetery employees. It is therefore not possible to state where Mozart was buried.
  • The real skull of Mozart is kept at the International Mozarteum Foundation (ISM) in Salzburg:
For the first time, experts were able to carry out a DNA analysis and a chemical test on the skull. The reference material required for the DNA analysis came from skeletons that had been recovered from the Mozart family grave in the St. Sebastian cemetery in Salzburg. Leopold Mozart is not buried in this grave, but in the communal crypt. The result published in January 2006 therefore provided no evidence of the authenticity of the skull due to the lack of comparative material. In April 1991, Walther Brauneis , who had been asked by the ISM to deal with the historical facts, found the manuscript with the title “Mozart's skull is found” (1868) in the “Vorordinate Nachlass von Ludwig August Frankl ” in the Vienna library . Frankl's description of the so-called Mozart skull was known, but it was not known that Hyrtl had attested Frankl's text. According to this, the skull differs considerably from the one kept by the ISM: seven teeth are named for the “Frankl / Hyrtl skull”, whereas the skull in the ISM has eleven teeth. This proves that the skull kept in the ISM cannot be identical to the “Frankl / Hyrtl skull”.

Medical speculation

The Danish neurologist and psychiatrist Rasmus Fog speculated in 1985 about a possible illness of Mozart with Tourette's syndrome . In 2005, the Irish professor of child and adolescent psychiatry Michael Fitzgerald examined the question of whether Mozart had Asperger's Syndrome in his publication The Genesis of Artistic Creativity . Based on the biographical material, he believes it is entirely possible. Because of Mozart's hyperactivity and impulsiveness, a diagnosis of ADHD could also be correct.

The first legends about the causes of death began to circulate shortly after Mozart's death. For example, mercury poisoning or motives for murder of his competitor Antonio Salieri are alleged.

Mozart's first name

Baptism entry from January 28, 1756

On January 28, 1756 - one day after his birth - Mozart was baptized with the name Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (different spelling of his first names: Joannes Chrisostomus Wolfgang Gottlieb .) The first and last of the given names refer to the godfather Joannes Theophilus Pergmayr, Senator et Mercator Civicus , the first two names at the same time on the saint of the day Johannes Chrysostomos , the middle first name Wolfgang on Mozart's grandfather Wolfgang Nicolaus Pertl. Mozart later translated the Greek Theophilus (“ Gottlieb ”) into its French equivalent Amadé or (rarely) Latinized Amadeus .

His nickname was Wolfgang all his life . During his travels in Italy he often called himself Wolfgango Amadeo Mozart. As an adult, he usually signed as Wolfgang Amadé Mozart, if not just as Wolfgang Mozart at all (for example, he signed the attendance list of the Viennese Masonic lodge Zur Charity ). He called himself Amadeus in three of his letters in jest. The form of the name Wolfgang Amadeus only appeared officially once during Mozart's lifetime, namely in the spring of 1787 in an official letter from the Lower Austrian Lieutenancy. The first posthumous official mention of Mozart with the Latinized first name is the entry in the death examination protocol of the Viennese magistrate on December 5, 1791.

Mozart's letters

Starting in his adolescence, Mozart wrote numerous letters during his life, which made it possible to get to know his personality and his musical views and working methods and thus provide an important basis for research into Mozart's life and work. The most important correspondent by letter was Mozart's father Leopold Mozart.

Mozart's travels

Mozart spent a total of ten years, almost a third of his life, on journeys that took him to ten countries in what is now Europe. The carriage rides alone - a trip from Salzburg to Vienna, for example, took about six days, depending on the season and the weather - were a physical challenge at the time. In addition, the Mozarts often traveled in winter. On December 29, 1762, Leopold Mozart wrote about the trip from Preßburg to Vienna to Lorenz Hagenauer, the landlord and simultaneous patron of the Mozarts in Salzburg:

“[…] We did not travel very comfortably that day, because the path was cut, but indescribably button-free and full of deep pits and bumps; den̄ the Hungarians make no way. If I hadn't had to buy a wagon in Pressburg that was well hung, we would certainly have brought home a few fewer ribs. I had to buy the car if I wanted otherwise, that we should come to Vienna in good health. In the whole of Presburg there was no four-seater closed wagon to be found with all country coaches. A coach driver had this car - the coach drivers are not allowed to drive overland, recorded with 2 horses only for several hours. "

How uncomfortable he experienced a trip from Salzburg to Munich, Wolfgang Amadeus describes in a letter to his father on November 8, 1780:

“My arrival was happy and cheerful! - happy because nothing adverse happened to us on the journey, and happy because we could hardly wait for the moment to get to the place and the end, because of the short but very arduous journey; - because, I assure you that none of us was able to sleep for just a minute through the night - this car pushes your soul out! - and the seats! - hard as stone! - From Wasserburg, I actually believed that I would not be able to bring my bottom all the way to Munich! - it was very difficult - and I guess I was fiery - I drove two whole posts with my hands on the cushion and keeping my buttocks in the air - but enough of that, that's already over! - but it will be my rule to go on foot rather than drive in a mail van. "

Mozart's instruments

Although some of Mozart's early keyboard works were written for harpsichord, in his early years he also got to know fortepiani by the Regensburg piano maker Franz Jakob Späth . Later, when Mozart visited Augsburg, he was very impressed by the Fortepiani by Johann Andreas Stein , as he told his father Leopold in a letter. On October 22, 1777 Mozart performed his 7th Piano Concerto (KV 242) for the first time on instruments provided by Stein. The Augsburg cathedral organist Demmler played the first, Mozart the second and Stein the third. In 1783 Mozart bought a fortepiano from Walter in Vienna . In a letter, Leopold Mozart confirms his son's close bond with his Walter fortepiano: “It is impossible to describe the hectic pace. Your brother's piano has been brought from his home to the theater or someone else's home at least twelve times. "

Mozart's nationality

This map from 1715 shows the Archbishopric Salzburg in pink

The question of the composer's citizenship or national team is answered differently in the history of reception. Since the late 14th century, Salzburg had been the capital of the essentially independent archbishopric of Salzburg , which was spiritually subordinate to the Holy See in Rome, and secularly as part of the Bavarian Empire to the Roman-German Emperor (during Mozart's lifetime it was Franz I , 1745–1765 –1790 Joseph II and 1790–1792 Leopold II ), but not the “Austrian” Habsburg monarchy . Mozart was born in the archbishopric as a subject of the prince-archbishops and remained so throughout his life. Mozart's nationality could therefore be described as "(Prince Archbishop) Salzburg (er) isch", but this description of his country team is less common. The widely used Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes Mozart as an Austrian composer. The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography (2003), the Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music (Bourne and Kennedy 2004) and the NPR Listener's Encyclopedia of Classical Music (Libbey, 2006) also refer to it as such. The Encyclopædia Britannica provides two different results: The short, anonymous version in Micropedia describes him as an Austrian composer; the main article in Macropedia , written by HC Robbins Landon , does not deal with his nationality. In earlier sources, Mozart is often referred to as a German, especially before the founding of today's modern Austrian nation-state. A London newspaper reported on the composer's death in 1791. There he is (English: as "the celebrated German composer" the celebrated German composer ), respectively. In Lieber et al. (1832, p. 78), Mozart is presented as "the great German composer". Ferris (1891) included Mozart - alongside Frédéric Chopin , Franz Schubert and Joseph Haydn , among others - in his book The Great German Composers . Other designations than German can be found in Kerst (1906, p. 3), Mathews and Liebling (1896), and MacKey and Haywood (1909); much later also with Hermand and Steakley (1981).

Some sources changed their assignments of Mozart to today's states in the course of time. Grove did not always refer to Mozart as an "Austrian"; this first appeared in the first edition of New Grove in 1980. It was similar with Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians . Originally they did not mention Mozart's country team. The word "Austrian" was first mentioned in the opening sentence in the eighth edition of 1992 and has been retained ever since. The Encyclopædia Britannica , which today calls him "Austrian", previously described him as a German composer.

Mozart himself did not comment on the question of his “citizenship” in the modern sense in his posthumous writings, but calls himself Teutscher , for example in letters to his father, e. B. of May 29, 1778, in which it says: “But what gives me the most uplifting and good courage is that I am an honest German” - and of September 11, 1778, in which he writes: “I am just sorry that I'm not staying here to show him that I don't need him - and that I can do as much as his Piccini - although I'm only a German. ”In a letter of August 17, 1782 he writes: Will Germany, my beloved fatherland, of which I am (as you know) proud, does not accept me, so in God's name France or England must again get rich by one more skilled German - and that to the shame of the German nation.

From this it becomes evident that for him Teutschland as a designation for the German-speaking areas of Central Europe and the Teutsche Nation (each in the spelling customary in Upper Germany at the time) as a collective of German-speaking people living there were conceptual reality, without the nation-state concept of our time being applied to it could find: In his time there was a legal entity named “Germany” just as little as one named “Italy”, of which he writes elsewhere. What did exist, however, was the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , which included present-day Germany and Austria. At the time the above statement was made, he wrote music for its emperor in Vienna, after he had moved from Salzburg the year before and got married. This thus forms the context for understanding the statement about one's self-location.

progeny

  • Raimund Leopold Mozart (born June 17, 1783 in Vienna; † August 19, 1783 ibid)
  • Carl Thomas Mozart (born September 21, 1784 in Vienna, † October 31, 1858 in Milan )
  • Johann Thomas Leopold Mozart (born October 18, 1786 in Vienna; † November 15, 1786 ibid)
  • Theresia Maria Anna Mozart (* December 27, 1787 in Vienna; † June 29, 1788 ibid)
  • Anna Maria Mozart (born November 16, 1789 in Vienna; † November 16, 1789 ibid)
  • Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (born July 26, 1791 in Vienna, † July 29, 1844 in Karlsbad )

His two childhood survivors died childless. There are therefore no more direct descendants of Mozart.

Memory of Mozart

overview

The memory of Wolfgang A. Mozart and the preoccupation with his work is maintained today through biographies, musicological research, radio and television broadcasts, symposia and, in particular, through performances of his compositions in opera houses and concert halls. Since the 19th century - especially in Austria and Germany - Mozart years have been celebrated in all round commemorative years .

The Republic of Austria immortalized Mozart on coins or banknotes several times, for example on the 5000 Schilling banknote from 1989 and the Austrian 1 euro coin. In 2006, in honor of his 250th birthday, the Federal Republic of Germany issued a 10 euro silver coin with the image of Wolfgang A. Mozart. In this way, according to the official justification, the personality of the composer should be preserved for posterity as a great event “from German culture and history”. In addition, Deutsche Post AG issued a special stamp on the same occasion.

There are also a number of merchandising items (e.g. Mozart balls ).

For places from his biography, Mozart's name means an important economic factor in the field of international city ​​tourism . His birthplace Salzburg (Mozart monument on Mozartplatz ), Vienna as his long-term residence (Mozart statue in the Burggarten ) and the city of Augsburg as the birthplace of his famous father Leopold Mozart play a special role . Prague was one of Mozart's favorite venues. That is why it is very popular here too. A bust was erected in the Walhalla in his honor .

In several cities there are Mozart memorials that take on the memory of the composer in a special way. The same applies to Mozart societies and clubs . The first monument to the composer, a pavilion adorned with frescoes called Mozart's temple , was erected by a private admirer in Graz in spring 1792 .

In honor of Mozart, an asteroid discovered in 1924 was named (1034) Mozartia and a mineral discovered in 1991 was named Mozartite . In addition, the Mozart Piedmont Glacier off the west coast of the Antarctic Alexander I Island bears his name. The plant genus Mozartia Urb. from the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) is named after him.

Festivals

Numerous festivals deal mainly with Mozart's works. As early as the 19th century, a number of Mozart festivals took place in his hometown. The most important contemporary festivals include (the date of foundation in brackets):

 

A characteristic of almost all of these festivals is that Mozart represents their central axis, but mostly compositions by other composers are also performed. There are also regular Mozart festivals in Bath , Texas and Vermont .

Salzburg

Mozart monument on Mozartplatz in Salzburg

In the Getreidegasse , the former taught International Mozart Foundation (which in 1870 lasted until 1879) in the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (→ Hagenauer House ) is a museum. Another Mozart Museum is located in the apartment that the Mozart family moved into in 1773 in the Tanzmeisterhaus on Makartplatz . In 2006 the rooms were redesigned by the director and designer Robert Wilson . Ludwig Schwanthaler's Mozart monument on Mozartplatz faces the Old Residence and Cathedral and was unveiled in 1842. The planning and financing of the project shows how much Mozart was not only understood as a local patriotic Austrian, but also as a cross-class property of all Germans: The plans were mainly made up of non-Salzburgers, and among the financial sponsors you can find Emperor Ferdinand I. the kings of Prussia and Bavaria, the nobility as well as civil music associations and prominent musicians.
A bronze statue of Mozart is on the Kapuzinerberg . This was unveiled on the occasion of the First International Mozart Festival in 1877, a forerunner of the Salzburg Festival , and was created by Edmund Hellmer . The Magic Flute House , in which Mozart allegedly composed The Magic Flute , was also placed behind the statue. The operator of these campaigns was the Mozart enthusiast Johann Evangelist Engl (1835–1925), to whom the foundation of the Mozarteum Foundation goes back and who also had the Mozart's “show grave” built. The Mozart sculpture "
Mozart - A Hommage " by Markus Lüpertz , which was set up in 2005 on Ursulinenplatz in front of the Markuskirche , led to controversy for some time.

Mozart's birthplace in Salzburg
Great hall of the Mozarteum
House for Mozart

The International Mozarteum Foundation has its headquarters in Salzburg. It was founded in 1880 by the citizens of Salzburg and emerged from the Cathedral Music Association and Mozarteum , which was established in 1841 . The foundation's collection of autographs contains around 190 original letters by Mozart, and the Bibliotheca Mozartiana , with around 35,000 titles, is the most extensive relevant library in the world. The foundation also has a wealth of images, including several authentic Mozart portraits. The sound and film collection has around 18,000 audio tracks (including recordings of Mozart performances that are otherwise inaccessible) and around 1,800 video productions (feature films, television productions, opera recordings, documentaries ). The foundation also manages the two Mozart museums in Salzburg. The Central Institute for Mozart Research, founded in 1931 and now known as the Academy for Mozart Research , is anchored in the foundation's statutes . It organizes scientific conferences at regular intervals, which are reported on in the Mozart Yearbook . All areas of Mozart research are taken into account, but since 1954 the central issue has been the publication of the New Mozart Edition , the historical-critical edition of Mozart's works.

The foundation also owns the Mozarteum concert building with two halls. The Great Hall of the Mozarteum is not only used for Salzburg concerts, but is also regularly used by the Salzburg Festival - with matinees, recitals, solo concerts and orchestral concerts. Every year in January, the Foundation has been organizing the Mozart Week since 1956 , in which renowned orchestras (such as the Vienna Philharmonic or the Mahler Chamber Orchestra ) and interpreters ( Nikolaus Harnoncourt , Riccardo Muti, etc.) perform Mozart's works, also in the Great Hall of the Mozarteum.

The Mozarteum Public Music School was also founded in 1880, which eventually became the Mozarteum University . There training courses for string, wind, plucked and percussion instruments as well as training for acting are offered. The Mozarteum University is now located in the Neustadt in the Old Borromeo next to the Mirabell Gardens . The two Mozart orchestras in Salzburg initially developed from students at this institution :

The Salzburg Mozarteum Orchestra has existed since 1908 (currently with 91 musicians), which today, as the orchestra of the City and State of Salzburg, is responsible for the opera and operettas of the Salzburg State Theater as well as taking on important tasks at the Salzburg Festival: it has played Mozart's Great every year since 1950 Mass in C minor (KV 427) in the collegiate church of St. Peter , participates in opera productions , the Mozart matinees on Sunday mornings, serenades , orchestral concerts and festive events. The orchestra has its roots in the "Dommusikverein und Mozarteum" founded in 1841 and was brought to life with the help of Constanze Mozart .

The second Salzburg Mozart Orchestra is the Camerata Salzburg , which was founded in 1952 by Bernhard Paumgartner as the Camerata Academica of the Mozarteum Salzburg from teachers and students from the Mozarteum University. The aim of the Camerata was and is primarily to care for Mozart. Under her chief conductor Sándor Végh (1978–1997) she took over the Mozart matinees at the Salzburg Festival for many years and has since made guest appearances worldwide under the direction of well-known conductors such as Heinz Holliger , Kent Nagano , Trevor Pinnock and Franz Welser-Möst .

From the Mozart festivals of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Salzburg Festival finally developed from 1920 onwards, and Mozart has remained at its center since it was founded. Analogous to Bayreuth, which performs the works of Richard Wagner every year , the Salzburg genius loci should be honored every summer in exemplary performances. Around half of all opera productions at the Festival are dedicated to Mozart operas, the first opera performance at the Festival was Don Giovanni on August 14, 1922, conducted by Richard Strauss and sung by Claire Born , Gertrud Kappel , Lotte Schöne and Alfred Jerger , Viktor Madin , Franz Markhoff , Richard Mayr , Richard Tauber .

The Haus für Mozart in Hofstallgasse has been one of the venues for the Salzburg Festival since 2006 . The Great Winter Riding School originally stood here , which was adapted as a festival theater in 1925 for Max Reinhardt's drama productions . From 1927 onwards, operas - mostly Mozart's - were played every summer in this house, which was eventually rebuilt several times. On the occasion of the upcoming 250th birthday of Mozart, the Festspielhaus was completely renovated between 2003 and 2006 and was given the new name. The opening took place on July 26, 2006 with a new production of Le nozze di Figaro . In this Mozart year , all of Mozart's other stage works were shown for the first time as part of the festival ( Mozart 22 project , see opera chronology of the Salzburg Festival ).

Vienna

Mozart monument in Vienna, around 1900

One of Mozart's apartments in Vienna has been preserved, but without furniture that has been lost; it has been converted into a museum: Domgasse 5, right behind St. Stephen's Cathedral . The original memorial was extended by two floors some time ago and reopened as Mozarthaus Vienna in January 2006 . Mozart's life and time are explained to the visitor through, in some cases, elaborate multimedia presentations. Commemorative plaques are attached to numerous other houses in which Mozart lived or performed.

The Mozart monument , designed by architect Karl König and sculptor Viktor Tilgner in 1896, stood on Albertinaplatz . After the Second World War , it was transferred to the Burggarten in 1953 . The sculptures are made of Lasa marble ( Vinschgau , South Tyrol), the steps of the base are made of dark diorite . The balustrades are made of coarse Marble from Sterzing in South Tyrol, two pillars that were added during the re-erection were made of St. Margarethen sand-lime brick .

In 1862 in Vienna- Wieden (4th district) Mozartgasse was named after the composer, in 1899 Mozartplatz ; In 1905 the Mozart fountain was built there. In January 2006, the Theater an der Wien , which in the previous decades had mainly housed musical productions, was rededicated again to an opera house on the occasion of the Mozart anniversary year. Mozart is still a focus of the programming of Vienna's New Opera House .

augsburg

The Mozart stele erected in Augsburg in 1991

In the Mozart House in the northern old town of Augsburg there is a memorial to the history of the Mozart family. His father Leopold was born in this house . A plaque on the house of the Augsburg Fuggerei (Mittelgasse 14) also commemorates his great-grandfather, the master mason Franz Mozart (1649–1694), who lived and died here.

The German Mozart Society (DMG), based in Augsburg, “is dedicated to ... the practical and scientific maintenance of the work of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart, research into the life and work of the master and his family and the preservation and promotion of the Mozart memorials in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially the house where Leopold Mozart was born in Augsburg ”.

Mannheim

Mozart is also widely thought in Mannheim, where he not only spent 176 days of his life during four stays, but also composed a number of important works, conducted a performance of Le nozze di Figaro in 1790 and, during his first stay in 1777, went to Aloisia Weber in love as well as her sister Constanze , who later became his wife, got to know. The “ Mannheim School ” at that time was of European standing in terms of music history, but ultimately Mozart was unable to succeed there professionally. There are memorial plaques at numerous places where the composer lived and worked, for example at the castle , the Jesuit church and the Bretzenheim palace .

The Villa Bertramka in Prague

Prague

A Mozart museum was set up in the so-called Vila Bertramka in the Smíchov district of Prague in 1956 . During Mozart's lifetime, the building was located on the other side of the city wall and served the family of the composer Franz Xaver Duschk as an estate. It belonged to the showerk's wife, the singer Josepha showerk , the granddaughter of Ignatz Anton von Weiser , the Salzburg mayor and lyricist Mozart. Mozart lived here in October 1787 (completion and world premiere of Don Giovanni ) and from the end of August to the beginning of September 1791 (preparation and world premiere of La clemenza di Tito ).

music

Joseph Haydn paid tribute to Mozart's music when he assured Leopold Mozart after hearing the string quartets dedicated to him by Mozart for the first time in 1785:

"[...] I tell you before God, as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer I know personally and by name: he has taste, and about it the greatest science of composition."

Mozart himself confessed in a letter to his father dated February 7, 1778:

"Because, as you know, i can pretty much accept and imitate all types and styles of compostitions."

It is a verifiable peculiarity of Mozart that during all of his compositional periods he absorbed music of the most varied of styles and drew a variety of stimuli from it. His compositional style is significantly influenced by southern German and Italian stylistic elements from the second half of the 18th century. The earliest influences come from his father and the Salzburg local composers. The dispute over the two “Lambacher” symphonies, for which it was long unclear which was by Leopold Mozart and which by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, shows how much Mozart initially remained attached to his surroundings.

During his travels to Italy he got to know the style of opera there, which had a strong influence on him and was also taught to him in London by Johann Christian Bach . The study of counterpoint had a great influence - especially on his later work - first through composition lessons with Padre Martini in Italy, later in Vienna through the practical examination of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Handel , which he studied with Gottfried van Swieten got to know. Mozart to his father on March 30, 1783: “Because we love to talk to all sorts of masters; - with old and with modern ”.

The following points can be mentioned as typical of Mozart's compositional work:

  • Mozart endowed the piano concerto genre with symphonic qualities and brought it to perfection.
  • More than his contemporaries, Mozart wrote a very differentiated and demanding orchestral setting; the winds in particular achieved a previously unknown independence.
  • As with Joseph Haydn, this is accompanied by an increase in the length and scope of the individual works (most clearly seen in the symphonies).
  • Mozart integrated contrapuntal compositional techniques into his compositions and merged the classic homophonic and baroque polyphonic styles (finale of the string quartet KV 387, finale of the “Jupiter” symphony KV 551).
  • His works are characterized by three compositional methods that characterize the Viennese Classic , which Mozart developed together with Joseph Haydn and which Beethoven developed further: obligatory accompaniment , openwork style and motivic-thematic work .
  • Especially in his late operas, Mozart created a convincing psychological-dramaturgical character drawing.
  • In his music, Mozart succeeded in combining the apparently easy and catchy with the musically difficult and demanding.
  • Mozart composed "Music for all people [...] except for long ears not". (Mozart's letter of December 16, 1780)

All in all, thanks to his outstanding abilities, Mozart created music of great complexity and a significant level of style from the styles and composition techniques he found. Beethoven and the composers of the 19th century were able to build on this.

Interpretation style

Mozart's piano playing was praised and valued everywhere. It must be remembered that he did not play the modern piano , but the fortepiano and occasionally the harpsichord .

As a basic articulation, Mozart used the non legato common at the time . This is attested by Ludwig van Beethoven, who heard him several times in concerts, and reproduced by Carl Czerny . Accordingly, Mozart had "a fine, but chopped-up game, not a ligato."

factories

Mozart's works are usually counted according to their sorting in the Köchel Index (KV), which tries to follow the chronological order in which they were created.

Operas

year title KV
1767 The obligation of the first commandment KV 35
1767 Apollo et Hyacinthus KV 38
1768 Bastien and Bastienne KV 50
1768 La finta semplice KV 51
1770 Mitridate, re di Ponto KV 87
1771 Ascanio in Alba KV 111
1771 Il sogno di Scipione KV 126
1772 Lucio Silla KV 135
1775 La finta giardiniera / The gardener out of love KV 196
1775 Il re pastore KV 208
1780 Zaide (fragment) KV 344
1781 Idomeneo KV 366
1782 The abduction from the Seraglio KV 384
1783 L'oca del Cairo (fragment) KV 422
1783 Lo sposo deluso ossia La rivalità di tre donne per un solo amante (fragment) KV 430
1786 The director of the theater KV 486
1786 Le nozze di Figaro KV 492
1787 Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni KV 527
1790 So fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti KV 588
1791 The Magic Flute KV 620
1791 La clemenza di Tito KV 621

A total of 21 operas.

Church music

17 fairs , including

See the article: List of Mozart's Church Music Works

Excerpt from the autograph score of the Requiem (KV 626)

Orchestral works

Symphonies

See the list of Mozart's symphonies

Piano concerts

See list of Mozart's piano concertos

Works for string instruments and orchestra

See also violin concertos (Mozart)

  • 1773 - Violin Concerto No. 1 in B flat major (KV 207)
  • 1774 - Concertone for 2 violins in C major (KV 190 / 186E)
  • 1775 - Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major (KV 211)
  • 1775 - Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major (KV 216)
  • 1775 - Violin Concerto No. 4 in D major (KV 218)
  • 1775 - Violin Concerto No. 5 in A major (KV 219)
  • 1776 - Adagio in E major (KV 261)
  • 1776 - Rondo concertante for violin and orchestra in B flat major (KV 269 / 261a)
  • 1778 - Concerto for Violin and Piano in D major (KV315f)
  • 1779 - Sinfonia concertante for violin and viola in E flat major (KV 364 / 320d)
  • 1779 - Sinfonia concertante for violin, viola and cello in A major (KV 320e)
  • 1781 - Rondo in C major (KV 373)

A total of 12 works.

Works for wind instruments and orchestra

  • 1774 - Bassoon Concerto in B flat major (KV 191 / 186e)
  • 1777 - Oboe Concerto in C major KV 314
  • 1778 - Sinfonia concertante for flute, oboe, horn and bassoon in E flat major (KV 297B), handed down as a version for oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon (KV 297b)
  • 1791 - Clarinet Concerto in A major (KV 622)

Flute concerts and movements

Horn concerts and movements

  • 1781 - Rondo for horn and orchestra in E flat major (KV 371)
  • 1791 - Horn Concerto in D major (KV 412/514 / 386b)
  • 1783 - Horn Concerto in E flat major (KV 417)
  • 1786 - Horn Concerto in E flat major (KV 495)
  • 1787 - Horn Concerto in E flat major (KV 447)

A total of 13 works.

Further orchestral works

Serenades

Notturni

  • 1778 - Notturno for four orchestras in D major (KV 286)

Divertimenti

  • 1772 - Divertimento in D major (KV 131)
  • 1772 - Divertimento in D major (KV 136/125 a) - "Salzburg Symphony No. 1"
  • 1772 - Divertimento in B flat major (KV 137/125 b) - "Salzburg Symphony No. 2"
  • 1772 - Divertimento in F major (KV 138/125 c) - "Salzburg Symphony No. 3"
  • 1783–85 - Divertimenti No. 1 to 5 in B flat major (KV 229 / 439b)

Marches

  • 1769 - March in D major (KV 62)
  • 1773 - March in D major (KV 167b)
  • 1774 - March in D major (KV 189c)
  • 1775 - March in D major (KV 213b)
  • 1776 - March in D major (KV 249)
  • 1779 - March in D major (KV 320a No. 1)
  • 1779 - March in D major (KV 320a No. 2)

Cassations

  • 1769 - Cassation in B flat major (KV 62a)
  • 1769 - Cassation in G major (KV 63) (final music)

A total of 23 works.

Chamber music

Piano music

See the list of Mozart's piano music works

Organ works

Although Mozart wrote in a letter to his father dated October 17, 1777 that the organ was his passion and admitted that "The organ is the king of all instruments in my eyes and ears", he composed only a few organ works.

  • Two small fugues in G major and D major, KV 154a, probably composed in 1772/1773
  • Fugue in G minor, KV 401, probably composed in 1773, ends as a fragment after 95 bars
  • Piece for an organ in a clock (Adagio and Allegro in F minor for an organ), KV 594, composed in 1790
  • Allegro and Andante (Fantasy in F minor) for an organ cylinder, KV 608, composed in 1791
  • Andante in F major for organ cylinder, KV 616, composed in 1791

Songs

A total of 42 works.

Canons

Mozart wrote textual and untextured canons. Among the texted works are works with ecclesiastical content:

  • Kyrie (1770; KV 89)
  • Alleluia (1788; KV 553) - the initial motif comes from the Alleluia intonation of the Holy Saturday liturgy
  • Ave Maria (1788; KV 554)

But there are also canons with sometimes quite crude content, which are reminiscent of Mozart's Bäsle letters . In many song books the original text has been replaced by a new, "defused" one. For example:

  • Kiss my ass (1782; KV 382c)
  • Lick my ass fine, pretty clean (KV 382d; attributed to Mozart, composition by Wenzel Trnka )
  • Bona nox! bist arechta Ox (1788; KV 561)
  • Oh, du eselhafter Martin / Oh, du eselhafter Peierl (1788; KV 560b / 560a) - the two text versions of this canon refer to Mozart's drinking and bowling friends Philip ("Liperl") Jacob Martin and Johann Nepomuk Peierl, with whom he likes played rough jokes.

The four-part canon KV Anh. 191 (1788; 562c) is set for two violins, viola and bass.

Recordings

  • Paul Badura-Skoda . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. "Works for piano". Anton Walter hammer piano
  • András ship . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. "Piano works". Mozart's piano, Salzburg
  • Linda Nicholson. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. "Sonatas for Fortepiano". Anton Walter, fortepiano
  • Nikolaus Harnoncourt , Rudolf Buchbinder . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. "Piano Concerti Nos. 23 & 25". Hammerklavier after Walter by Paul McNulty
  • Viviana Sofronitsky . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 11CD box. "The first world complete works for piano and orchestra performed on original instruments". Orchestra: Musicae Antiquae Collegium Varsoviense "Pro Musica Camerata". Hammerklavier after Walter by Paul McNulty

reception

literature

Stage works

Fiction

The character of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was used in many novels and stories, including in

  • Hermann Hesse : The Steppenwolf. Frankfurt 1974, ISBN 3-518-36675-0 (Mozart as the representative of the "immortals" explains to the protagonist in an epistemological lecture about the eternal difference between ideal and reality.)
  • Rotraut Hinderks-Kutscher : Donnerblitzbub Wolfgang Amadeus. Stuttgart 1955, ISBN 3-423-07028-5 (children's and young people's book.)
  • Rotraut Hinderks-Kutscher: Immortal Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The years in Vienna, Franckh'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung © 1959.
  • ETA Hoffmann : Don Juan in fantasy pieces in Callot's manner. 1814 (A traveling enthusiast (ETA Hoffmann?) Is visited by Donna Anna in the box during a Don Juan performance and mistaken for WA Mozart.)
  • Jörg G. Kastner: Mozart magic . Munich 2001, ISBN 3-471-79456-5 (plays mainly during Mozart's last months until shortly after his death)
  • Eduard Mörike : Mozart on the trip to Prague. Frankfurt 2005, ISBN 3-458-34827-1 (On the journey to the world premiere of Don Giovanni in Prague, Mozart found himself in the castle of Count von Schinzberg. His niece Eugenie in particular sensed Mozart's genius, but also the inevitability of his imminent death and that he will consume himself "quickly and inexorably in his own embers".)
  • Wolf Wondratschek : Mozart's hairdresser. DTV TB 2004, ISBN 3-423-13186-1 (No one leaves Mozart's hairdresser unchanged.)
  • Eva Baronsky : Mr. Mozart is waking up. Aufbau Verlag 2006, ISBN 3-351-03272-2 (The fictional story is told of how Mozart would have fared if he had woken up after his death in 1791 in Vienna in 2006.)

Works of art

Adi Holzer : Mozart Engel (2006)
  • In 2006, Adi Holzer dedicated his artist portfolio to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the Mozart Suite . Regarding the screen print Mozart Engel contained therein , he writes: “The Mozart angel stands for everything that this god-blessed composer has created, for the entire power of his music, especially for his sacred works. A modest but deeply felt 'Thank you Mozart!' "

Movies

literature

Catalog raisonnés

Biographical sources

  • Ludwig Nohl (ed.): Mozart according to the descriptions of his contemporaries . Leipzig 1880
  • Albert Leitzmann (ed.): Mozart's personality. Judgments of contemporaries . Leipzig 1914
  • Arthur Schurig (Ed.): Leopold Mozart. Travel records 1763–1771. Dresden 1920
  • Arthur Schurig (Ed.): Konstanze Mozart. Letters, records, documents. Dresden 1922.
  • Otto Erich Deutsch (Ed.): Mozart. The documents of his life . 2nd Edition. Kassel 1961
  • Wilhelm A. Bauer, Otto Erich Deutsch (Ed.): Letters and records. Complete edition . 7 volumes. Kassel et al. 1962 ff.
  • Juliane Vogel (Ed.): The Bäsle letters . Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-15-008925-5 .
  • Ulrich Konrad (Ed.): Letters and notes. Complete edition . Extended edition with an introduction and additions. 8 volumes. Bärenreiter, Kassel and others and dtv, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-59076-9 .
  • Stefan Kunze (Ed.): Letters . Reclam, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-15-010574-9 .
  • Silke Leopold (Ed.): Good morning, dear little girl! Mozart's letters to Constanze . Bärenreiter, Kassel and others 2005, ISBN 3-7618-1814-9 .
  • Paul Ridder : The Myth of Mozart. A previously unknown portrait in his gallery. In: The Tonkunst. Vol. 5 (2011), pp. 63-65.
  • Klaus Martin Kopitz : “You knew Mozart?” Unknown and forgotten memories of Beethoven , Haydn, Hummel and other contemporaries of Mozart. In: Mozart Studies. Volume 20 (2011), ISSN  0942-5217 , ISBN 978-3-86296-025-5 , pp. 269-309.

Biographies and overall interpretations

Monographs

Audio books

Exhibitions

Web links

Wikisource: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Catalogs of works, sheet music, documents

Audio samples

Historical biographical texts

Societies

Individual references and comments

  1. AES , Salzburg-Dompfarre, Taufbuch TFBIX / 2 1756–1814, p. 3. , accessed on May 20, 2021.
  2. Pfarre St. Stephan , Death Book 03–36, 1789–1796, p. 173. , accessed on May 20, 2021.
  3. See Mozart's nationality.
  4. a b Leopold Mozart's letter of February 9, 1756 to Johann Jakob Lotter, with the name parts underlined as follows and separated by commas: Joan̄es Chrisostomus , Wolfgang , Gottlieb (Augsburg city archive; a facsimile of it in Mozart's birthplace)
  5. ^ A b Maria Anna (Nannerl) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as children . Picture and letter quotation from: Mozart. Images and sounds. Catalog of the Salzburg State Exhibition at Kleßheim Palace in Salzburg from March 23 to November 3, 1991.
  6. ^ Leopold Mozart enrolled at the University of Salzburg on December 7, 1737. In: Salzburg University Archives ubs.sbg.ac.at
  7. The university was founded and operated by 33 confederate southern German Benedictine monasteries. In: Peter Putzer: The Alma Mater Benedictina as a baroque phenomenon . On the history of the Salzburg Benedictine University. In: Baroque spirit and space. The Salzburg Benedictine University, ed. by Christian Rohr, Salzburg 2003, p. 34.
  8. His first violin was made by violin maker Andreas Ferdinand Mayr , who had his workshop in the violin maker's house , Steingasse 25. Compare: Friedrich Breitinger / Kurt Weinkammer / Gerda Dohle: craftsmen, brewers, landlords and traders . Salzburg's commercial economy during Mozart's time, Salzburg 2009, p. 242. There is also a second violin that was played by Mozart, but only in adulthood, the so-called Costa violin, which was also given to the Mozarteum Foundation in 2013, see: Musik- Mozarteum lover gives Mozart's violin as a present . Die Presse (Vienna), November 14, 2013
  9. Here they were accepted by the cathedral dean Leopold Anton von Podstatzky-Prusinowitz .
  10. ^ R. Copyz and AC Lehmann: Musicological Reports on Early 20th-Century Musical Prodigies: The Beginnings of an Objective Assessment. ; In G. McPherson (Ed.): Musical Prodigies: Interpretations from Psychology, Education, Musicology and Ethnomusicology. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 169-184.
  11. ^ Wolfgang Mozart: Mozart: A Life in Letters . Penguin UK, 2006, ISBN 978-0-14-144146-7 ( google.co.uk [accessed August 12, 2021]).
  12. ^ G. Banat: The Chevalier de Saint-Georges: Virtuoso of the Sword and the Bow. 2006, p. 171. online ; Wolfgang Hildesheimer : Mozart 1980, p. 72.
  13. Roswin Finkenzeller: We are Mozart. The god's favorite as a Bavarian country child. In: aviso. Journal for Science and Art in Bavaria, 2008, pp. 122–125.
  14. The final movement of the Jupiter Symphony already contains an essentially Baroque element with a fugue .
  15. ^ Dompfarre St. Stephan, Vienna: Matriken, Trauungsbuch 02-074, 271. In: Matricula Online. Retrieved April 6, 2021 .
  16. ^ Günther G. Bauer: Mozart and Constanze 1783 on a visit to Salzburg . (Salzburg Studies, Research on History, Art and Culture, Volume 12). Salzburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-902582-05-8 .
  17. ^ Hans Schneider : The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographical overviews and an appendix Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Hans Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 179-180 .
  18. Viveca Servatius: Constanze Mozart - A biography . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht , Göttingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-205-23198-1 , p. 607 .
  19. ^ Hans Schneider: The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographical overviews and an appendix Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Hans Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 180, 183 .
  20. ^ Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner, Dieter A. Binder: International Freemason Lexicon. 5th edition. Herbig Verlag, ISBN 978-3-7766-2478-6 .
  21. Guy Wagner: Brother Mozart. 2nd Edition. Amalthea-Verlag, ISBN 3-85002-502-0 .
  22. ^ Mozart in Frankfurt am Main. (PDF; 1.7 MB) Frankfurter Bürgerstiftung , archived from the original on October 24, 2012 ; accessed on August 27, 2020 (Backhaus Kalbächer Gasse 10, section 9, p. 4).
  23. The new emperor dismissed Mozart's librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte, the Burgtheater's chief dramaturge, when he became "rebellious". His predecessor had endured such insubordination.
  24. ^ Axel W. Bauer : The pathography of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart. Possibilities and problems of a retrospective diagnosis. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 25, 2006, pp. 153-173, here: pp. 168 f.
  25. Otto Erich Deutsch, Joseph Heinz Eibl (Ed.): Mozart. The documents of his life. In addition: Addenda and Corrigenda. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1979, p. 368.
  26. ^ At that time Rauhensteingasse N ° 970 (I. District Inner City ).
  27. Mozart's death house in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
  28. ^ Axel W. Bauer: The pathography of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart. Possibilities and problems of a retrospective diagnosis. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 25, 2006, pp. 153-173, here: pp. 155 f. (Cited).
  29. Axel W. Bauer: The Pathography of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart […]. 2006, pp. 153-173, passim.
  30. Axel W. Bauer: The Pathography of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart […]. 2006, p. 153 f. Names the doctors Rudolf Virchow , Ferdinand Sauerbruch , Dieter Kerner and the mathematician Ludwig Köppen as representatives of the theory of mercury poisoning
  31. Annette Bolz: Diagnosis: Is Mozart's death finally resolved? Spiegel Online , February 18, 2000, accessed April 19, 2014 .
  32. How Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died: no poison, probably streptococci. ( Memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: pabst-publishers.de. July 20, 2015, accessed October 5, 2020.
  33. Ulrich Konrad: Wolfgang Amadé Mozart […]. 2005, p. 130.
  34. ^ Anton Neumayr: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In: Anton Neumayr: Music and medicine using the example of Viennese classicism. 4th edition. Vienna 1990, pp. 49–120, here: p. 113.
  35. Axel W. Bauer: The Pathography of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart […]. 2006, p. 153.
  36. Rudolph Angermüller, Geneviève Geffray (ed.): Florilegium pratense. Mozart, his time, his posterity. Selected essays by Rudolph Angermüller on the occasion of his 65th birthday. On behalf of the International Mozarteum Foundation Salzburg. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3258-6 , p. 33.
  37. Michael Lorenz : Mozart's Apartment on the Alsergrund . University of Vienna, June 8, 2009.
  38. A consecration in the church in 1791 was neither customary nor permitted. According to the binding ritual, the blessing was always to be carried out “at the entrance to the church”.
  39. Max Becker, Stefan Schickhaus: Chronicle picture biography Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Chronik-Verlag, Gütersloh 2005, ISBN 3-577-14369-X , p. 125.
  40. ^ Axel W. Bauer : The pathography of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart. Possibilities and problems of a retrospective diagnosis. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 25, 2006, pp. 153-173, here: p. 153.
  41. Peter Keller, Armin Kircher (ed.): Between heaven and earth. Mozart's sacred music. Salzburg Cathedral Museum, Salzburg 2006, ISBN 3-7954-1869-0 , p. 225.
  42. ^ Franz Forster: Mozart's funeral: date? Winter weather? And in which cemetery really? Two funeral procession ?. In: Viennese history sheets . Edited by the Association for the History of the City of Vienna . 71st year. Issue 4/2016. ISSN  0043-5317 ZDB -ID 2245-7 . Pp. 325-331.
  43. Oral information from Roderich Fuhrmann , Bremen
  44. ^ Gernot Gruber : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50876-6 , p. 135; and Tadeusz Krzeszowiak: Freihaustheater in Vienna. 1787-1801. Workplace of WA Mozart and E. Schikaneder. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-205-77748-9 , p. 186.
  45. The mystery of Mozart's skull is still unsolved. (No longer available online.) In: AllScienceGlobe.com. Formerly in the original ; accessed on June 9, 2019 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / allscienceglobe.com
  46. ^ Fog, Rasmus and L. Regeur: Did Mozart suffer from Tourette's syndrome? in: World congress of psychiatry. - Vienna 1985.
  47. Michael Fitzgerald: The Genesis of Artistic Creativity. London 2005, p. 157.
  48. Klaus Umbach : Genius in the poison kitchen . In: Der Spiegel . No. 35 , 2004 ( online ).
  49. Why did Mozart die so early? Kidney disease, syphilis, murder? , Report in the Ärztezeitung from January 27, 2006
  50. ^ Ulrich Konrad:  Mozart, Wolfgang. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 12 (Mercadante - Paix). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2004, ISBN 3-7618-1122-5 , Sp. 591–758 ( online edition , subscription required for full access)
  51. Michael Lorenz: Mozart's declaration of liability for Freystädtler. A chronology . Mozart Yearbook 1998, Bärenreiter, Kassel 2000, p. 12.
  52. Rudolph Angermüller: Mozart's Travels in Europe 1762–1791 . Karl Heinrich Bock, Bad Honnef 2004, ISBN 3-87066-913-6 .
  53. Ludwig Schiedermair: The letters of WA Mozart and his family . 5 volumes, Volume 4, Georg Müller, Munich / Leipzig 1914, p. 200.
  54. Ludwig Schiedermair: The letters of WA Mozart and his family . 5 volumes, Volume 2, Georg Müller, Munich / Leipzig 1914, p. 3.
  55. a b The Letter of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1769-1791). In two volumes. Vol. 1. By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Translated, from the Collection of Ludwig Nohl, by Lady Wallace. New York and Philadelphia, 1866
  56. ^ Review in Augsburgische Staats und Gelehrten Zeitung October 28, 1777
  57. Demmler [Demler, Dümmler], Johann Michael. Accessed June 10, 2021 .
  58. ^ Early Music, Volume XXV, Issue 3 , August 1997, Pages 383-400
  59. Translated from the original German in Mozart : Letters and Records, ed. Wilhelm A. Bauer and Otto Erich Deutsch (Kassel, 1963), Vol. III.
  60. For discussions on the independence of Salzburg see Beales (2006a, 31) and below.
  61. Sadie (2006, 3-4)
  62. Kraus, Andreas: History of the Upper Palatinate and the Bavarian Empire up to the end of the 18th century, ISBN 978-3-406-39453-9 , 1995, p. 226
  63. ^ Dotzauer, Winfried: Die deutscher Reichskreise (1383-1806), ISBN 978-3-515-07146-8 , 1998, p. 180
  64. ^ Rudolph Angermüller: Mozart's travels in Europe. Bock Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-87066-913-6 ( limited preview in Google book search).
  65. No sources consulted in preparing “Scholarly practice” (section below) employed this term.
  66. Mozart scholar Otto Erich Deutsch suggested that Mozart was actually not a citizen of Salzburg, but of Augsburg . Discussing Mozart's baptismal record, he writes that Mozart's father Leopold , born and raised in Augsburg, “remained a citizen of that town, so that Nannerl and Wolfgang, though born at Salzburg, were actually Augsburg citizens” (German 1965, 9). At the time Augsburg was, like Salzburg, a small independent state; ie a Free Imperial City .
  67. ^ Online version of Grove Music Online
  68. The results refer to the 1988 edition.
  69. Eisen (2007) (introduction to Niemetschek 2007)
  70. ^ Slonimsky (1984, 1992) and Kuhn (2001)
  71. in the well-known eleventh edition (1910-11); accessible on the Internet
  72. Internet source
  73. Quoted from Gernot Gruber: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. CH Beck, Munich 2005, p. 65.
  74. Quoted from Otto Jahn: WA Mozart. 2nd Edition. 1st part. Breitkopf and Härtel, Leipzig, p. 712.
  75. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymic plant names - extended edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
  76. Mozart Festival in Würzburg. Retrieved October 5, 2020 .
  77. Gernot Gruber: Mozart and posterity, Piper, Munich and Zurich, expanded new edition 1987, p. 165.
  78. See: stadt-salzburg.at , accessed on October 5, 2020.
  79. See: salzburg-rundgang.at , accessed on June 12, 2016.
  80. Robert Seemann, Herbert Summesberger: Wiener stone walking paths, the geology of the big city . Mozart monument . Verlag Christian Brandstätter, Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-85447-787-2 , p. 128.
  81. ^ The German Mozart Society - Aims.
  82. ^ International Mozarteum Foundation : Mozart Letters and Documents - Online Edition. Mozart's letter from Mannheim to his wife Constanze in Vienna on October 23, 1790. See: dme.mozarteum.at , accessed on June 12, 2016.
  83. Gerald Drebes: The "Mannheim School" - a center of pre-classical music and Mozart, in: Rhein-Neckar-Dreieck 1992, pp. 14-18. In: gerald-drebes.ch. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015 ; accessed on October 5, 2020 .
  84. ^ History of the Bertramka. Museum of WA Mozart and the Dušek couple, archived from the original on January 4, 2014 ; Retrieved August 19, 2009 .
  85. ^ Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, February 16, 1785; quoted from Marius Flothuis: Mozart's String Quartets - A musical guide. CH Beck, 1998, p. 39.
  86. ^ Wilhelm A. Bauer, Joseph Heinz Eibl, Otto Erich German : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Leopold Mozart: Letters and records. Complete edition: 1777–1779, International Mozarteum Foundation, Salzburg 1975, p. 265.
  87. Comprehensively presented for the first time in Teodor de Wyzewa and Georges de Saint-Foix: W.-A. Mozart. Sa vie musicale et son oeuvre de l'enfance a la pleine maturité […] Essai de biographie critique suivi d'un nouveau catalog chronologique de l'oeuvre complète de maitre […]. 5 volumes, Paris 1912–46 (Vol. 3–5 by Saint-Foix alone)
  88. See the report on the Mozart Symposium in memory of Wolfgang Plath (1930–1995) Augsburg, June 13 to 16, 2000 (= Mozart Yearbook 2001), publ. by Marianne Danckwardt and Wolf-Dieter Seiffert, Kassel and others. 2003, pp. 163-176 (discussion pp. 176-179).
  89. Marius Flothius describes z. B. in Mozart's piano concertos - A musical guide. CH Beck, 2008, on p. 108 the C minor concerto (KV 491) as a “symphonic concerto”.
  90. ^ Colin James Lawson: Mozart. Clarinet concerto. In: Cambridge Music Handbooks. 1996, p. 61.
  91. Uri Toeplitz: The woodwinds in Mozart's music and their relationship to the choice of key. Verlag Valentin Koerner, 1978, p. 52 ff.
  92. ^ Eva Badura-Skoda : Mozart. Piano Concerto in C minor KV 491.Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1972, p. 5.
  93. Uli Molsen: The history of piano playing in historical quotations . Balingen-Endingen, 1982, p. 46.
  94. Quoted from: Georg Nicolaus von Nissen: WA Mozart's biography. Leipzig 1828. p. 313.
  95. Source: Letter from Adi Holzer dated September 19, 2011 to his biographer Michael Gäbler.
  96. ^ After Friedrich von Schlichtegroll's Nekrolog, the second description of Mozart's life by a contemporary; this review of the book.
  97. A standard work. Mozart's mature style is presented as a synthesis of what contemporaries called “gallant” and “learned”. The work is one of the most well-founded and most accurate of the biographies about Mozart that appeared in the 20th century.
  98. Elias devotes himself primarily to the socialization of Mozart, his relationship with his employer and his father, his emancipation in Vienna and his failure as a freelance composer.
  99. Life and work, presented and interpreted very personally, with intensive recourse to psychoanalysis . Hildesheimer, whose Mozart biography is one of the best alongside those of Alfred Einstein and Heinrich Eduard Jacob , has hardly been received by academic musicology. As a result, this group held a meeting (Wolfenbüttel 1978) to discuss why their representatives are unable to write a corresponding work. However, Hildesheimer's book is riddled with a number of astonishing flaws. See Rudolf Klein's review in the ÖMZ 1974.
  100. This - partly fictional - work tries to summarize biography and interpretation, psychological and musical interpretation with history, cultural history and anecdote in a synthesis.
  101. The unconventional presentation focuses on the inner motives for Mozart's artistic development and the demystification of common judgments and anecdotes.
  102. Cf. Mozart: Directory of all my works. From the month of February 1784 to the month of […]. Facsimile edition by Otto Erich Deutsch. Vienna / Leipzig / Zurich / London 1938.